Professor David C. Cullen
Cranfield University, UK
Professor David Cullen’s original training was in biochemistry at the University of East Anglia. He developed his interest in biosensor and bioanalytical technology research and development during his PhD and postdoctoral studies at the University of Cambridge.
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His initial academic appointment in the mid-nineties within the biotechnology activities at Cranfield University continued this work with applications in the medical and environmental sectors.
His involvement with the space sector began with a chance encounter with a member of the UK Beagle 2 Mars lander team and a discussion about environmental biosensors being relevant to detecting life on Mars. This discussion led to the proposing, selection and then partial development of the multiplexed immunoassay based Life Marker Chip instrument for the ESA ExoMars rover.
Since then he has transferred to the Space Group in the School of Aerospace, Transport and Manufacturing at Cranfield University where he holds a professorial chair in Astrobiology and Space Biotechnology. He continues a range of activities involving the development of space relevant technology and instrumentation and especially within areas relevant to astrobiology and biosciences. Current applications include the exploitation of CubeSat spacecraft as platforms to perform microgravity and space radiation bioscience experiments.
Presentation title: Space-based bioanalytical and biotechnological systemsView full abstract
Space continues to hold a strong fascination for scientists, technologists and the general public. The near to medium term future expects a continuing expansion of human driven activities in space both in low Earth orbit and beyond. Robotic exploration of planetary bodies will continue with a strong emphasis on searching for evidence of life. Humans and associated Earth biology are expected to travel beyond low Earth orbit and for far greater durations than during the Apollo era and with destinations including deep-space orbital habitats, the Moon, Mars and near Earth asteroids. Space environments will continue to be accessed to enable basic science to be performed that is not possible on Earth.
Within all of the preceding scenarios there is a place, or specific requirements, for bioanalytical and biotechnological systems and hence these have relevance to the broad biosensor and bioanalytical community. The presentation will review a wide range of differing aspects of enabling bioanalytical and biotechnological systems within a space context and with the aim of informing parts of the biosensor and bioanalytical community not yet familiar with space application of opportunities within this sector.
The presentation will cover and review within a bioanalytical and biotechnology systems context: (i) areas of application including planetary exploration, support of humans in space and basic biological and astrobiological sciences, (ii) unique aspects and consequences of space environments including radiation types and levels and reduced gravity, (iii) requirements for integrating biotechnological and bioanalytical systems into space systems including a variety of common and emerging space platforms and (iv) examples of bioanalytical and biotechnology systems developed or under development for applications in space including examples from the authors own research in areas of life detection instrumentation and bioscience systems for use in CubeSat platforms.
Dr Emmanuel Delamarche
IBM Zurich, Switzerland
Dr. Delamarche is currently leading activities on Precision Diagnostics at IBM Research - Zurich with the goal of using expertise in micro/nanotechnology, physics and biochemistry for solving important problems in biology and medicine.
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His main projects deal with the development of portable and precise diagnostic devices using microfluidic concepts and smartphones, and with the development of a non-contact scanning microfluidic probe for analyzing tissue sections and studying biological interfaces. In addition to his research, he is also a Lecturer at ETH Zurich and a contributor to scientific panels for grant agencies and governments. He published over 120 papers and is co-inventor on more than 70 patent families. He has received numerous awards from IBM, was named “Master Inventor” by IBM, and received the Werner prize of the Swiss Chemical Society in 2006.
Dr. Delamarche studied chemistry and received a degree in supramolecular chemistry in 1992 from the University Paul Sabatier of Toulouse in France. He received a Ph.D. in biochemistry in 1995 from the University of Zurich, for work done at IBM on the (photo)attachment of proteins on surfaces and was hired in 1997 by IBM as Research Staff Member.
Presentation title: Point-of-care diagnostics 2.0View full abstract
Diagnostics are ubiquitous in healthcare because they support prevention, diagnosis and treatment of diseases. Specifically, point-of-care diagnostics are particularly attractive for identifying diseases near patients, quickly, and in many settings and scenarios. One of our contribution to the field of microfluidics is the development of capillary-driven microfluidic chips for highly miniaturized immunoassays. In this presentation, I will review how to program capillary flow and encode specific functions to form microfluidic elements that can easily be assembled into self-powered devices for immunoassays, reaching unprecedented levels of precision for manipulating samples and reagents. This technology can also be augmented using peripherals and smartphones for flow control and monitoring with sub-nanoliter precision. Finally, counterfeiting of point-of-care diagnostics is an issue, with sometimes dramatic consequences. Using capillary phenomena, we devised a method for producing in chips a complex signal with a “time domain” for authentication of devices. Altogether, capillary-driven elements can bring extremely high control for manipulating sub-microliter volumes of samples and picogram quantities of reagents and may therefore extend the performances of microfluidic devices for point-of-care diagnostics to a next level of precision.
