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Anterior Root of Tenth Thoracic Nerve (Right)
Nervous System

Anterior Root of Tenth Thoracic Nerve (Right)

Radix anterior nervi thoracici decimi

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Quick Facts

Origin: Anterolateral sulcus of spinal cord.

Course: Laterally towards intervertebral foramen.

Branches: None.

Supply: Motor innervation to epaxial muscles of mid trunk, intercostal muscles of tenth intercostal space, and abdominal muscles. Sympathetic targets in the abdomen and territories of tenth thoracic nerve.

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Origin

The anterior root of the tenth thoracic nerve forms from a series of rootlets that emerge from the anterolateral sulcus of the tenth thoracic spinal segment.

Course

The anterior root of the tenth thoracic nerve runs laterally and inferiorly away from the tenth thoracic spinal segment towards the intervertebral foramen located between the tenth and eleventh thoracic vertebrae. Roughly within this intervertebral foramen, the anterior root merges with the posterior root to form the tenth thoracic nerve.

Branches

The anterior root of the tenth thoracic nerve merges with the posterior root to form the tenth thoracic nerve and does so without branching.

Supplied Structures & Function

The anterior root of the tenth thoracic nerve supplies all efferents for the tenth thoracic s nerve, both somatic and sympathetic.

The somatic efferents pass through the spinal nerve itself and into either the posterior ramus or the anterior ramus of the tenth thoracic nerve.

—Those fibers that enter the posterior ramus convey motor innervation to the epaxial muscles, including the erector spinae (iliocostalis, longissimus, spinalis), transversospinal (rotatores, multifidus, semispinalis), and deep segmental back muscles (interspinales, levatores costarum).

—Those fibers that enter the anterior ramus of the tenth thoracic nerve (or tenth intercostal nerve) innervate the muscles of the tenth intercostal space (external intercostal, internal intercostal, innermost intercostal) and the subcostal muscles. A lateral branch of the intercostal nerve will innervate the serratus posterior inferior muscle. Additionally, efferents in the tenth intercostal nerve continue anteriorly to innervate most of the abdominal muscles (rectus abdominis, external abdominal oblique, internal abdominal oblique, and transversus abdominis).

Preganglionic sympathetic efferents travel from the lateral horn of the tenth thoracic spinal cord segment, through the anterior root, and into the tenth thoracic nerve. Just past the intervertebral foramen, sympathetic efferents leave the thoracic nerve via the white rami communicans to enter the sympathetic chain. The preganglionic sympathetic efferents of the tenth thoracic anterior root primarily affect sympathetic innervation of the abdomen via the lesser splanchnic nerve. In particular, they target the midgut, adrenal gland, and kidney. Additionally, they control the sympathetic response in the glands and vessels of the lower thoracic dermatomes.

Learn more about this topic from other Elsevier products

Thoracic Nerves

ScienceDirect image

The 12th thoracic nerve is called the subcostal nerve and is unique in that it gives off a branch to the first lumbar nerve, thus contributing to the lumbar plexus.

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