When Alfred Nobel set out the conditions in his last will and testament almost 125 years ago, he could not have envisioned how the passage of time would unfold for the prize he established – yet it’s as relevant today as it has ever been.
Scientific progress and our increasingly global society have brought advances that affect our daily lives in ways our ancestors likely would never have thought possible.
In an era of rapid access and a staggering amount of online information at our fingertips, society finds itself at a crossroads: we often don’t know what to believe or trust in research.
Since 1901, however, the Nobel Prize has pursued the recognition of scientific truth steeped in rigorous peer review, recognizing achievements for the real and everlasting changes they have brought to our lives. The esteemed Laureates have expanded our understanding of health, the physical sciences, technology and economics – essentially the known universe.
At Elsevier, we are passionate about supporting such scientific discoveries – and the great work being done every day in research labs across the world. We are proud to highlight that since the year 2000, 195 out of 196 Nobel Science and Economic Laureates (to date) have published some of their most important work in our journals, according to a Scopus analysis, and many have served as editors and on our editorial boards.
Read about this year's winners and their research below.
- Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
- Nobel Prize in Physics
- Nobel Prize in Chemistry
- Nobel Prize in Economics
Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
William G. Kaelin Jr, Sir Peter J. Ratcliffe and Gregg L. Semenza were jointly awarded the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine “for their discoveries of how cells sense and adapt to oxygen availability.”
Their discoveries focused on one of the most benign actions that virtually all animals on the Earth’s surface must do to live: breathe oxygen. The need to take in oxygen to survive was one of the earliest fields to be studied in modern biology, along with the physical act of breathing.
On a cellular level, however, the amount of O2 that is available can vary greatly, and the molecular mechanisms that take oxygen into the cells was virtually unknown — until now.
Our cells sense and change with the fluctuation of oxygen around us all the time, which helps explains why, for example, we might feel shortness of breath after strenuous exercise, or why our muscles ache the day after. Put another way, when oxygen levels drop, cells need to adjust their metabolic rates based on how much oxygen is available to them.
This can happen locally in very small parts of our bodies, “like a wound that interrupts the local blood supply,” described Nobel Assembly member Prof. Randall Johnson in an interview with journalist Lotta Fredholm following the announcement. Changes also happen right across our body, when we find ourselves on top of a mountain at high-altitude. These types of events trigger an adaptive process called the "hypoxia response,” Prof. Johnson explained, and can influence the creation of new blood vessels or an increase in red blood cells.
A key physiological response to hypoxia is the rise in levels of the hormone erythropoietin (EPO), generating an increase in red blood cells.
Hypoxia response element
In the 1990s, Drs. Semenza and Ratcliffe were separately studying the EPO gene and its regulation by changing oxygen levels of gene-modified mice. Specific DNA segments located next to the EPO gene were shown to manage the response to hypoxia and how this was available across all types of tissues in the body, including the kidneys – where EPO is typically produced. Going a step further, Dr. Semenza wanted to be able to identify the cellular parts of hypoxia response element (HRE). Using liver cells grown in his lab, he discovered a protein complex that pairs itself to a particular DNA segment, seeking out oxygen. He called this the hypoxia inducible factor (HIF).
Around 1995, at the same time investigations into the EPO gene were being conducted by Semenza and Ratcliffe, the Nobel Assembly described Prof. Kaelin Jr.'s research focusing on an inherited syndrome, von Hippel-Lindau’s disease (VHL disease). “This genetic disease leads to dramatically increased risk of certain cancers in families with inherited VHL mutations. Kaelin showed that the VHL gene encodes a protein that prevents the onset of cancer.”
Prof. Ratcliffe then demonstrated in 1999 that there was an association between VHL and HIF-1α, one of the two DNA-binding proteins, discovered by Prof. Semenza.
The combined work of this year’s Laureates demonstrates that the response through gene expression and changes in oxygen is directly coupled to oxygen levels in the animal cell, which allows for an immediate cellular response. Their discoveries have paved the way for promising new strategies to fight anemia, cancer and many other diseases.
“This is essentially a "textbook discovery" (and) "something basic biology students will be learning about when they study, at age 12, 13 (or younger),” Prof. Johnson said at the end of his interview. “It’s a very exciting thing!”
About William G. Kaelin Jr.
