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Proximal Phalanx of Great Toe
Skeletal System

Proximal Phalanx of Great Toe

Phalanx proximalis hallucis

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Quick Facts

Location: Foot.

Bone Type: Long bone.

Key Features: Head, body, base, and proximal and distal articular facets.

Articulates With: First metatarsal bone, distal phalanx of great toe.

Arterial Supply: Dorsal digital arteries of foot.

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Key Features & Anatomical Relations

The proximal phalanx of great toe (hallux or first toe) is one of the fourteen phalangeal bones of the foot. It’s classified as a long bone and includes the following bony features:

- parts: head, body and base;

- landmarks: proximal and distal articular facets.

More information regarding these bony features can be found in the Parts and Landmarks tabs for this bone.

The proximal phalanx of great toe is located:

- distal to the first metatarsal bone;

- proximal to the distal phalanx.

It articulates with the:

- distal phalanx at the interphalangeal joint of the great toe;

- metatarsal bone at the metatarsophalangeal joint.


Ossification of the proximal phalanx of great toe occurs at two ossification centers, these are found in the:

- body, which appears in utero during the third to fourth months;

- base, which appears within the second to third years.

These ossification centers fuse with each other by the 18th year (Standring, 2016).

Surface Anatomy

The head, body, and base of the proximal phalanx can be easily palpated.

List of Clinical Correlates

- Fracture

- Brachyphalangia

- Symphalangia

- Hallux valgus (bunion)

- Turf toe


Standring, S. (2016) Gray's Anatomy: The Anatomical Basis of Clinical Practice. Gray's Anatomy Series 41st edn.: Elsevier Limited.

Learn more about this topic from other Elsevier products

Proximal Phalanx

ScienceDirect image

Based on the second proximal phalanx, it was possible to make a further comparison between the antemortem radiograph and the postmortem material, specifically an X-ray and a photograph of the bone.

Explore on ScienceDirect(opens in new tab/window)

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