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Fourth Layer of Muscles of Plantar Part of Foot (Left)
Muscular System

Fourth Layer of Muscles of Plantar Part of Foot (Left)

Lamina quarta musculorum partis plantaris pedis

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Description

The fourth layer is the deepest of the four muscle layers of the plantar part of the foot. Overall, the muscles in this layer act to:

- abduct and adduct the second, third, fourth and little toes at their metatarsophalangeal joints;

- simultaneously flex the metatarsophalangeal joints and extend the interphalangeal joints of the second, third, fourth and little toes.

For classification purposes, the fourth layer of muscles of the plantar part of the foot is divided into two distinct groups:

- dorsal interossei muscles of foot;

- plantar interossei muscles.

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Foot Muscle

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In fact, atrophy of foot muscles is even observed in patients without clinical signs of DSPN, underlining the presence of motor changes in DSPN well in advance of clinical findings and complaints [85].

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