William G. Kaelin Jr. was born in 1957 in New York. He obtained his medical degree from Duke University and his specialist training in internal medicine and oncology at Johns Hopkins University and at the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute in Boston. He established and continues his research at his lab at Dana-Farber and became a full professor at Harvard Medical School in 2002. He has also been an Investigator of the Howard Hughes Medical Institute since 1998.
Prof. Kaelin has published in the following Elsevier journals: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Reviews on Cancer, Cancer Cell, Cell, Cell Metabolism, Current Opinion in Cell Biology, Current Opinion in Genetics & Development, Current Opinion in Pharmacology, Gene, Hematology/Oncology Clinics of North America, Human Pathology, Molecular Cell, Ophthalmology, Seminars in Cancer Biology, The American Journal of Medicine, Trends in Genetics, Trends in Molecular Medicine.
About Sir Peter J. Ratcliffe
Sir Peter J. Ratcliffe was born in 1954 in Lancashire, United Kingdom. He studied medicine at Gonville and Caius College at Cambridge University, before his specialist training in nephrology at Oxford. He established an independent research group at the University of Oxford and became a full professor in 1996. He is the Director of Clinical Research at Francis Crick Institute, London, Director for Target Discovery Institute in Oxford and Member of the Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research.
Prof. Ratcliffe has published in the following Elsevier journals: Analytical Biochemistry, BBA - Gene Regulatory Mechanisms, Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters, Cancer Cell, Cell, Cell Reports, Cell Chemical Biology, Current Opinion in Genetics & Development, European Urology, Experimental Cell Research, Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology, Molecular Aspects of Medicine, Molecular Cell, The American Journal of Human Genetics, The American Journal of Pathology, The Lancet, Trends in Molecular Medicine.
He has also contributed two articles and review papers for Methods in Enzymology.
About Gregg L. Semenza
Gregg L. Semenza was born in 1956 in New York. He obtained his BA in Biology from Harvard University, Boston, before receiving an MD/PhD degree from the University of Pennsylvania, School of Medicine, Philadelphia in 1984. He then trained as a specialist in pediatrics at Duke University, Durham, before taking up a postdoctoral training post at Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore where he performed his Prize-winning studies where he is still active and established an independent research group. Prof. Semenza became a full professor at the Johns Hopkins University in 1999 and since 2003 is the Director of the Vascular Research Program at the Johns Hopkins Institute for Cell Engineering. Prof. Semenza has also kindly served in the past as a Section Editor for Current Opinion in Physiology and Current Opinion in Cell Biology, along with being a Guest Editor for a special issue of Biochimica et Biophysica Acta: Molecular Cell Research.
Prof. Semenza has published in the following Elsevier journals : American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology, Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, Biochemical Pharmacology, Biochimica et Biophysica Acta: Molecular Cell Research, Biochimica et Biophysica Acta: Reviews on Cancer, Biomaterials, Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry, Cancer Cell, Cancer Epidemiology, Cell, Cell Metabolism, Cell Reports, Cell Stem Cell, Critical Reviews in Oncology/Hematology, Current Opinion in Cell Biology, Current Opinion in Genetics & Development, Developmental Biology, Drug Discovery Today, Experimental Cell Research, Immunity, International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology, International Journal of Radiation Oncology Biology Physics, Journal of Controlled Release, Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology, Molecular Aspects of Medicine, Molecular Cell, Progress in Biophysics & Molecular Biology, Redox Biology, Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology, Seminars in Cancer Biology, Translational Research, The American Journal of Pathology, Trends in Biochemical Sciences, Trends in Cancer, Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine, Trends in Endocrinology & Metabolism, Trends in Molecular Medicine, Trends in Pharmacological Sciences.
He has also contributed a book chapter to the latest edition of Advances in Cancer Research, Volume 144, Encyclopedia of Biological Chemistry, 2nd Edition, several articles and review papers for Methods in Enzymology, and Textbook of Nephro-Endocrinology.
Nobel Prize in Physics
James Peebles, Michel Mayor and Didier Queloz were jointly awarded the Nobel Prize for Physics “for contributions to our understanding of the evolution of the universe and Earth’s place in the cosmos.” One-half of this year’s award was given to Prof. Peebles for his “theoretical discoveries in physical cosmology,” while the remaining half of the award was shared equally between Prof. Mayor and Prof. Queloz “for the discovery of an exoplanet orbiting a solar-type star.”
