Zika Virus Resource Center
Free access to medical research, online tools and expert advice on the Zika virus
Updated on 24 January 2017
Welcome to Elsevier's Zika Virus Resource Center
This page will provide continually updated resources from Elsevier's content and experts, including The Lancet, Cell Press and world-renowned infectious disease expert Dr. Raphael Dolin. We developed it to give anyone interested in Zika virus – medical professionals, health researchers, policy makers, the media and members of the public – one place where they can access the depth and breadth of information.
Elsevier's resources span scientific and medical journals and textbooks, educational products and a variety of other content. We have also asked our clinicians to provide original commentary. Our goal is to provide these resources for free as the Zika crisis continues. If you have any question or suggestions, we welcome you to leave them in the comment section.
- Online resources
- Journal articles
- Insight into research
- Insight from experts
- Patient and traveler info
- Other resources
In Portuguese and Spanish
Thanks to our Elsevier colleagues in Brazil, this page has also been translated into Portuguese and Spanish:
Cell Press Zika Virus Portal
Since the beginning of the crisis, Cell Press has made all content about the Zika free to access. You can find these articles in the Cell Press Zika Virus Portal. In addition, their journals are working in reviewers to fast-track review all Zika submissions. Read more.
The Lancet Zika Virus Resource centre
The Lancet Zika virus resource centre brings together the best evidence and reporting from across The Lancet family of journals to assist researchers, policy makers and healthcare workers in understanding the effects of the outbreak and how best to respond. The centre will also feature selected content from across Elsevier journals, providing a comprehensive resource of the latest research, analysis and commentary as developments unfold. All content in the resource centre has been made freely available.
Dave D. Chadee, Raymond Martinez: Aedes aegypti (L.) in Latin American and Caribbean region: With growing evidence for vector adaptation to climate change? Acta Tropica (April 2016)
American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology
- SMFM Statement: Ultrasound Screening for Fetal Microcephaly Following Zika Virus Exposure (February 2016). Microcephaly, a condition in fetuses and infants that has been associated with the recent outbreak of Zika virus, is not straightforward to diagnose by prenatal sonography. The Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine has therefore issued this document to review the ultrasound criteria for the diagnosis following exposure to the Zika virus.
- Scott C. Weaver: "Zika virus: History, emergence, biology, and prospects for control" (June 2016)
- Guglielmo Lucchesea and Darja Kanduc: Zika virus and autoimmunity: From microcephaly to Guillain-Barré syndrome, and beyond (In Press, Corrected Proof)
- Viroj Wiwanitkit: Zika virus, autoimmunity and microcephaly: Other things for consideration (In Press, Corrected Proof)
Read all Cell Press articles related to Zika free of charge in the Cell Press Zika Virus Portal. Here is a sample:
- Joseph G. Gleeson et al: "Zika Virus Infects Neural Progenitors in the Adult Mouse Brain and Alters Proliferation," Cell Stem Cell (In Press Corrected Proof)
- Cui Li et al: "Zika virus disrupts neural progenitor development and leads to microcephaly in mice,” Cell Stem Cell (In Press Corrected Proof)
- Jonathan J. Miner et al: "Zika Virus Infection during Pregnancy in Mice Causes Placental Damage and Fetal Demise," Cell (In Press Corrected Proof)
- Jason Dang et al: "Zika Virus Depletes Neural Progenitors in Human Cerebral Organoids through Activation of the Innate Immune Receptor TLR3," Cell Stem Cell (In Press Corrected Proof)
- Keith Pardee et al: "Rapid, Low-Cost Detection of Zika Virus Using Programmable Biomolecular Components," Cell (In Press Corrected Proof)
- Lianpan Dai et al: "Structures of the Zika Virus Envelope Protein and Its Complex with a Flavivirus Broadly Protective Antibody," Cell Host & Microbe (In Press Corrected Proof)
- Heverton Leandro Carneiro Dutra et al: "Wolbachia Blocks Currently Circulating Zika Virus Isolates in Brazilian Aedes aegypti Mosquitoes," Cell Host & Microbe (In Press Corrected Proof)
- Claudia Nunes Duarte dos Santos and Samuel Goldenberg: "Zika Virus and Microcephaly: Challenges for a Long-Term Agenda," Trends in Parisitology (In Press Corrected Proof)
- Lulan Wang et al: "From Mosquitos to Humans: Genetic Evolution of Zika Virus," Cell Host and Mibrobe (In Press Corrected Proof)
- Bayer and Lennemann et al: “Human Placental Trophoblasts Produce Type III Interferons that Confer Protection against Zika Virus Infection,” Cell Host & Microbe (April 2016). One theory for how the Zika virus gets to the developing fetus is that it passes through the trophoblasts, a layer of placental cells that surround and nurture the fetus. But a collaborative team of virologists and reproductive scientists looking at cells isolated from full-term human placentas have found that Zika does not infect trophoblasts. How the virus is getting through the placenta is still unknown, but their work helps rule out an obvious pathway.