Professor David C. Klonoff, MD, FACP, FRCPE, Fellow AIMBE,
Mills-Peninsula Health Services and University of California San Fransicso, USA
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Continuous glucose monitoring: A review of the technology and clinical use
David C. Klonoff, David Ahn, Andjela Drincic
Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice: Vol 133, November 2017
David C. Klonoff, M.D. is an endocrinologist specializing in diabetes technology. He is the Medical Director of the Dorothy L. and James E. Frank Diabetes Research Institute of Mills-Peninsula Health Services in San Mateo, California and a Clinical Professor of Medicine at UCSF.
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Dr. Klonoff graduated from UC Berkeley, where he was elected to Phi Beta Kappa - junior year, and UCSF Medical School, where he was elected to Alpha Omega Alpha - junior year. His postgraduate training included two years at UCLA Hospital and three years at UCSF Hospitals. Dr. Klonoff is cited as among the top 1% of US endocrinologists by Castle Connolly Medical Ltd. He received an FDA Director’s Special Citation Award in 2010 for outstanding contributions to diabetes technology. In 2012 Dr. Klonoff was elected a Fellow of the American Institute of Medical and Biological Engineering and cited as among the top 2% of bioengineers worldwide. He received the 2012 Gold Medal Oration and Distinguished Scientist Award from the Dr. Mohan’s Diabetes Specialties Centre and Madras Diabetes Research Foundation of Chennai, India. Dr. Klonoff was elected a Fellow of the Royal College of Physicians (Edinburgh) in 2015. He was invited to be a Visiting Professor in Japan at the Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology in 2016. Dr. Klonoff has advised FDA and FTC and performed grant review for NIH, CDC, NASA, NSF, US Army, ADA, JDRF, and five foreign governments. He has been invited to scientific meetings at the White House and the European Parliament.
Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) is an increasingly used technology that is revolutionizing the treatment of diabetes. This technology allows patients to see real-time glycemic fluctuations and them to manage their disease with lifestyle and medication adjustments. A variety of glucose sensing technologies have been used or are under development. Both subcutaneous and implanted sensors are now available with wireless data transmission to communicate with smartphones and the cloud for data analysis. The latest generation products can be linked with an insulin pump to determine an optimal insulin dose. The patient can program their pump to deliver the dose, which is known as open loop control, or the pump can be preprogrammed to automatically respond to the glucose reading and deliver an appropriate continuous dose of insulin, which is known as closed loop control. Outcomes of wearing a CGM have been beneficial in terms of decreased mean glucose levels and at the same time fewer episodes of inadvertent insulin overdoses with attendant risky hypoglycemia. The high quality of the continuous glucose data has led to a movement calling for the replacement of the current “gold standard” of optimal control, which is the Hemoglobin A1c level, and replace it with the percentage of time spent in an appropriate target glucose range. CGM sensors are becoming increasing accurate at reading current glucose levels and predicting impending dangerous low or high readings with alarms. As with other connected medical devices, sound design is needed to assure cybersecurity and maintain confidentiality, availability, and integrity of the glucose data. In conclusion, CGM ha become an important tool for monitoring diabetes and improving outcomes.
Professor Kevin Plaxco
University of California Santa Barbara, USA
Professor Kevin Plaxco is a Professor at the University of California, Santa Barbara, with shared appointments between the Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, the Department of Mechanical Engineering, and the Biomolecular Science and Engineering Graduate Program.
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Prof. Plaxco also serves as Director of campus’s Center for Bioengineering. Prior to joining UCSB in 1998 Dr. Plaxco received his Ph.D. from Caltech and performed postdoctoral studies at Oxford and the University of Washington. Dr. Plaxco’s research focus is on the physics of protein folding and its many and varied engineering applications. A major aim of the group’s applied research is to harness the speed and specificity of folding in the development of sensors, adaptable surfaces, and smart materials. Dr. Plaxco has co-authored numerous patents and more than 180 papers on protein folding, protein dynamics, and folding-based sensors and materials, and is recognized by Thomson Reuters at one of the most highly cited chemists of the prior decade. He serves on the scientific boards of numerous biotechnology firms (several of which are commercializing technologies developed by his group), and has also written a popular science book on Astrobiology.
