Despite Clear Benefits, Heart Failure Clinics Are Rarely Utilized

Study results reported in the Canadian Journal of Cardiology

Philadelphia, PA, July 19, 2012- Outpatient heart failure (HF) clinics that provide patient education on ways to manage heart failure and risk factors, prescribe home-based exercises, and monitor therapy compliance have been shown to reduce morbidity, mortality, and health care costs.A new study published in the current issue of the Canadian Journal of Cardiology finds that despite guidelines that encourage physicians to recommend heart failure clinics, very few patients recently hospitalized with HF receive referrals or use one.

“Given the demonstrated benefits of these services, the rates of referral and enrollment in our study are discouragingly low,” says lead investigator Shannon Gravely, PhD, York University, University Health Network, and Toronto Rehabilitation Institute, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

The investigators recruited 474 HF inpatients from 11 hospitals across Ontario.The patients completed a survey that evaluated environmental and individual factors affecting HF clinic use.Environmental factors included hospital type, whether the hospital had an onsite HF clinic, and whether the patient had been referred to other outpatient disease management programs (DMP), such as smoking cessation clinics or diabetes education.Individual factors included sociodemographic information, whether the patient lived in a rural area, marital status, perceived stress, and depressive symptoms.Clinical indicators of the need for rehabilitative services were gathered from patient charts.A year after the first survey, the patients received a second survey and reported whether they had been referred to an HF clinic, and if they had attended.270 patients completed the follow-up survey and were included in the analysis.

Results showed that 15% of study participants were referred to, and 13% reported using an HF clinic.Patients with higher education were five times more likely to use an outpatient HF clinic compared to those with lower education.Lower stress levels and more serious health conditions were also associated with HF use.Patients who received a referral to another DMP were nearly five times more likely to use an HF clinic.The most important factor in determining whether a patient used an HF clinic was the presence of an established program at the patient’s original hospital.“It’s likely that having an HF clinic on-site is related to greater awareness of the benefits of such services by physicians providing care.However, broader referral mechanisms are needed to ensure that all patients, regardless of where they receive care, have equitable access to HF clinics,” says Dr. Gravely.

In a related study published in the same issue, Dr. Gravely and colleagues examined more broadly the use of DMPs by patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD).1,803 hospitalized patients completed a survey about factors that influenced DMP use and a follow-up study a year later that assessed whether they had used any DMPs:cardiac rehabilitation, outpatient diabetes education, an HF clinic, stroke rehabilitation, or a smoking cessation program.

Overall, roughly 40% of patients did not access any post-acute DMPs.Fifty percent accessed one program, and 10% attended more than one. Among participants with a comorbid indication (diabetes, stroke, heart failure, or smokers), 21% of these participants reported that they used multiple programs. DMP participants were younger, more likely to be married, and more highly educated than those who did not attend DMPs.Overall, 53% reported participating in cardiac rehabilitation, and among participants with a comorbid illness or risk, 41%of diabetics reported attending a diabetes education center, 26% of stroke patients attended stroke rehabilitation, 13% of patients with a heart failure diagnosis used a heart failure clinic, and 12% of smokers attended a smoking cessation program. Among all study participants these findings suggest a gross underuse of DMP services, particularly stroke rehabilitation, HF clinics, and most notably, smoking cessation programs.

“What is one of the most concerning findings is that only 12% of current smokers reported taking part in a smoking cessation program,” notes Dr. Gravely.“Participation in smoking cessation programs results in significantly higher cessation rates when compared with standard care.”

Dr. Gravely notes that future research is needed to explore not only patient-related factors, but also health-system factors such as awareness and capacity that may be at play.“The appropriateness and cost repercussions of multiple DMP use should be investigated, as an integrated approach to vascular disease management may be warranted,” she concludes.

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Notes for Editors
“Referral and Use of Heart Failure Clinics:What Factors Are Related to Use?” by Shannon Gravely, PhD, Liane Ginsberg, PhD, Donna E. Stewart, MD, FRCPC, Susanna Mak, MD, PhD, FRCPC, Sherry L. Grace, PhD on behalf of the Cardiac Rehabilitation Care Continuity Through Automatic Referral Evaluation (CRCARE) Investigators (DOI 10.1016/j.cjca.2011.11.020)

“A Prospective Examination of Disease Management Program Use by Complex Cardiac Outpatients,” by Shannon Gravely, PhD, Robert D. Reid, PhD, MBA, Paul Oh, MD, FRCPC, Heather Ross, MD, FRCPC, Donna E. Stewart, MD, FRCPC, Sherry L. Grace, PhD on behalf of the Cardiac Rehabilitation Care Continuity Through Automatic Referral Evaluation (CRCARE) Investigators (DOI 10.1016/j.cjca.2012.01.004)

They appear in Canadian Journal of Cardiology, Volume 28, Issue 4 (July/August 2012), published by Elsevier.

About the Canadian Journal of Cardiology
The Canadian Journal of Cardiology ( is the official journal of the Canadian Cardiovascular Society. It is a vehicle for the international dissemination of new knowledge in cardiology and cardiovascular science, particularly serving as a major venue for the results of Canadian cardiovascular research and Society guidelines. The journal publishes original reports of clinical and basic research relevant to cardiovascular medicine as well as editorials, review articles, case reports, and papers on health outcomes, policy research, ethics, medical history, and political issues affecting practice.

About the Editor-in-Chief
Editor-in-Chief Stanley Nattel, MD, is Paul-David Chair in Cardiovascular Electrophysiology and Professor of Medicine at the University of Montreal and Director of the Electrophysiology Research Program at the Montreal Heart Institute Research Center.

About the Canadian Cardiovascular Society
The Canadian Cardiovascular Society is the professional association for Canadian cardiovascular physicians and scientists working to promote cardiovascular health and care through knowledge translation, professional development, and leadership in health policy.The CCS provides programs and services to its 1900+ members and others in the cardiovascular community, including guidelines for cardiovascular care, the annual Canadian Cardiovascular Congress, and, with the Canadian Cardiovascular Academy, programs for trainees.More information about the CCS and its activities can be found at

About Elsevier
Elsevier is a world-leading provider of information solutions that enhance the performance of science, health, and technology professionals, empowering them to make better decisions, deliver better care, and sometimes make groundbreaking discoveries that advance the boundaries of knowledge and human progress. Elsevier provides web-based, digital solutions — among them ScienceDirect, Scopus, Research Intelligence and ClinicalKey— and publishes over 2,500 journals, including The Lancet and Cell, and more than 35,000 book titles, including a number of iconic reference works. Elsevier is part of RELX Group, a world-leading provider of information and analytics for professional and business customers across industries.