- Hengli Tang et al: Zika Virus Infects Human Cortical Neural Progenitors and Attenuates Their Growth, Cell Stem Cell (March 2016). The Zika virus infects a type of neural stem cell that gives rise to the brain's cerebral cortex, according to researchers at Johns Hopkins and Florida State.
- Nowakowski et al: “Expression Analysis Highlights AXL as a Candidate Zika Virus Entry Receptor,” Cell Stem Cell (March 2016). Zika’s hypothesized attraction to human neural stem cells may come from its ability to hijack a protein found on the surface of these cells, using it as an entryway to infection. In Cell Stem Cell on March 30, researchers at the University of California, San Francisco show that the AXL surface receptor, normally involved in cell division, is highly abundant on the surface of neural stem cells, but not on neurons in the developing brain.
- Zach N. Adelman and Zhijian Tu: Control of Mosquito-Borne Infectious Diseases: Sex and Gene Drive, Trends in Parasitology (February 2016)
- Robert P. Kruger: Zika Virus on the Move, Cell (February 2016)
- Gregory D. Ebel: Toward an Activist Agenda for Monitoring Virus Emergence, Cell Host & Microbe (June 2014)
- Scott C. Weaver: Urbanization and geographic expansion of zoonotic arboviral diseases: mechanisms and potential strategies for prevention, Trends in Microbiology (August 2013)
Clinical Microbiology and Infection
- S.A. Plotkin: Zika as still another argument for a new path to vaccine development (April 2016)
Current Opinion in Virology
- Lucas Secchim Ribeiro et al: Zika crisis in Brazil: challenges in research and development (June 2016)
Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
- Kevin E. Eboigbodin et al: "Rapid molecular diagnostic test for Zika virus with low demands on sample preparation and instrumentation" — Open Access (Article in Press)
- Hughes, Brandon et al: "Infectivity of Immature Neurons to Zika Virus: A Link to Congenital Zika Syndrome," EBioMedicine — Open Access (August 2016)
- Brault, Jean-Baptiste et al: "Comparative Analysis Between Flaviviruses Reveals Specific Neural Stem Cell Tropism for Zika Virus in the Mouse Developing Neocortex," EBioMedicine — Open Access (August 2016)
- Joacim Rocklöva et al: Assessing Seasonal Risks for the Introduction and Mosquito-borne Spread of Zika Virus in Europe — Open Access (In Press, Accepted Manuscript)
Emergency Medicine Clinics of North America
- Siri Shastry et al: “Zika Virus: Critical Information for Emergency Providers” (August 2016)
- Sherry Towers et al: Estimate of the reproduction number of the 2015 Zika virus outbreak in Barranquilla, Colombia, and estimation of the relative role of sexual transmission — Open Access (December 2016)
- Hiroshi Nishiura et al: A theoretical estimate of the risk of microcephaly during pregnancy with Zika virus infection (June 2016)
Infection, Disease & Health
- Abdul Waheed Khan, Shahid Ali: "Zika virus infection: Some issues of urgent attention " (In Press, Corrected Proof)
Infection, Genetics and Evolution
- Manas R. Dikhit et al: Computational prediction and analysis of potential antigenic CTL epitopes in Zika virus: A first step towards vaccine development (November 2016)
- Qing Ye et al: Genomic characterization and phylogenetic analysis of Zika virus circulating in the Americas (September 2016)
International Journal of Infectious Diseases
- Duong Veasna, Philippe Dussart, Philippe Buchy: Zika Virus in Asia (Article in Press)
- Flavio Codeço Coelho et al: Higher incidence of Zika in adult women in Rio de Janeiro suggests a significant contribution of sexual transmission from men to women — Open Access (Article in Press)
- Jaime R. Torres, Jorge Murillo and Lina Bofill: "The ever changing landscape of Zika virus infection. Learning on the fly" — Open Access (Article in Press)
