Escapism: A powerful predictor of internet gaming disorder among video gamers

When intense immersion in video gaming is motivated by avoidant behavior, both professional (esport) and recreational gamers run the risk of developing gaming disorder

Philadelphia, October 22, 2019

A new study in Comprehensive Psychiatry, published by Elsevier, is the first to compare professional electronic sport (esport) players with recreational video game players and explores the similarities and differences between what motivates each group. While the two groups are psychosocially different, they found that both esport and recreational gamers run the risk of developing internet gaming disorder when their intense immersion in the activity is tied to escapism.

“Previous research has linked escapism to psychiatric distress and gaming disorder in recreational gamers. While esport gamers have many positive motivators like skill development, our study found that excessive immersion by some individuals can indicate mental health issues,” explained investigator Zsolt Demetrovics, PhD, Institute of Psychology, ELTE Eötvös Loránd University, Budapest, Hungary.

Internet gaming disorder (IGD) is described by leading classification manuals (DSM-5 and ICD-11) as severe behavior patterns that significantly impair personal, family, social, educational, and occupational functioning. Although the condition affects only a minority of gamers, it is associated with depression, anxiety, and social anxiety. Gaming motivations have also been found to predict gaming disorder, especially the incidence of escapism when gamers play video games to avoid real life problems.

The present study demonstrated a number of novel findings which can help move the field forward and suggests a number of practical and policy implications.

The investigators surveyed close to 4,300 recreational and esport gamers to gather data about game time, gaming motivations, presence and severity of gaming disorder, and psychiatric symptoms. Additionally, the mediating effect of gaming motivations among esport and recreational gamers between psychiatric distress and problematic gaming was examined.

Their findings revealed that esport gamers spent significantly more time playing video games both on weekdays and weekends than recreational gamers. Esport gamers scored higher on social, competition, and skill development gaming motivations than recreational gamers. In both groups, escapism appeared to be the common predictor of gaming disorder. In the esport group, escapism was the only motivation that had mediating effect, while in the recreational group, competition, fantasy, and coping also showed weak or even negative association with gaming disorder.

The way in which both esport gamers and recreational gamers escape from reality into virtual worlds may be the result of different mechanisms and psychological backgrounds. In some pro players mental health status (stress level, psychosocial well-being, self-esteem) can modify the effect of escapism in the development of gaming disorder.

“Escapism can cause negative outcomes and interfere with an esport gamer's career just like any sportsman's career could end with a physical injury or trauma,” noted Professor Demetrovics. “Future studies should focus on exploring escapism's mechanism in different subgroups of gamers in relation to problematic gaming to help the development of prevention, intervention, and treatment programs. Recognizing their risks can lead to increased support methods, such as mental training, optimal self-esteem and adaptive coping strategies for competitive situations.”

Further, the results suggest that some esport players might be addicted to gaming like professional poker players being addicted to gambling or professional athletes being addicted to exercise.

The results of this study have implications for esports governing bodies. The investigators contend that there is arguably a duty of care for professional esport bodies to ensure that the individuals who engage in the sport, and subsequently develop problems, get help, support, and treatment if they need it.

“While esports bodies like the Electronic Sports League have developed rigorous guidelines around the use of performance enhancing drugs, based on our findings they should also develop a code of conduct that includes guidance and diagnostic checklists concerning problematic gaming and gaming disorder,” advised Professor Demetrovics.

The number of competitive gamers playing professionally has increased steadily since the early 2000s, and they are predominantly male. Esport gamers develop and train their mental and hand-eye coordination skills while using game-based information-communication technology. According to a recent online survey, esport is a popular career option among adolescents and young adults (below 24 years).


Notes for editors
The article is The mediating effect of motivations between psychiatric distress and gaming disorder among esport gamers and recreational gamers,”by Fanni Bányai, Mark D. Griffiths, Zsolt Demetrovics, and Orsolya Király, ( It appears in the Comprehensive Psychiatry, volume 94, (October 2019) published by Elsevier.

The article is openly available by clicking the above DOI link.

This study was supported by the Hungarian National Research, Development and Innovation Office; ÚNKP New National Excellence Program of the Ministry of Human Capacities; János Bolyai Research Scholarship of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences; and Hungarian Ministry of Human Capacities.

Full text of the article is available to credentialed journalists upon request. Contact Eileen Leahy at +1 732 238 3628or to obtain copies. Journalists wishing to speak to the authors should contact Zsolt Demetrovics at

About Comprehensive Psychiatry
Comprehensive Psychiatry
is an open access, peer-reviewed journal that publishes on all aspects of psychiatry and mental health with a mission to disseminate cutting-edge knowledge in order to improve patient care and advance the understanding of mental illness. The Journal aims to publish high quality papers with a particular emphasis on the clinical implications of the work including an improved understanding of psychopathology.

About Elsevier
Elsevier is a global information analytics business that helps scientists and clinicians to find new answers, reshape human knowledge, and tackle the most urgent human crises. For 140 years, we have partnered with the research world to curate and verify scientific knowledge. Today, we’re committed to bringing that rigor to a new generation of platforms. Elsevier provides digital solutions and tools in the areas of strategic research management, R&D performance, clinical decision support, and professional education; including ScienceDirect, Scopus, SciVal, ClinicalKey and Sherpath. Elsevier publishes over 2,500 digitized journals, including The Lancet and Cell, 39,000 e-book titles and many iconic reference works, including Gray's Anatomy. Elsevier is part of RELX, a global provider of information-based analytics and decision tools for professional and business customers.

Media contact
Eileen Leahy
+1 732 238 3628