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Parietal Peritoneum
Digestive System

Parietal Peritoneum

Peritoneum parietale

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Structure

The peritoneum is a complex, continuous serous membrane consisting of a layer of mesothelium and varying degrees of connective and adipose tissue. Visually, it’s largely unremarkable, smooth, and has a lubricated surface due to the presence of peritoneal fluid.

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Anatomical Relations

The parietal peritoneum is named in relation to wall which it is attached to, including the diaphragmatic, anterolateral, posterior and pelvic parts.

The parietal peritoneum shares the same neurovascular supply (somatic) as the adjacent wall to which it’s adhered, thus making it different than the supply of the visceral peritoneum (Standring, 2016).

Function

The peritoneum secretes peritoneal fluid which helps lubricate viscera within the abdominal and pelvic cavities, reducing friction between organs. This is especially true for dynamic organs involved in peristalsis or those that distend due to changes of volume, such as the bladder. Secondly, the peritoneum aids in the immune response as the peritoneal fluid contains various immune cells. The peritoneal fluid actively flows around the peritoneal cavity and is eventually absorbed by lymphatics. The peritoneum, like other tissues, responds to trauma and inflammation, thus helping to protect the viscera (Moore, Dalley and Agur, 2013).

List of Clinical Correlates

- Peritonitis

- Ascites

- Adhesions

References

Moore, K. L., Dalley, A. F. and Agur, A. M. R. (2013) Clinically Oriented Anatomy. Clinically Oriented Anatomy 7th edn.: Wolters Kluwer Health/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Standring, S. (2016) Gray's Anatomy: The Anatomical Basis of Clinical Practice., 41st edition. Elsevier Limited.

Learn more about this topic from other Elsevier products

Parietal Peritoneum: What is it, Organs it Covers, and More

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The parietal peritoneum refers to the outer layer of the peritoneum, which covers the abdomen and pelvic walls as well as the diaphragm

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