The universe as we know it began almost 14 billion years ago and was caused by a singular event known as the “big bang.” This is how astronomers and cosmologists attempt to explain the beginning of the universe and was first theorized by Belgian astronomer Georges Lemaître in 1927.
Expanding further on this idea in the 1940s, Ralph Alpher, Robert Herman and George Gamow theorized that the universe was just a single point, very hot and very dense, and that it expanded and stretched to grow as large as we know it to be right now. While the study of physical cosmology has been reinforced by additional theories, including Albert Einstein’s theory of general relativity, which he only put forward for consideration after he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1921, Prof. Lemaître’s theory remains the leading theory on how the universe began.
Moving forward into darkness
Prof. Peebles’ research provides further insight into the field of cosmology, specifically the cosmic background radiation generated from an expansion in the universe that happened a mere 400,000 years after the original event tens of billions of years ago. Prof. Peebles’ discovery of this ancient radiation, which can be found all around us, has been proven to be true through his precise calculations and advances in technology, bringing about widespread changes to the study of cosmology over the past 50 years.
However, what has been proven by Prof. Peeble’s theories of the universe is, in fact, infinitesimally small in comparison to what we don’t know about the universe.
Illustrating this point to the assembled audience of journalists during the Physics Prize’s press conference, Prof. Göran K. Hansson, Secretary General of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, began by telling a story with a cup of coffee.
Most of it, is of course coffee. This is the dark energy. Then a fair amount of cream, this is the dark matter. And then just a tiny, little bit of sugar. This is the ordinary matter … This is what science has been all about for thousands of years. Up until now.
The Nobel Assembly describes Prof. Peebles’ theoretical framework, developed in the mid-1960s while he was at Princeton University, as “the basis of our contemporary ideas about the universe.” The theoretical study of cosmology enjoys a position of prominence – giving us a more tangible and physical grasp of the universe when examining the cosmic radiation Prof. Peebles first discovered.
The accomplishments of Michel Mayor and Didier Queloz, on the other hand, give us pause for thought – thoughts which have been pondered since ancient times when looking up at the heavens: does life really exist beyond our own planet? And if so, will we ever experience it? In answer to the second question: no, we probably won’t experience it in our lifetime, but in reply to the first, the possibility of life beyond what we know seems likely.
It was in October 1995 that Drs. Mayor and Queloz, using custom-made instruments, first announced their discovery of a planet outside our solar system but capable of supporting life (known as an exoplanet). It was orbiting a solar-type star in the galaxy we call home: the Milky Way.
This discovery precipitated the discovery of further stars and planets across the Milky Way – over 4,000 exoplanets so far.
An atypical solar system
While different strategies were chosen to calculate the radial velocity of these planets in relation to the Earth’s position in the Milky Way, the Doppler effect remains one of the most principled measurement systems we know of to calculate distance.
When orbiting planets move around their common center, this causes a Doppler shift due to stellar wobble. These wobbles, as described by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, are measured as light waves that either move closer or further away from the Earth.
As a star moves away from us, its “light waves leave the star stretched and move towards the red end of the spectrum.” Conversely, as a star comes closer, it “moves towards the blue end of the spectrum.”
These indications gave rise to Prof. Mayor and his team at the University of Geneva, while studying nearby clusters of stars for possible exoplanets, to develop a customized tool called the ELODIE spectrograph, which has now been in use at the Haute-Provence Observatory in France for more than a decade. Using an optic fiber-fed spectrograph, the intention behind ELODIE was to expand the number of objects for which the Doppler measurements could be applied to.
The end result has challenged all preconceived notions about planetary systems, allowing scientists to further revise their known theories surrounding a planet’s origin story.
In combinations with Prof. Peebles’ theories that have further evolved our ideas around the original Big Bang, Prof. Mayor and Prof. Queloz’s original discovery of planet 51 Pegasi b – a gaseous ball comparable with the solar system’s biggest gas giant, Jupiter – will enable and challenge other scientists to continue the search for other habitable planets in our galaxy.
About Michel Mayor
Michel Mayor was born in 1942 in Lausanne, Switzerland. He received both his MSc in physics and PhD in astronomy in a relatively short amount of time, first in 1966 from the University of Lausanne before moving on to the Geneva Observatory in 1971 to complete his PhD. The observatory, which belongs to the University of Geneva is where Prof. Mayor remained and continued his research while supervising Prof. Queloz. He became Director of the Observatory of Geneva from 1998 to 2004 – until retiring in 2007.
