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Inferior Trunk of Brachial Plexus
Nervous System

Inferior Trunk of Brachial Plexus

Truncus inferior plexus brachialis

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Quick Facts

Origin: C8 and T1 roots of the brachial plexus.

Course: In the neck, running laterally between the anterior and middle scalene muscles, through the posterior triangle towards the clavicle.

Branches: Anterior division of the inferior trunk, posterior division of the inferior trunk.

Supply: Sensory and motor innervation. Supplies the nerves branching off the medial cord, as well as the thoracodorsal and radial nerves of the posterior cord. Sensory to the posterior arm, forearm, and entire hand. Motor to the triceps brachii, and all the muscles of the forearm and hand. Motor to the latissimus dorsi.

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Origin

The inferior trunk of the brachial plexus originates as the merger of the eighth cervical and first thoracic roots of the brachial plexus.

Course

The inferior trunk of the brachial plexus originates in the neck, lateral to the upper thoracic vertebrae, roughly where the plexus reaches the scalene muscles. It runs laterally passing between the anterior and middle scalene muscles and into the posterior triangle of the neck. The inferior trunk continues posterior and inferior to the inferior belly of the omohyoid muscle. The middle trunk ends roughly at the midclavicular line, posterior to the clavicle where it splits into divisions.

Branches

The inferior trunk of the brachial plexus does not give rise to any nerves.

The inferior trunk ends when it splits into the anterior and posterior divisions of the inferior trunk. These contribute to the medial and posterior cords and the nerves that arise from them.

Supplied Structures

The inferior trunk supplies both sensory and motor innervation.

Targets are indirect as the fibers of the inferior trunk first pass through anterior and posterior divisions, then into medial and posterior cords, respectively, before traveling out through nerves and terminal branches to their target tissues.

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Brachial Plexus

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Destruction of the brachial plexus is indicated for the palliation of cancer pain, including invasive tumors of the distal brachial plexus and tumors of the soft tissue and bone of the upper extremity.

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