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Sigmoid Arteries
Cardiovascular System

Sigmoid Arteries

Arteriae sigmoideae

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Quick Facts

Origin: The inferior mesenteric artery.

Course: Inferolateral direction within the sigmoid mesocolon.

Branches: None.

Supplied Structures: Sigmoid colon.

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As the inferior mesenteric artery is traveling inferiorly towards the pelvis, it gives rise to 2–5 sigmoid arteries.


The sigmoid arteries travel within the sigmoid mesocolon and descend in an oblique fashion towards the sigmoid colon.


The sigmoid arteries have no named terminal branches. However, they terminate as ascending and descending branches that anastomose with the branch above and below. Thus, their distal ends form anastomotic loops with adjacent sigmoid arteries.

The ascending branch of the uppermost sigmoid artery anastomosis with the descending branch of the left colic artery. Inferiorly, the descending branch of the final sigmoid artery anastomosis with the superior anorectal artery.

Supplied Structures

The sigmoid arteries supply the sigmoid colon. Its upper most branches provide vasculature to the distal end of the descending colon.

Its lower branches anastomose with the superior anorectal artery to ensure continuous supply between the sigmoid colon and superior rectum.

Learn more about this topic from other Elsevier products


ScienceDirect image

When the artery is occluded blood is forced through the collateral vessels, drastically increasing fluid shear stress and triggering an inflammatory response which drives vessel remodeling.

Explore on ScienceDirect(opens in new tab/window)

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