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Short Head of Biceps Brachii
Muscular System

Short Head of Biceps Brachii

Caput breve musculi bicipitis brachii

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Quick Facts

Origin: Apex of coracoid process of scapula.

Insertion: Radial tuberosity and antebrachial fascia.

Action: Supinates forearm; flexes forearm at elbow joint, most effectively when the forearm is supinated.

Innervation: Musculocutaneous nerve (C5-C6).

Arterial Supply: Brachial and anterior circumflex humeral arteries.

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Origin

The short head of biceps brachii muscle originates, via a short flat tendon, from the apex of the coracoid process of scapula. This origin site is located anterosuperior to the origin site of the coracobrachialis muscle.

Insertion

The muscle bellies of the long and short heads of biceps brachii travel inferiorly and converge to a single biceps brachii tendon, which inserts onto the radial tuberosity of the radius. This tendon gives off a flat tendinous expansion, known as the bicipital aponeurosis, which travels inferomedially to attach to the antebrachial fascia.

Key Features & Anatomical Relations

The biceps brachii muscle is found in the anterior compartment of the arm. It is a fusiform type of skeletal muscle and is composed of two heads:

- laterally located long head;

- medially located short head.

In some individuals, there is a third head of biceps brachii muscle, which arises from the brachialis muscle and attaches to the medial side of the tendon of biceps brachii and the bicipital aponeurosis.

The biceps brachii muscle is located:

- anterior (superficial) to the brachialis muscle and the musculocutaneous nerve;

- posterior (deep) to the brachial fascia and the pectoralis major muscle;

- medial to the cephalic vein;

- lateral to the coracobrachialis muscle, brachial artery, basilic vein, and the median nerve.

Regarding the short head of biceps brachii specifically, it travels vertically, from its origin, through the axilla and into the arm, where its muscle fibers unite with the long head.

Actions & Testing

The biceps brachii muscle is involved in multiple actions:

- supinates the forearm at the radioulnar joints;

- flexes the forearm at the elbow joint, most strongly when the forearm is in the supinated position;

- assists in flexion of the arm at the glenohumeral (shoulder) joint.

The biceps brachii muscle can be tested by placing the forearm in the supinated position and flexing the forearm at the elbow joint against resistance, during which it can be palpated (Standring, 2016).

References

Standring, S. (2016) Gray's Anatomy: The Anatomical Basis of Clinical Practice. Gray's Anatomy Series 41st edn.: Elsevier Limited.

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Biceps Brachii Muscle

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Locate the biceps brachii muscle through slight external rotation;

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