Honoring the 2021 Nobel Laureates with free access to their research
Read the Nobel Prize winners’ most cited papers published by Elsevier
Editor's note: This article will be continually updated with information about the newly announced Nobel Prize winners and access to their research.
As science continues to make extraordinary advances, the COVID-19 pandemic has accelerated moves towards open science and data sharing, rapid evidence assessments, and remote and cross-disciplinary collaboration. The pandemic provides one high-profile example of the ways the global research community collectively builds on progress to meet the challenges of our time.
Fortunately, it doesn’t take a pandemic to underscore the collective achievements of the research community. This week, the world is watching as the Nobel Prize is awarded to researchers who have dedicated their lives to science that is improving lives for patients, their communities and society. Those achievements themselves are only possible because these winners built on the work of those before them.
Since 1901, the Nobel Prize has pursued the recognition of scientific truth, highlighting the massive societal gains that we have witnessed in the 20th and 21st centuries.
While much progress has been made, our world still faces many grand challenges, including climate change, ensuring food and water security, and helping more people live longer, healthier lives. For solutions to all these challenges, we continue to look to science. Recognition by the Nobel Foundation is testament to the dedication, commitment and sacrifices that have been made in the pursuit of scientific truth.
At Elsevier, we have supported the work of our research and health partners for more than 140 years. We are proud to highlight that 215 out of 216 Nobel science and economics Laureates since the year 2000 have published in our journals, and some have also served as editors and editorial board members.
Here, you can read more about this year’s winners and their research.
Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
Their discoveries focused on our senses, specifically our ability to sense heat, cold and touch – factors that influence our ability to survive and our everyday interactions with the world around us. While some people take these senses for granted in their daily lives, it may only be when we have truly lost them that we become acutely aware of their existence.
By “unlocking the secrets of nature,” explained Prof Thomas Perlmann, Head of the Nobel Assembly at the Karolinska Institutet, the mechanisms underlying our senses can now be understood at a molecular level. The Nobel Assembly referenced two papers, each published in Cell and Neuron under Elsevier’s Cell Press imprint, that made direct contributions in their decision to award the prize to our new Laureates.These secrets have been part of our collective curiosity since 17th-century mathematician and philosopher René Descartes first wrote about them in his treatise L’homme. Descartes theories included the idea that threads connected different parts of the body, such as the foot to the brain, so that if the foot was exposed to an open flame, the brain would interpret that change and tell the difference between a painful heat or a pleasing warmth.
These ideas were later confirmed by Joseph Erlanger and Herbert Gasser, who were jointly awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1944 “for their discovery of different types of sensory nerve fibers that react to distinct stimuli.”
Getting warmed up
Prof Julius’s foray into understanding the molecular mechanisms of touch (and the generation of pain) began with something anyone for a predilection for spices might find in their kitchen pantry: the chili pepper – specifically the capsicum and the chemical compound capsaicin that lies within it. This pungent compound from chili peppers induces a burning sensation in our mouths or on the tips of our fingers as it gets chopped up and added to that evening’s dinner.
Breaking down its DNA structure, Prof Julius and his colleagues proceeded to map how the genes’ capsaicin expresses in the sensory neurons. These neurons, in turn, then react to pain, heat and touch – and operate in two states: closed or open. Following an extensive series of testing, his team finally found the single ion channel, or receptor, in the neuron that was able to make cells capsaicin-sensitive: TRPV1. This is why, when we bite down on a chili pepper, we are often confronted by painful heat.
Interestingly, Prof Julius and Prof Patapoutian both discovered, through their own independent research, an additional receptor that reacted in complete contrast to TRPV1; the new receptor, TRPM8, was shown to be activated by cold.
The Nobel Assembly described Prof Julius’s discovery of TRPV1 as “the breakthrough that allowed us to understand how differences in temperature can induce electrical signals in the nervous system.”
Can you feel this?
Following his earlier success of identifying TRPM8, Prof Patapoutian’s went on to investigate how cells respond to touch through mechanical stimuli, including such simple actions as giving a friend or family member a hug.
Given the COVID reality that many of us experienced over the past year and the social distancing practices being followed, “we have missed the sense of touch, the sense of the warmth that we give to each other during a hug,” said Nobel Committee member Prof Abdel El Manira after the announcement of the prize. “During a hug,” he added, “these are the receptors that give us a feeling of the warmth, the closeness to each other.”
