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Wall of Left Ventricle
Cardiovascular System

Wall of Left Ventricle

Paries ventriculi sinistri

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The left ventricle is the dominant chamber in the heart. The wall consists of an inner endocardial layer, a thick myocardial layer (up to 12 mm), and a thin outer epicardial layer. It forms the apex of the heart, and the inferior and a portion of the anterior (sternocostal) surface of the heart.

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Key Features/Anatomical Relations

The majority of the interior surface of the left ventricle is covered in irregular columnar projections known as trabeculae carneae.

Emerging from the inner wall are two sets of papillary muscles, the inferoseptal and superoposterior papillary muscles. They’re varied in dimensions and may be bifid. The inferoseptal papillary muscle arises from the inferior (posterior) ventricular wall. The superoposterior papillary muscle arises from the anterior ventricular wall.

The atrioventricular orifice, where the left atrioventricular valve sits as well as the outflow tract leading to the aortic valve both have smooth internal walls.


The left ventricle, with its thick myocardial layer, contracts during ventricular systole, forcing the oxygenated blood through the aortic valve and into the aorta for transport to systemic tissues.

Learn more about this topic from other Elsevier products

Heart Left Ventricle

ScienceDirect image

Left heart ventricle tissue is excised quickly and soaked immediately in 4% paraformaldehyde and 1% glutaraldehyde in phosphate buffer (Trump’s Fixative) and cut into roughly 5mm2 pieces using a razor blade and stored at 4°C in fixative.

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