About James Peebles
James Peebles, was born in 1935 in Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada. He received his PhD in 1962 from Princeton University in the USA, where he continues to actively research and lecture the next generation of cosmologists as an Albert Einstein Professor of Science
Prof. Peebles has published in the following Elsevier journals: Annals of Physics, Nuclear Physics B - Proceedings Supplements (now publishing as Nuclear and Particle Physics Proceedings), and Physica D: Nonlinear Phenomena.
About Didier Queloz
Didier Queloz, also a native of Switzerland like his supervisor (and fellow Nobel Prize Laureate) Prof. Mayor, was born in 1966. In 1995, he completed a PhD in astronomy at the University of Geneva under the supervision of Prof. Mayor. He then embarked on a 3-year post at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory from 1997 to 1999 before returning to the University of Geneva, where he has remained. In 2013, Prof. Queloz took up a joint position at the University of Cambridge.
Prof. Queloz has published in the following Elsevier journals: New Astronomy Reviews.
Nobel Prize in Chemistry
John B. Goodenough, M. Stanley Whittingham and Akira Yoshino were jointly awarded the Nobel Prize for Chemistry “for the development of lithium-ion batteries.” Following the customary telephone calls made by the Nobel Secretary General to the winners, the announcement was broadcast live online from the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences.
Not every winner is able to be reached before the press conference takes place, however; Prof. Goodenough slept through this year’s announcement, only to be told by Prof. Maria Helena Braga of Porto University, who happened to be staying in the same hotel for the Royal Society’s Copley dinner.
According to The Guardian, she rushed into his room shouting, “Wake up, wake up, you’ve won the Nobel prize!”
“I had to show him on my phone about 20 times before he believed me,” she told the reporter.
Charging the world
The lithium-ion battery may be a rather indistinctive, simple-looking device when viewed by the naked eye, but inside its typical metallic container – made up of two electrodes, an anode and a cathode and a small amount of liquid to transport charged particles – it is perhaps the world’s most powerful energy source, able to be used 100 times over before needing to be replaced.
Lithium (Li) is the third atom on the periodic table and the lightest of the metal elements. It is so lightweight that it takes up very little space (or volume), which means it can be packed very tightly into tight spaces, like a AAA battery.
It is also an ancient element, created during the first minutes of the “big bang.” It was discovered in 1817 by Swedish chemists Johan August Arfwedson and Jöns Jacob Berzelius. Lithium is a very unstable element and reacts fiercely with water, and therefore is typically stored in oil so it does not react with air.
The use of lithium-ion in batteries was a recent discovery made in the late 20th century. Other elemental types that could carry a charge, including alkaline, were developed in the 19th century. For 30 years, lithium has yet to be superseded by any other element.
Prof. Whittingham was the first of our Laureates to discover lithium’s potential for reactivity and used the element’s enormous drive to release outer electrons it came into contact with, as it moved from a positive to negative state. Prof. Whittingham created the first functional lithium battery in 1973 in the middle of an oil crisis. As an alternative energy source, its potential was just beginning to be realized, but its volatility needed to be harnessed, then controlled.
Prof. Goodenough, now the oldest living Laureate at 97 (beating last year’s Physics Laureate, Arthur Ashkin by just a few months), hypothesized that the cathode, or positively-charged end of the battery, held the key to lithium’s potential. Fusing it together with cobalt oxide, Prof. Goodenough demonstrated that lithium’s voltage could be increased by several volts. This realization was a game-changer in how power was stored and would lead to much bigger, longer-lasting batteries.
Enter Prof. Akira Yoshino, who said that he must have had a keen “sense of smell” and saw where the trend in battery-use was going in the 1980s. Building upon Prof. Goodenough’s earlier work and focus on the cathode, Prof. Yoshino developed the first commercially viable lithium-ion battery. Using a carbon-based compound in the anode, similar to that being used in the cathode already, he was able to move lithium ions in and out of a charged state more safely and had a higher tolerance for charging capabilities – as some of the first models tended to catch on fire.
When asked over the phone during the Nobel press conference about how he sees the introduction of lithium ion setting the world on the path towards a fossil-free future, Prof. Yoshino said he “hopes his invention will bring a change to our future (energy needs).” As a serious issue in need of action, lithium ion may be an important attempt to try and address climate change, with its use in everything from our handheld devices, electric cars and solar stations.