Through an arduous series of “gene silencing” tests, Prof Patapoutian and his collaborators first identified a cell line that gave off a measurable electric signal when individual cells were poked with a micropipette—an essential instrument in any researcher’s lab, used to accurately and precisely transfer volumes of liquid. By inactivating each gene one by one, the gene responsible for mechanosensitivity in the studied cells was found. It took over 72 attempts, however, before the right receptor was found. This channel was then given the name PIEZO1, after the Greek word for pressure (píesi).
As a complement to our understanding of temperature sensation, Prof Patapoutian’s research in the area of touch also provided critical insights into how we sense our body’s position and motion, known as proprioception. His research into both touch and proprioception is being used to develop treatments for a wide range of disease conditions, including chronic pain
About David Julius
David Julius was born in 1955 in New York. He is currently Professor and Chair of the Department of Physiology at the University of California San Francisco (UCSF), where he holds the Morris Herzstein Chair in Molecular Biology and Medicine. After receiving his PhD in 1984 from UC Berkeley, Prof Julius took on his first postdoctoral fellowship at Columbia University. He was then lured back out west and recruited to UCSF in 1989, where he continues to do research to identify and understand molecular mechanisms involved in our senses of touch and pain.
Prof Julius has served on the Editorial Board for Elsevier’s Molecular and Cellular Neuroscience and has published in the following Elsevier journals: Cell, Cell Chemical Biology (formerly Chemistry and Biology), Current Opinion in Neurobiology, Current Opinion in Structural Biology, European Journal of Pharmacology, Experimental Cell Research, Molecular Cell, Neuron, Pain, Physiology & Behavior, Toxicon, and Trends in Pharmacological Sciences.
He also contributed an article to the Elsevier book series Methods in Enzymology.
About Ardem Patapoutian
Ardem Patapoutian was born in 1967 in Beirut, Lebanon, making him the first Lebanese Nobel Laureate. After moving from a war-torn Beirut to Los Angeles in his youth, he studied at the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, receiving his PhD in 1996. Since 2000, he has been a scientist at Scripps Research in La Jolla, California, and has been a Howard Hughes Medical Institute investigator since 2014. Prof Patapoutian runs his own lab, which is responsible for identifying and characterizing ion channels activated by distinct changes in thermal energy.
Prof Patapoutian served as Guest Editor, alongside Daniel L. Minor, Rachelle Gaudet and Benoit Roux for a Special Issue on “Understanding Functions and Mechanisms of Ion Channels” for Elsevier’s Journal of Molecular Biology.
He has published in the following Elsevier journals: Cell, Cell Reports, Current Biology, Current Opinion in Neurobiology, Molecular and Cellular Neuroscience, Neuron, Neuroscience, Trends in Biology.
Nobel Prize in Physics
The 2021 Nobel Prize in Physics recognizes "groundbreaking contributions to our understanding of complex systems" – including the Earth’s climate and how we influence it. Half the prize was awarded jointly to Syukuro Manabe and Klaus Hasselmann "for the physical modelling of Earth’s climate, quantifying variability and reliably predicting global warming" and the other half was awarded to Giorgio Parisi "for the discovery of the interplay of disorder and fluctuations in physical systems from atomic to planetary scales."
A warning 50+ years in the making
It is undeniable that the Earth is warming – and if left unattended, the impact will be catastrophic. For more than half a century, scientists from across the world, spread out over various disciplines and geographies, have been sounding the alarm bell to the world’s policymakers that urgent and immediate action must be taken. This year, the Nobel Prize recognized two scientists for their pioneering work on developing climate models. Prof Manabe and Prof Hasselmann have studied in this area for over half-a-century now, which is why half of this year's prize recognizes complex systems (such as the Earth’s climate) and the new methods for describing and predicting their long-term behavior.
French mathematician and physicist Joseph Fourier was perhaps the first scientist to study the Earth’s energy budget. In the early 19th century, he observed shortwave solar radiation, known as the central input of energy into the climate. The Earth’s absorption of this solar radiation and other gases then become known as carbon dioxide (CO2). Fast forward 70 years, and this experimental foundation laid the groundwork for what we now call the “greenhouse effect.” This major advance was discovered by Svante Arrhenius, who was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1903.
As Prof John Wettlaufer, Nobel Committee member for Physics, explained in the press conference:
Another 70 years, two world wars and the computer revolution would pass, before Syukuro Manabe and his colleagues knit together this web of processes – including key aspects of the atmosphere’s thermodynamics and dynamics – making the first reliable prediction that if you doubled the carbon dioxide in Earth’s atmosphere, the surface temperature would increase by two degrees Celsius.