- A Zumla et al: "What is the experience from previous Mass Gathering Events? Lessons for Zika virus and the Olympics 2016" — Open Access (June 2016)
- Rengina Vorou: "Zika virus, vectors, reservoirs, amplifying hosts, and their potential to spread worldwide: what we know and what we should investigate urgently" (July 2016)
- Alfonso J. Rodriguez-Morales, Leidy Jhoana Patiño-Cadavid, Carlos O. Lozada-Riascos, Wilmer E. Villamil-Gómez: "Mapping Zika in municipalities of one coastal department of Colombia (Sucre) using Geographic information system (GIS) during 2015-2016 outbreak: implications for public health and travel advice" (Published online May 18, 2016)
- Editorial: Zika virus outbreak and the case for building effective and sustainable rapid diagnostics laboratory capacity globally — Open Access (March 4, 2016)
- Short Communication: Transmission potential of Zika virus infection in the South Pacific — Open Access (February 25, 2016)
- Review Article: Rapid Spread of Zika Virus in The Americas - Implications for Public Health Preparedness for Mass Gatherings at the 2016 Brazil Olympic Games — Open Access (February 4, 2016)
Journal of Autoimmunity
- Christopher Changa, Kristina Ortizb, Aftab Ansarib, M. Eric Gershwin: "The Zika outbreak of the 21st century" (March 2016)
Journal of Clinical Virology
- An updated review of Zika virus (November 2016)
- Molecular and serological techniques to detect co-circulation of DENV, ZIKV and CHIKV in suspected dengue-like syndrome patients (Article in Press)
- Viral load kinetics of Zika virus in plasma, urine and saliva in a couple returning from Martinique, French West Indies (Article in Press)
- Clinical and Laboratory Profile of Zika Virus Infection in Dengue Suspected Patients: A case series (Accepted Manuscript)
- Correspondence: Prolonged detection of Zika virus RNA in urine samples during the ongoing Zika virus epidemic in Brazil (February 16, 2016)
- Zika virus infections imported to Italy: Clinical, immunological and virological findings, and public health implications (February 2015)
- First detection of autochthonous Zika virus transmission in a HIV-infected patient in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (January 2016)
- Detection of Zika virus in saliva (July 2015)
Journal of Infection
- Letter to the Editor: Homologous Recombination of Zika Viruses in the Americas (In Press, Accepted Manuscript)
- Review Article: Zika fever and congenital Zika syndrome: An unexpected emerging arboviral disease (Article in Press)
Journal of Molecular Biology
- David Olagnier, Donatella Amatore, Luciano Castiello, Matteo Ferrari, Enrico Palermo, Michael S. Diamond, Anna Teresa Palamara and John Hiscott: Review: Dengue Virus Immunopathogenesis: Lessons Applicable to the Emergence of Zika Virus (In Press, Corrected Proof). This review examines how dengue research may expedite therapeutic strategies for Zika virus.
Journal of Virological Methods
- Scott Goebel et al: A sensitive virus yield assay for evaluation of Antivirals against Zika Virus (December 2016)
- Ming-Yue Xu et al: Detection of Zika virus by SYBR green one-step real-time RT-PCR (October 2016)
- Editorial: Zika Virus in the dock, The Lancet Infectious Diseases (February 2016). In October 2015, the Ministry of Health in Brazil reported an unexplained increase in cases of microcephaly, a congenital malformation normally associated with incomplete brain development, in newborn babies (4,783 cases vs 150 in the previous year). The reported cases have caused widespread fear among pregnant women all over South and Central America to the point that some nations such as Ecuador have recommended that their citizens postpone pregnancy to 2018 to give time to investigate the causes of the increase of microcephaly cases. Read the full editorial.
