The book describes the conversion of synthesis gas to fuel and chemicals, with emphasis on the Fischer-Tropsch reaction. It provides an overview of the generation of synthetic gas from coal, natural gas, and biomass as well as the cleaning of the gas to remove catalyst poisons. The variations and similarities of the iron, cobalt and ruthenium catalysts are considered and then described within a reaction mechanism that also considers related reactions such as methanation, methanol synthesis, higher alcohol synthesis and hydroformylation. A description of the various reactors used, primarily for Fischer-Tropsch, is given with emphasis upon the impact they have on catalyst selectivity and lifetime. Finally, the upgrading of the primary products to chemicals and fuels is presented.