As the first person to explore the interaction between radiation balance and the vertical transport of air masses, Prof Manabe laid the foundation for the development of current climate models.
Ten years later, Prof Hasselmann of the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology in Hamburg, Germany, made an analogy between rapidly varying weather and slowly varying climate, based on fellow physicist Albert Einstein’s theory on Brownian motion, whereby the rapid collision of water molecules with pollen grains could be slowly displaced over time. He then predicated that the weather (on timescales of days) influences the oceans on timescales of years. Prof Hasselmann then went even further by developing specific signals, or fingerprints, showing how natural phenomena and human activities imprint on the climate. His methods have been used to prove that the increased temperature in the atmosphere is due to human emissions of carbon dioxide.
Looking through the (spin) glass
If the work of his fellow Laureates focused on the large scale, then Prof Parisi’s examination of the microscopic influences of rather banal material, like glass, helped reveal the hidden patterns in disordered complex materials. Prof Parisi’s research has influenced a vast range of scientific fields, from how granular materials pack to neuroscience, machine learning, and emergent phenomena that went “far beyond what he envisioned in the 1970s when he started this work,” Prof Wettlaufer stated.
By using the “spin glass,” a term developed in the 1970s to describe disordered magnetic systems – where there is disorder and frustration due to an equal amount of positive and negative interactions – Prof Parisi tamed this complex landscape by building a deep physical and mathematical model that goes far beyond spin glasses.
With this year’s announcement preceding the UN’s COP26 meeting in Glasgow, UK, Prof Thors Hans Hansson, Chair of the Nobel Committee for Physics, stressed that not only this year’s prize but our knowledge about climate rests on a “solid scientific foundation, based on a rigorous analysis of observations.”
The work of these Physics Laureates – and related research by scientists around the world – has led to our understanding of climate change, how our own activities influence it, and how we can best take action.
About Syukuro Manabe
Syukuro Manabe was born in 1931 in Shingu, Japan. He graduated from the University of Tokyo’s Faculty of Science in 1953 and received his PhD from the Graduate School of Mathematics and Physics in 1958. Currently, he is Senior Meteorologist in the Program in Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences at Princeton University, USA.
About Klaus Hasselmann
Klaus Hasselmann was born 1931 in Hamburg, Germany. He received his PhD in 1957 from the University of Göttingen, Germany. Currently he is a Professor at the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology in Hamburg, Germany.
Prof Hasselman served on the Editorial Board of Elsevier’s Dynamics of Atmospheres and Oceans journal and has published in the following Elsevier journals: Dynamics of Atmosphere and Oceans, Ecological Economics, Environmental Modelling & Software, Journal of Theoretical Biology, and Progress in Oceanography.
About Giorgio Parisi
Giorgio Parisi was born 1948 in Rome. He received his PhD in 1970 from Sapienza University of Rome, where he is a Professor of Theoretical Physics.
Prof Parisi has served on the Editorial Board for Elsevier’s Nuclear Physics B and was a Guest Editor for a Special Issue on “Condensed Matter and Statistical Physics” for Elsevier’s Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications.
He has also published in the following Elsevier journals: Animal Behaviour, Annales de l’Institut Pasteur Virology, Annales de l’Institut Pasteur Immunologie, Comptes Rendus: Mathematique, Computer Physics Communications, Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids, Les Houches Summer School Proceedings, Mathematical Biosciences, Nuclear Physics B, Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Physica D: Nonlinear Phenomena, Physics Letters A, Physics Letters B, and Physics Reports.
Nobel Prize in Chemistry
The 2021 Nobel Prize in Chemistry recognizes "the development of asymmetric organocatalysis." The prize was awarded jointly to Benjamin List and David WC MacMillan. Their development of a precise new tool for molecular construction has had a great impact on pharmaceutical research and has made chemistry greener.
The “art” of chemistry could be considered an iterative process in the same way that most notable discoveries in the lab are made. Unless, of course, you have a “happy little accident,” to quote American painter and TV host Bob Ross. By building on the previous work of others to advance a particular field of study, chemists are regularly building tiny compounds to form new molecules. Along the way, these “happy little accidents” are supported by the work of catalysts, substances that control and accelerate chemical reactions. They are invisible, however, and in fact never become part of the final product being developed.