- Detection and sequencing of Zika virus from amniotic fluid of fetuses with microcephaly in Brazil: a case study, The Lancet Infectious Diseases (February 2016)
Read more articles in The Lancet Zika Virus resource centre
Microbes and Infection
- Peter J. Hotez: Will Zika return to the ‘Old World’? (In Press, Uncorrected Proof)
- Rodolphe Hamel et al: "Zika virus: epidemiology, clinical features and host-virus interactions" (March 2016)
- Camila Zanluca, Claudia Nunes Duarte dos Santos: "Zika virus — an overview" (March 2016)
- Jason A. Tetro: Zika and microcephaly: causation, correlation, or coincidence? (January 2016)
- Leticia A.M. Carneiro, Leonardo H. Trasvassos: Autophagy and viral diseases transmitted by Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus (January 2016)
- Erin Archer Kelser: Meet dengue's cousin, Zika (December 2015)
New Microbes and New Infections
- Complete coding sequence of Zika virus from Martinique Outbreak in 2015 — Open Access (March 7, 2016)
- Correspondence: Simultaneous outbreaks of dengue, chikungunya and Zika virus infections: diagnosis challenge in a returning traveller with nonspecific febrile illness — Open Access (February 10, 2016)
Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease
- Trends of the microcephaly and Zika virus outbreak in Brazil, January–July 2016 (Article in Press)
- ZIKA App – A great resource from the World Health Organization (WHO) (Article in Press)
- Hajj 2016: required vaccinations, crowd control, novel wearable tech and the Zika threat (Article in Press)
- Zika virus infection in two travelers returning from an epidemic area to Italy, 2016: algorithm for diagnosis and recommendations (Article in Press)
- Zika Virus and the 2016 Olympic Games — Evidence-based Projections derived from Dengue do not Support Cancellation — Open Access (Article in Press)
- The arboviral burden of disease caused by co-circulation and co-infection of dengue, chikungunya and Zika in the Americas (Article in Press)
- Correspondence: The possible threat of Zika virus in the Middle East (March 10, 2016)
- Diagnosis, management and follow-up of pregnant women with Zika virus infection: A preliminary report of the ZIKERNCOL cohort study on Sincelejo, Colombia (March 4, 2016)
- Editorial: Aedes and the triple threat of DENV, CHIKV, ZIKV – Arboviral risks and prevention at the 2016 Rio Olympic games (January 29, 2016)
- Editorial: Diagnosis of arboviral infections – A quagmire of cross reactions and complexities (January 28, 2016)
- Zika virus and the risk of imported infection in returned travelers: Implications for clinical care (January 27, 2016)
- Zika and Microcephaly in Latin America: an emerging threat for pregnant travelers? (January-February 2016)
- Aedes and the triple threat of DENV, CHIKV, ZIKV – arboviral risks and prevention at the 2016 Rio Olympic games (January-February 2016)
- Zika virus and the risk of imported infection in returned travelers: Implications for clinical care (January-February 2016)
- Healthcare students and workers' knowledge about transmission, epidemiology and symptoms of Zika fever in four cities of Colombia (January-February 2016)
- Entry routes for Zika virus in Brazil after 2014 world cup: New possibilities (Article in press)
- A bibliometric analysis of global Zika research (January-February 2016)
- Editorial: Dengue, chikungunya and Zika and mass gatherings: What happened in Brazil, 2014 (December 24, 2015)
- Correspondence: Healthcare students and workers' knowledge about transmission, epidemiology and symptoms of Zika fever in four cities of Colombia (December 22, 2015)
- Correspondence: Entry routes for Zika virus in Brazil after 2014 world cup: New possibilities (November 13, 2015)
- Correspondence: A bibliometric analysis of global Zika research (July 29, 2015)
- Dengue, chikungunya and Zika and mass gatherings: What happened in Brazil (2014)
Transfusion Medicine Reviews
- Alexandra Jimeneza, Beth H. Shazb, and Evan M. Blochc: "Zika Virus and the Blood Supply: What Do We Know?" (In Press, Corrected Proof)
- KAO Martins, JM Dye, and S Bavari: Considerations for the development of Zika virus vaccines (July 2016)
- Mark Dredze et al: Zika vaccine misconceptions: A social media analysis (June 2016)
- Ricardo Palacios, Gregory A. Poland and Jorge Kalila: Another emerging arbovirus, another emerging vaccine: Targeting Zika virus (April 2016)
- Danielle K. Offerdahl et al: Cytoarchitecture of Zika virus infection in human neuroblastoma and Aedes albopictus cell lines — Open Access (January 2017) Read the related blog post.