About John B. Goodenough
John B. Goodenough, was born in 1922 in the town of Jena, Germany. he received his PhD in 1952 from the University of Chicago. He is currently the Virginia H. Cockrell Chair in Engineering at The University of Texas at Austin, and is a member of the Editorial Board for Elsevier’s Journal of Solid State Chemistry.
Prof. Goodenough has published in the following Elsevier journals: Chem,Composites Part B: Engineering, Comptes Rendus de l'Academie des Sciences - Series IIc: Chemistry (now publishing as Comptes Rendus Chimie), Current Opinion in Electrochemistry, Engineering, Electrochemistry Communications, Electrochimica Acta, Energy, Energy Storage Materials, Handbook on the Physics and Chemistry of Rare Earths, International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, International Journal of Inorganic Materials (now part of Solid State Sciences), Joule, Journal of Alloys and Compounds, Journal of Catalysis, Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry, Journal of Fluorine Chemistry, Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials, Journal of Physics and Chemistry of Solids, Journal of Power Sources, Journal of Solid State Chemistry, Journal of The Less-Common Metals (continued as Journal of Alloys and Compounds), Materials Chemistry and Physics, Materials Research Bulletin, Materials Science and Engineering B, Nano Energy, Physica C: Superconductivity and its applications, Polyhedron, Progress in Solid State Chemistry, Solid State Communications, Solid State Ionics, Solid State Sciences, Surface Science , and Ultramicroscopy.
He has also contributed book chapters to the following titles: Encyclopedia of Condensed Matter Physics, Encyclopedia of Electrochemical Power Sources in 2005 and 2009 respectively. Prof. Goodenough has also provided articles to the Methods in Enzymology book series.
About M. Stanley Whittingham
M. Stanley Whittingham, was born in 1941 in the United Kingdom. He earned his PhD from Oxford University in 1968 from Oxford University, UK and is currently Distinguished Professor at Binghamton University, State University of New York, USA. As Founding Editor of Elsevier’s Solid State Ionics, Prof. Whittingham is no stranger to being recognized for his contributions to the research community and its publications; he was also the first recipient of Elsevier’s Materials Today Innovation Award in 2018.
Prof. Whittingham has published in the following Elsevier journals: Electrochemistry Communications, Electrochimica Acta, International Journal of Inorganic Materials (now part of Solid State Sciences), Solid State Ionics, Journal of Catalysis , Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry, Journal of Molecular Structure, Journal of Power Sources, Journal of Solid State Chemistry , Materials Chemistry and Physics, Materials Letters, Materials Research Bulletin, Progress in Solid State Chemistry , Solid State Ionics, Solid State Sciences, and Toxicology in Vitro.
About Akira Yoshino
Akira Yoshino, born 1948 in Suita, Japan. Ph.D. 2005 from Osaka University, Japan. Honorary Fellow at Asahi Kasei Corporation, Tokyo, Japan and professor at Meijo University, Nagoya, Japan.
He has also contributed a book chapter to Lithium-Ion Batteries: Advances and Applications (2014).
Nobel Prize in Economics
Abhijit Banerijee, Esther Duflo and Michael Kremer were jointly awarded the Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences "for their experimental approach to alleviating global poverty." The three professors have played a key role in transforming research on global poverty alleviation through frontline experiments to discover the most effective ways to tackle poverty in the developing world. The research generated by this new approach has had clear impact on policy and keeps our ability to alleviate global poverty. Among the examples of their work, the Nobel Academy noted that thanks to one of their studies, “more than 5 million Indian children have benefited from program of remedial tutoring in schools.”
Prof. Duflo is the second woman and the youngest Laureate to win the prize. Speaking at a press conference, she said that recognizing the field of developmental economics reflected “the incredible collective work” of hundreds of researchers, and that she hoped her own recognition would inspire many other women and many other men to give those researchers the respect they deserve.
Watch an interview with Jakob Svensson, member of the Nobel Prize Committee for Economic Sciences, about this year's economics prize.