For years, at least prior to the year 2000, chemists believed that only two types of catalysts existed and could be used: metal and enzymes. This year’s Laureates, Prof List and Prof MacMillan, have been recognized for the work they did independent of each other in developing a third type of catalyst – asymmetric organocatalysis – which builds upon small organic molecules.
It is “a truly elegant tool for making molecules – simpler than one could ever imagine,” said Swedish biophysical chemist and Nobel Committee member Prof Pernilla Wittung Stafshede at the prize announcement.
As a fundamental tool for chemists, catalysts can be found everywhere and are responsible for driving a multitude of chemical reactions, forming new molecules. Metals make for excellent catalysts largely due to their ability to temporarily hold electrons or provide them to other molecules. This can help loosen the bonds between atoms in the molecule so they can be broken and new ones can be formed.
However, the most pressing problems for metallic catalysts is that they often use heavy metals (which are bad for the environment) and are sensitive to oxygen and water. It was Prof MacMillan who first noticed how metal catalysts were rarely used in industry, and so he began to wonder why. It turns out that achieving the oxygen- and moisture-free environments these catalysts required to work were simply too expensive to reproduce at a large, industrial scale. While it is less of a challenge to create such environments in the lab, Prof MacMillan redirected his attention and focus to develop a simpler form of catalyst – an organically-based catalyst.
The second kind of catalyst uses the enzymes from proteins to kick-start the process necessary for life to advance. Enzymes are specialists in asymmetric catalysis when creating new molecules, and through that process, they always create a mirror image out of the two that are possible.
Molecules typically exist in two variants: as the mirror image of the other but often having completely different effects on the body or even tastes on the tongue. The limonene molecule, noted as an example in the press conference, has a lemon scent, while the mirror image smells like orange.
What helps organic catalysts is the fact that they typically have a stable framework of carbon atoms (including elements like oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur or phosphorus) in which more active chemical groups can then be attached. This means these catalysts are both friendly to the environment and cheap to produce.
Organocatalysts have been around since the early 2000s, but the work of our two newest Laureates really got started in the 1990s; since then, the catalysts has been developed at an astonishing speed. Both Laureates are leaders in their field, and they popularized the use of organic catalysts largely due to their ability to drive asymmetric catalysis, in which a reaction produces more of the left form of a molecule than the right, or vice versa.
Depending on what piques your interests, these molecules will have helped develop the lightest type of running shoe, capture light in solar cells or store energy in batteries. Molecules can even inhibit the progress of disease in the body.
About Benjamin List
Benjamin List was born in 1968 in Frankfurt, Germany. He received his PhD in 1997 from Goethe University Frankfurt and is currently the Director of the Max-Planck-Institut für Kohlenforschung in Mülheim an der Ruhr, Germany. He has received numerous awards for his research, including the Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Prize of the German Research Foundation (2016), the Cope Scholar Award (2014), the Mukaiyama Award (2013) and the Otto Bayer Prize (2012). Prof List is also a member of the Leopoldina Academy for Science.
He also contributed a review article to volume 55 of the Elsevier book series Advances in Protein Chemistry.
About David WC MacMillan
David WC MacMillan was born in 1968 in Bellshill, UK. He was awarded his PhD in 1996 from University of California, Irvine, USA. He is currently the James S McDonnell Distinguished University Professor of Chemistry at Princeton University and oversees The MacMillan Group at Princeton. He was also the Chair of the Department of Chemistry from 2010 to 2015. Prof MacMillan was also the inaugural winner of Elsevier’s Tetrahedron Young Investigator Award in 2005.
Prof MacMillan is currently a member of the Advisory Boards for Elsevier’s Tetrahedron and Tetrahedron Letters, and was a Section Editor for Current Opinion in Green and Sustainable Chemistry. He was also a member of the Editorial Advisory Board for Progress in Heterocyclic Chemistry.
Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences
This year's Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel was divided, with one half awarded to David Card "for his empirical contributions to labour economics" and the other half jointly to Joshua D Angrist and Guido W Imbens "for their methodological contributions to the analysis of causal relationships."
While the science prizes often recognize years of applied scientific research resulting from randomized controlled trials, or RCTs – the gold standard of experimentation, that’s not the case for this year’s Economics Laureates. Their work exists in the realm of natural experiments. Natural experiments help answer the types of important questions whose answers cannot necessarily be anticipated or controlled for, as they investigate the random variation caused by nature, institutions or policy changes. Yet, these types of situations can be found everywhere.