- Gadea et al: A robust method for the rapid generation of recombinant Zika virus expressing the GFP reporter gene (October 2016)
- Bruno M. Carneiroa et al: The green tea molecule EGCG inhibits Zika virus entry (September 2016)
- Etienne Frumence: The South Pacific epidemic strain of Zika virus replicates efficiently in human epithelial A549 cells leading to IFN-β production and apoptosis induction (June 2016)
Insights into research
Scopus for Zika research and collaboration
Researchers working on developing a vaccine for the Zika virus can use Scopus, the world's largest abstract and citation database of peer-reviewed literature, to find both the latest and top-cited research, identify researchers to collaborate with, and find journals to publish in. Scopus has tools that enable researchers at subscribed institutions to track, analyze and visualize research and includes scientific journals, books and conference proceedings. Scopus is updated every day so it is easy to see how fast this subject area is moving. On March 2, 2016, there were 161 documents in Scopus. Now, on April 18, 2016, there are 313 documents, and this count grows daily.
From data pulled on March 2, we see that the most cited researcher for a “zika virus” search is Dr. Didier Musso from the Institut Louis Malarde, Pôle de Recherche et de Veille sur les Maladies Infectieuses Émergentes in French Polynesia. While today he is still the most cited researcher, the article that is cited the most has changed. When looking at Dr. Musso’s Scopus author profile, we see that his most cited paper with 71 citations is Coxiella burnetii blood cultures from acute and chronic Q-fever patients from 1995. Previously, the most-cited article was “Zika virus, French Polynesia, South Pacific, 2013” published in 2014 by the CDC journal Emerging Infectious Diseases. In March, the latter paper had 20 citations and today has 40 citations. It is still interesting to see, when looking at the article-level metrics, that it has most recently been cited in a post from Harvard’s Health blog titled “What you need to know about the Zika virus."
Mendeley's Zika Virus Research Group
Mendeley has created a Zika Virus Research Group to share references to articles related to the Zika virus in support of the research community's work in finding a vaccine. Anyone registered for Mendeley can share papers (references only) and join discussions. Mendeley is a free global reference management and research collaboration tool. Mendeley’s desktop, mobile and web applications help people to organize and share their work, generate awareness of their publications and gain insight into how their publications are consumed by other researchers.
SciVal analysis of global Zika research
In support of the research community's efforts to develop a vaccine for the Zika virus, Elsevier has compiled SciVal analysis related to the Zika virus, Flavivirus (genus of the Zika virus) and Aedes mosquitoes (transmitter of the Zika virus). It is available here as a free PDF download along with the full Excel data export. Elsevier’s SciVal offers quick and easy access to the research performance of 7,000 research institutions and 220 nations. SciVal aggregates Scopus data to give meaningful insights to help researchers find collaboration partners, locate research hubs of excellence and identify rising stars.
Insight from experts
By Lucy Goodchild van Hilten | 24 January 2017
Widespread fear caused by the link between the Zika virus epidemic and an increase in cases of microcephaly has rippled through South and Central America. For the first time in history, governments have advised women in Brazil and surrounding countries to avoid pregnancy, and suggested pregnant women avoid visiting those countries. But Zika is relatively harmless to the adults infected with the virus, only causing mild symptoms such as fever, headache, mild rash and joint pain in a minority of cases. Why does Zika virus cause brain defects in developing fetuses and only rarely cause problems in adult brains?
Two studies published in EBioMedicine go some way to explaining this phenomenon, revealing that Zika virus heads straight for stem cells in the brain.