About Abhijit Banerijee
Prof. Abhijit Banerijee was born in Mumbai , India in 1961. He completed his BA degree in economics at the University of Calcutta in Presidency College. He completed his MA. in economics at the Jawaharlal Nehru University, Delhi and went on to obtain a PhD in Economics at Harvard University. He is currently the Ford Foundation International Professor of Economics at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Professor Banarjee has published in the following Elsevier journals: Journal of Monetary Economics, Journal of Comparative Economics, Journal of Development Economics, Journal of Economic Theory, European Economic Review, Journal of Comparative Economics.
About Esther Duflo
Esther Duflo was born in Paris, France in 1972. She completed her degree in history and economics at École Normale Supérieure in 1994, and received a master's degree the Paris School of Economics, jointly with the School for Advanced Studies in the Social Sciences (EHESS) of the Université Paris Sciences et Lettres (PSL) and the École Normale Supérieure a year later. She is currently an NBER research associate, a board member of the Bureau for Research and Economic Analysis of Development (BREAD), and director of the Center for Economic and Policy Research's development economics program. Dr Duflo has published in the following Elsevier Journals: Journal of Development Economics, Journal of Public Economics.
About Michael Kremer
Born in 1964, Michael Kremer received both his 1985 undergraduate degree in social studies and 1992 PhD in economics from Harvard. He is a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, and a recipient of a MacArthur Fellowship and a Presidential Faculty Fellowship. In 2010, he was named the Scientific Director of Development Innovation Ventures for the US Agency for International Development (USAID). He was a postdoc at Massachusetts Institute of Technology, visiting assistant professor at the University of Chicago. Since 1999, he has been Gates Professor of Developing Societies at Harvard. Prof. Kramer has published in the following Elsevier journals: Journal of International Economics, International Journal of Educational Research, World Development, Journal of Development Economics, Journal of Public Economics, Mathematical Biosciences, Journal of Monetary Economics.
Research by Nobel Laureates in Physiology or Medicine
William G. Kaelin Jr.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
- TSC2 regulates VEGF through mTOR-dependent and -independent pathways – Open Access (2003)
- Neuronal apoptosis linked to EglN3 prolyl hydroxylase and familial pheochromocytoma genes: Developmental culling and cancer – Open Access (2005)
- Dysregulation of HIF and VEGF is a unifying feature of the familial hamartoma syndromes – Open Access (2004)
- Control of Cyclin D1 and Breast Tumorigenesis by the EglN2 Prolyl Hydroxylase – Open Access (2009)
- Kidney cancer: now available in a new flavor – Open Access (2008)
- SDH5 mutations and familial paraganglioma: somewhere Warburg is smiling – Open Access (2009)
- Paracrine Induction of HIF by Glutamate in Breast Cancer: EglN1 Senses Cysteine – Open Access (2016)
- EGLN1 Inhibition and Rerouting of α-Ketoglutarate Suffice for Remote Ischemic Protection – Open Access (2016)
- ROS: Really involved in Oxygen Sensing – Open Access (2005)
- Oxygen Sensing by Metazoans: The Central Role of the HIF Hydroxylase Pathway – Open Access (2008)
- The von Hippel-Lindau tumor suppressor protein is required for proper assembly of an extracellular fibronectin matrix – Open Access (1998)
- Binding of pRB to the PHD protein RBP2 promotes cellular differentiation – Open Access (2005)
- pVHL Acts as an Adaptor to Promote the Inhibitory Phosphorylation of the NF-κB Agonist Card9 by CK2 – Open Access (2007)
- The EGLN-HIF O2-Sensing System: Multiple Inputs and Feedbacks – Open Access (2017)
The Molecular Basis of Cancer: Fourth Edition
- Molecular Abnormalities in Kidney Cancer (2014)
Sir Peter J. Ratcliffe
BBA - Gene Structure and Expression
- Characterisation of functional domains within the mouse erythropoietin 3′ enhancer conveying oxygen-regulated responses in different cell lines (1994)