Presentation title: Counting molecules, dodging blood cells: real-time molecular measurements directly in the living bodyView full abstract
The availability of technologies capable of continuously tracking the levels of drugs, metabolites, and biomarkers in real time in the living body would revolutionize our understanding of health and our ability to detect and treat disease. Imagine, for example, a dosing regime that, rather than relying on your watch (“take two pills twice a day”), is instead guided by second-to-second measurements of plasma drug levels wirelessly communicated to your smartphone. Such a technology would likewise provide clinicians an unprecedented real-time molecular window into organ function and could even support ultra-high-precision personalized medicine in which drugs are dosed using closed-loop feedback control. Towards this goal, my group has pioneered the development of a “biology-inspired” electrochemical sensor platform that supports the real-time measurement of specific molecules (irrespective of their chemical reactivity) in situ in the bodies of awake, freely moving subjects.
Professor John Rogers
Northwestern University, USA
Professor John A. Rogers obtained BA and BS degrees in chemistry and in physics from the University of Texas, Austin, in 1989. From MIT, he received SM degrees in physics and in chemistry in 1992 and the PhD degree in physical chemistry in 1995.
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Following appointments at Harvard University (Junior Fellow), Bell Laboratories (Member of Technical Staff and Director) and University of Illinois at Urbana/Champaign (Swanlund Chair Professor), in 2016 he joined Northwestern University as the Simpson/ Querrey Professor of Materials Science and Engineering, Biomedical Engineering, Mechanical Engineering, Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Chemistry and Neurological Surgery, where he is also the founding Director of the newly endowed Center on Bio-Integrated Electronics.
Rogers’ research has been recognized with many awards including the Lemelson-MIT Prize and a MacArthur Fellowship. He is a member of the National Academy of Engineering, the National Academy of Sciences and the American Academy of Arts and Sciences
Presentation title: Electronic and Microfluidic Sensors for the SkinView full abstract
Recent advances in materials, mechanics and manufacturing establish the foundations for high performance classes of electronics and other microsystems technologies that have physical properties precisely matched those of the human epidermis. The resulting devices can integrate with the skin in a physically imperceptible fashion, to provide continuous, clinical-quality information on physiological status. This talk summarizes the key ideas and presents specific examples in wireless monitoring for neonatal intensive care, and in capture, storage and biomarker analysis of sweat.
Professor Kyu-jin Cho
Seoul National University, Korea
Kyu-Jin Cho received B.S and M.S. degrees from Seoul National University, Seoul, Korea and a Ph.D. degree in mechanical engineering from Massachusetts Institute of Technology. He was a post-doctoral fellow at Harvard Microrobotics Laboratory.
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At present, he is an associate professor of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, the director of Soft Robotics Research Center and the director of Biorobotics Laboratory at Seoul National University. His research interests include biologically inspired robotics, soft robotics, soft wearable devices, novel mechanisms using smart structures, and rehabilitation and assistive robotics. He has been exploring novel soft bio-inspired robot designs, including a water jumping robot, flytrap inspired robot and a soft wearable robot for the hand, called Exo-Glove. The work on the water jumping robot was published in SCIENCE and covered by over 300 news media world-wide. He has received the 2014 IEEE RAS Early Academic Career Award for his fundamental contributions to soft robotics and biologically inspired robot design. He has also received the 2014 ASME Compliant Mechanism Award, 2013 IROS Best Video Award, 2015 KROS Hakbo ART (Assistive Robotic Technology) Award and 2013 KSPE Paik Am Award. The Biorobotics Lab has won the 1st RoboSoft Grand Challenge (April, 2016) sponsored by European Commission with the robot “SNUMAX” in Livorno, Italy.
Presentation title: Soft robotics: A new paradigm for robotics researchView full abstract
Soft robotics is an emerging field of research that uses soft or compliant materials and elements to overcome the limitation of traditional robotics. Traditionally, robots have been used in an industrial environment with few unknown parameters. As more and more robots are used to interact with environments that are uncertain and vulnerable to change, a technology that can easily adapt to the changing environment is needed. Soft robotics deals with this issue by using soft and compliant elements in an intelligent way. In this talk, I will describe several novel robotic systems that uses softness to achieve shape control or stiffness control to provide a safe, lightweight and hopefully low cost solution. The key design principle is embodied intelligence or morphological computation which can reduce the complexity of the system while providing useful functionality.
Watch the following videos related to Kyu-Jin Cho’s lecture:
Jumping on Water: Robotic Water Strider
Exo Glove Poly: Soft wearable robot for the hand
SNUMAX: Multi Functional Soft Robot
Kyu Jin Cho, Director, Soft Robotics Research Center, Biorobotics Laboratory, Seoul National University, Korea