There is perhaps no greater natural experiment than the one taking place right now, as the world plans a path through the COVID-19 pandemic while seeking to understand how it will effect various aspects of society: immigration, economic development, education, transportation and so much more. For these scenarios, scientists must rely on observational data (i.e., data that is generated without controlled experimental variation).
Understanding the consequences of our choices: an example
From the early 1990s, Prof Card, already a leader in the field of labor economics, set out to examine whether the length of time spent in education influenced an individual’s earning power, and how increasing minimum wage might affect unemployment rates in the US. Together with fellow economist Alan Kruger (now deceased), who advised Presidents Bill Clinton and Barack Obama as Chair of the White House Council of Economic Advisers, he looked at both questions. Both scenarios remain highly relevant to society, but even though the data showed that individuals with more years of education have higher incomes, it turns out there is no causal relationship, according to their findings: people who choose to stay in education longer have a myriad of reasons for doing so and most likely would end up earning more anyway largely due to their inherent talents instead of the years spent in formal education.
A study in causal relationships
Prof Angrist and Prof Imbens developed a set of research tools that help economists use real-life situations to test big theories. Together with this framework, they investigated the effect of an intervention, in two-parts, co-authoring an influential study in the mid-1990s that asked the questions:
Under which conditions can we use a natural experiment to estimate the effects of a particular intervention, such as a computing course, when the effects vary between individuals and we do not have complete control of who participates? How can we estimate this effect and how should it be interpreted?
Looking at the earlier example that Prof Card studied (i.e., how the number of years in education affected earning power), the new Laureates made a few assumptions and were able to illustrate that:
- A natural experiment affects the probability of program participation and
- Researchers can estimate the impact of the program even when there is no information about who was affected by the natural experiment.
This finding resulted in the effect on income of an additional year of education only applying to individuals who chose to leave school when given the chance. While it was not possible to control which individuals are included in this group, the Laureates were able to determine the group’s size. The effect for this group has been named the Local Average Treatment Effect, or LATE.
Taken together, the research of all three Laureates demonstrates that it is possible to answer important questions about cause and effect using natural experiments. As each contribution complements and strengthens the other, the insights of Profs Angrist and Imbens about natural experiments – and Card’s approach to some of society’s most important questions – have paved the way for other researchers.
As this year’s coverage of the Nobel Prizes draws to a close, it would only be fitting for the current Secretary General of the Royal Swedish Academic of Sciences, Göran K. Hansson, to have the final word in our coverage:
This was my last Nobel announcement. After 12 years, 24 press conferences and 67 phone calls to prize winners, it has been an exciting journey, and a great privilege.
Until next year …
About David Card
David Card was born in 1956 in Guelph, Ontario, Canada. He is a labor economist and Professor of Economics at University of California, Berkeley. He is also Director of the Labor Studies Program at the US National Bureau of Economic Research. Prof Card is UC Berkeley’s sixth economist to win the Nobel Prize in economics and the university’s 26th Nobel Laureate overall. Prof Card has co-authored and edited several books and more than 100 journal articles and book chapters.
He was also co-editor, alongside Orley Ashenfelter, of volumes 3 and 4 of the Handbook of Labor Economics, contributing a chapter and the book’s preface.
About Joshua D Angrist
Joshua D Angrist was born in 1960 in Columbus, Ohio, and is a dual US-Israeli citizen. He has taught at Harvard and the Hebrew University of Jerusalem before coming to Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in 1996, where he is currently a Ford Professor of Economics. Prof Angrist leads MIT's School Effectiveness and Inequality Initiative, part of Blueprint Labs, a non-partisan research lab based at MIT that uses data, economics and analytic tools to uncover the consequences of policy decisions and improve society. He received his BA from Oberlin College in 1982 and completed his PhD in Economics at Princeton in 1989.
Prof Angrist currently serves on the Advisory Board of Elsevier’s Labour Economics journal and was previously an Associate Editor. He has published in the following Elsevier journals: Economics Letters, Economics of Education Review, Journal of Development Economics, Journal of Econometrics, Journal of Public Economics, Labour Economics and Research in Labor Economics.
He also contributed a book chapter to Handbook of Labor Economics.