- HIF overexpression correlates with biallelic loss of fumarate hydratase in renal cancer: Novel role of fumarate in regulation of HIF stability – Open Access (2005)
- Fumarate hydratase deficiency and cancer: activation of hypoxia signaling? – Open Access (2007)
- Renal Cyst Formation in Fh1-Deficient Mice Is Independent of the Hif/Phd Pathway: Roles for Fumarate in KEAP1 Succination and Nrf2 Signaling – Open Access (2011)
- C. elegans EGL-9 and mammalian homologs define a family of dioxygenases that regulate HIF by prolyl hydroxylation – Open Access (2001)
- Heterozygous Deficiency of PHD2 Restores Tumor Oxygenation and Inhibits Metastasis via Endothelial Normalization – Open Access (2009)
Chemistry and Biology
- A photoreactive small-molecule probe for 2-oxoglutarate oxygenases – Open Access (2011)
Molecular Aspects of Medicine
Trends in Molecular Medicine
Gregg L. Semenza
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Molecular Cell Research
- Effect of protein kinase and phosphatase inhibitors on expression of hypoxia inducible factor 1 (1995)
- In vivo expression of mRNAs encoding hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (1996)
- The inhibitory effect of sodium nitroprusside on HIF-1 activation is not dependent on nitric oxide-soluble guanylyl cyclase pathway (2004)
- Regulation of hypoxia-inducible factor 1 by prolyl and asparaginyl hydroxylases (2005)
- Hypoxia-inducible factor 1: Regulator of mitochondrial metabolism and mediator of ischemic preconditioning (2011)
- The hypoxic tumor microenvironment: A driving force for breast cancer progression – Open Access (2016)
- Metabolic adaptation of cancer and immune cells mediated by hypoxia-inducible factors (2018)
- HIF-1 Inhibits Mitochondrial Biogenesis and Cellular Respiration in VHL-Deficient Renal Cell Carcinoma by Repression of C-MYC Activity – Open Access (2007)
- HIF-Dependent Antitumorigenic Effect of Antioxidants In Vivo – Open Access (2007)
- Intratumoral hypoxia, radiation resistance, and HIF-1 – Open Access (2004)
- Hypoxia-inducible factors in physiology and medicine – Open Access (2012)
- HIF-1, O2, and the 3 PHDs: How animal cells signal hypoxia to the nucleus – Open Access (2001)
- HIF-1 Regulates Cytochrome Oxidase Subunits to Optimize Efficiency of Respiration in Hypoxic Cells – Open Access (2007)
- Pyruvate kinase M2 is a PHD3-stimulated coactivator for hypoxia-inducible factor 1 – Open Access (2011)
- Perspectives on oxygen sensing – Open Access (1999)
- HIF-1-mediated expression of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase: A metabolic switch required for cellular adaptation to hypoxia – Open Access (2006)
Cell Stem Cell
- Metabolic regulation of hematopoietic stem cells in the hypoxic niche – Open Access (2011)
Molecular Aspects of Medicine
- RACK1 Competes with HSP90 for Binding to HIF-1α and Is Required for O2-Independent and HSP90 Inhibitor-Induced Degradation of HIF-1α – Open Access (2007)
- OS-9 interacts with hypoxia-inducible factor 1α and prolyl hydroxylases to promote oxygen-dependent degradation of HIF-1α – Open Access (2005)
- MCM Proteins Are Negative Regulators of Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1 – Open Access (2011)
Trends in Biochemical Sciences
Trends in Cancer
Trends in Molecular Medicine
Research by Nobel Laureates in Physics
Annals of Physics
Nuclear Physics B - Proceedings Supplements
- Open problems in cosmology (2005)
New Astronomy Reviews
New Astronomy Reviews
Research by Nobel Laureates in Chemistry
John B. Goodenough
- The Origin of Superior Performance of Co(OH)2 in Hybrid Supercapacitors – Open Access (2017)
- Nitrogen-Doped Carbon for Sodium-Ion Battery Anode by Self-Etching and Graphitization of Bimetallic MOF-Based Composite - Open Access (2017)
- Stabilizing Cathode Materials of Lithium-Ion Batteries by Controlling Interstitial Sites on the Surface - Open Access (2018)
- Stabilizing a High-Energy-Density Rechargeable Sodium Battery with a Solid Electrolyte - Open Access (2018)
Current Opinion in Electrochemistry
- Li(Ni,Co)PO4 as cathode materials for lithium batteries: Will the dream come true? - Open Access (2017)
Energy Storage Materials
- Inhibiting Polysulfide Shuttling with a Graphene Composite Separator for Highly Robust Lithium-Sulfur Batteries (2018)