By Matthanja Müller | 9 June 2016
Prof. Danny Altmann and his colleague Dr. Rosemary Boyton of Imperial College London have received a major grant to investigate the immunological foundations of Zika Virus. Their project, in collaboration with research groups from Sao Paolo, Brazil and Seattle, USA, aims to develop the first dataset on human Zika virus CD4. The grant is part of an initiative of the MRC, the Newton Fund and the Wellcome Trust.
By Raphael Dolin, MD | 8 February 2016
Zika virus is a mosquito-transmitted flavivirus which has been known to cause outbreaks of disease in Africa, Southeast Asia and the Pacific Islands prior to 2015. In 2015, widespread Zika virus outbreaks were detected in South and Central America; and as of January 2016, Zika outbreaks involve 18 countries and territories in the Americas. Generally, Zika virus is a mild self-limited disease consisting of fever, maculopapular rash, arthralgias and conjunctivitis. Illness generally lasts from a few days up to a week. Approximately 80 percent of Zika infections are estimated to be subclinical (without symptoms).
In the current outbreaks, Zika has been associated with neurological illnesses and postnatal complications. The neurological illness most frequently seen has been Guillain-Barré Syndrome, a reversible illness that causes tingling and sometimes severe weakness. The postnatal complications that have been observed are microcephaly and intracranial calcifications.These devastating birth defects have given rise to much of the recent public concern about Zika. In Brazil, these occurred significantly more frequently in areas that had Zika outbreaks than would have ordinarily been expected in areas without outbreaks. Read more.
By Rodney E. Rohde, PhD, for InfectionControl.tips | 14 January 2016
Zika has arrived in North America. If you live in Texas where a case was confirmed, you have no doubt read the headlines and have read of the dangers of the disease and its link to birth defects. However, the truth is that the recent confirmed case was contracted in Latin America, not Texas; and the correlation between Zika and birth defects is being studied for causation, but has not been confirmed.
The media may be exaggerating the threat of Zika to garner the attention of their audience, but such tactics are not helpful and may put undue stress on the public health system. Read more.
Patient and traveler information
July 13, 2016
According to the Brazilian Tourism Board, approximately 350,000 to 500,000 international visitors and athletes from 207 countries are expected to travel to Rio de Janeiro for the 2016 Olympic and Paralympic Games. This travel volume represents a very small fraction – less than 0.25 percent – of the total estimated 2015 travel volume to Zika-affected countries. Visitors to the games are expected to have a low probability of mosquito-borne Zika infections because the games will occur during the winter season in Rio (August 5-21 and September 7-18), when the cooler and drier weather typically reduces mosquito populations. CDC conducted a risk analysis to predict those countries at risk for Zika virus importation exclusively attributable to the games. Read more.
Zika virus information sheet
Based on new recommendations from the Center for Disease Control, Elsevier’s Patient Engagement group developed a Zika Virus Disease Information document for patients who are traveling or know family or friends traveling in and out of countries where there are known cases of the Zika virus. The purpose is to provide up-to-date information for patients on the causes, symptoms and risks associated with the Zika virus. This is an example of the patient information we provide to customers in all healthcare settings. — Julibeth Lauren, PhD, APRN, CNS, VP/Editor in Chief, Elsevier Patient Engagement
The Centers for Disease Control
The CDC has continually updated information and resources on its Zika Virus page, including posters and fact sheets you can download:
The Pan American Health Organization and WHO
The Pan American Health Organization has a continually updated Zika virus information page, which includes a Q&A on Zika and pregnancy. Founded in 1902, the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) is the world’s oldest international public health agency. It serves as the regional office for the Americas of the World Health Organization (WHO). Both are part of the United Nations.
The American Medical Association
The AMA's online Zika Virus Resource Center has information from the CDC and other public health groups. Resources cover:
- Understanding the virus
- Managing and reporting Zika virus infections
- Caring for pregnant women during a Zika virus outbreak
- Evaluating and testing infants
The Medscape Zika Virus site features news, journal articles and advice for clinicians, including:
The medical content advisor for this resource center is Dr. Jonathan Teich, Chief Medical Informatics Officer at Elsevier, a professor at Harvard University, at an attending physician in emergency medicine at Brigham and Women's Hospital in Boston.