About Guido W Imbens
Guido W Imbens was born in 1963 in Eindhoven, the Netherlands. A Dutch American, Prof Imbens is the Applied Econometrics Professor and Professor of Economics at the Stanford Graduate School of Business. After earning his PhD from Brown University in 1991, he went on to teach at Harvard University, UCLA, and UC Berkeley. Prof Imbens specializes in econometrics, focusing specifically on the methods for drawing causal inferences.
Selected research by the 2021 Nobel Laureates
Research by Laureates in Medicine or Physiology
Current Opinion in Neurobiology
- The cloned capsaicin receptor integrates multiple pain-producing stimuli – Open Archive (1998)
- A TRP channel that senses cold stimuli and menthol – Open Archive (2002)
Current Opinion in Neurobiology
- From chills to chilis: mechanisms for thermosensation and chemesthesis via thermoTRPs – Open Access (2007)
Molecular and Cellular Neuroscience
Research by Laureates in Physics
Quaternary Science Reviews
- Study of abrupt climate change by a coupled ocean-atmosphere model – Book chapter (2000)
Developments in Atmospheric Science
- On the problem of multiple time scales in climate modeling – Book chapter (1979)
Environmental Modelling and Software
Progress in Oceanography
- An ocean model for climate variability studies – Open Access (2000)
Physica D: Nonlinear Phenomena
Research by Laureates in Chemistry
Current Opinion in Chemical Biology
Journal of Biological Chemistry
- A Catalytic antibody produces fluorescent tracers of gap junction communication in living cells – Open Access (2001)
- Proline-catalyzed asymmetric reactions (2002)
- A practical, efficient, and atom economic alternative to the Wittig and Horner-Wadsworth-Emmons reactions for the synthesis of (E)-α,β- unsaturated esters from aldehydes (2006)
David WC MacMillan
- A general N-alkylation platform via copper metallaphotoredox and silyl radical activation of alkyl halides (2021)
- Enantioselective organocatalytic aldehyde-aldehyde cross-aldol couplings. The broad utility of α-thioacetal aldehydes (2004)
- Enantioselective organocatalytic epoxidation using hypervalent iodine reagents (2006)
- A process for the rapid removal of dialkylamino-substituents from aromatic rings. Application to the expedient synthesis of (R)-tolterodine (2009)
- Development of a general, enantioselective organocatalytic Mukaiyama-Michael reaction with α,β-unsaturated aldehydes – Open Access (2009)
- Photoredox-catalyzed deoxyfluorination of activated alcohols with Selectfluor® - Open Access (2019)
Research by Laureates in Economics
Journal of Public Economics
- Unemployment insurance taxes and the cyclical and seasonal properties of unemployment – Open Access (1994)
- Extended benefits and the duration of UI spells: Evidence from the New Jersey extended benefit program – Open Access (2000)
- School finance reform, the distribution of school spending, and the distribution of student test scores (2002)
- When financial work incentives pay for themselves: Evidence from a randomized social experiment for welfare recipients (2005)
- Racial segregation and the black-white test score gap – Open Access (2007)
- The geography of giving: The effect of corporate headquarters on local charities – Open Access (2010)
Joshua D Angrist
- Conditional independence in sample selection models – Open Access (1997)
Economics of Education Review
- Does teacher testing raise teacher quality? Evidence from state certification requirements – Open Access (2008)
Journal of Public Economics
- Did Vietnam veterans get sicker in the 1990s? The complicated effects of military service on self-reported health – Open Access (2010)
Guido W Imbens
Social Science & Medicine
Nobel Summit academics: the greatest challenges facing humanity may also be the greatest opportunities
Elsevier employs over 8,100 people around the world, many beginning their careers in research or healthcare. This year’s coverage would not have been possible without the contributions of the following Elsevier colleagues:
- Amsterdam: Coralie Bos, Ton Handgraaf, Tim Horscroft, Matthanja Muller, Maha Rhannam, Celine Richard, Rob van Dalen, Donna Weerd-Wilson
- Cambridge, Massachusetts: Helene Hodak, Sana Nambiar, Takmela Rahman, Abby Sonnenfeldt
- Chennai, India: Anburaj Thangaraj
- Melbourne: Catherine Carnovale
- New York: Alison Bert
- Oxford, UK: Ian Evans, Alan Crompton, Marta Meazza, Leanne Mullen, Shamus O’Reilly, Jessica Pancholi, Rachel Shaw, Victoria Wetherell
- Paris: Deborah Logan
Also, much of this information came from the Nobel Prize website.