Journal of Power Sources
- Lithium insertion into Fe2(SO4)3 frameworks - Open Access (1989)
- Cathode materials: A personal perspective (2007)
- Alternative anode materials for solid oxide fuel cells (2007)
- Unsupported claims of ultrafast charging of LiFePO4 Li-ion batteries (2009)
- Challenges for rechargeable batteries (2011)
- Review and analysis of nanostructured olivine-based lithium rechargeable batteries: Status and trends (2013)
Journal of Solid State Chemistry
- The two components of the crystallographic transition in VO2 (1971)
- Lithium insertion into Fe2(MO4)3 frameworks: Comparison of M = W with M = Mo (1987)
- Structure refinement of the spinel-related phases Li2Mn2O4 and Li0.2Mn2O4 (1987)
- Crystal chemistry and superconductivity of the copper oxides (1990)
- Chemical synthesis and properties of Li1-δ-xNi1+δO2 and Li[Ni2]O4 (1992)
- New Cathode Materials for Rechargeable Lithium Batteries: The 3-D Framework Structures Li3Fe2(XO4)3(X=P, As) (1998)
- Chemical and Magnetic Characterization of Spinel Materials in the LiMn2O4–Li2Mn4O9–Li4Mn5O12System (1996)
- Personal journey into solid state chemistry (2019)
- Polymer lithium-garnet interphase for an all-solid-state rechargeable battery (2018)
- PEO/garnet composite electrolytes for solid-state lithium batteries: From “ceramic-in-polymer” to “polymer-in-ceramic” (2018)
Solid State Ionics
- LixCoO2 (0<x⩽1): A new cathode material for batteries of high energy density (1981)
- Lithium mobility in the layered oxide Li1-xCoO2 (1985)
- Lithium insertion into Co3O4: A preliminary investigation (1985)
- Design considerations (1994)
- Characterization of iron-based alloy interconnects for reduced temperature solid oxide fuel cells (2000)
M. Stanley Wittingham
- Hydrothermal synthesis of lithium iron phosphate (2006)
- Anodes for lithium batteries: Tin revisited (2003)
- Hydrothermal synthesis of lithium iron phosphate cathodes (2001)
- Critical Parameters for Evaluating Coin Cells and Pouch Cells of Rechargeable Li-Metal Batteries (2019)
Journal of Power Sources
- Hydrothermal synthesis of cathode materials (2007)
- Structural and electrochemical behavior of LiMn0.4Ni0.4Co0.2O2 (2007)
Journal of Solid State Chemistry
Materials Research Bulletin
- Amorphous molybdenum trisulfide: A new lithium battery cathode (1979)
- The lithium intercalates of the transition metal dichalcogenides (1975)
Solid State Ionics
- The hydrothermal synthesis and characterization of olivines and related compounds for electrochemical applications (2008)
- Insertion electrodes as SMART materials: The first 25 years and future promises (2000)
- Hydrothermal synthesis and characterization of “LixV2 − δO4 − δH2O” (1996)
- The hydrothermal synthesis of new oxide materials (1995)
Lithium-Ion Batteries: Advances and Applications
- Development of the Lithium-Ion Battery and Recent Technological Trends – Book Chapter (2014)
Research by Nobel Laureates in Economics
Esther Duflo and Michael Kremer
Journal of Public Economics
- School governance, teacher incentives, and pupil–teacher ratios: Experimental evidence from Kenyan primary schools (2015)
Journal of Development Economics
- The medium run effects of educational expansion: evidence from a large school construction program in Indonesia (2004)
Journal of International Economics
Journal of Development Economics
Esther Duflo and Abhijit Banerjee
Journal of Development Economics
The following Elsevier colleagues have so far contributed to this report: Joanna Aldred (Amsterdam), Carina Arasa Cid (Amsterdam), Myrsini Alverti (Amsterdam), Alison Bert (New York), Chris Capot (New York), Franca Driessen (Oxford), Annis De Bruyn Moreira (Amsterdam), Ysabel Ermers (Amsterdam), Ian Evans (Oxford), Brianne Fagan (Cambridge, Massachusetts), Celine Feng (Amsterdam), Veronica Gosselin (Cambridge, Massachusetts), Adriaan Klinkenberg (Amsterdam), Emma McEwan (Oxford), Greeshma Nair (Amsterdam), Amanda Naples (Cambridge, Massachusetts), Abby Sonnenfeldt (Cambridge, Massachusetts), Jose Stoop (Amsterdam), Anburaj Thangaraj (Chennai, India), Jan Wilem Wijnen (Amsterdam) and George Woodward (Philadelphia).
Also, much of this information came from the Nobel Prize website.