Seabird Ammonia Emissions Contribute to Atmospheric Acidity

Nesting Behavior Study reveals effects of biodiversity loss and climate change

Amsterdam, September 23, 2008 – Ammonia emissions from seabirds have been shown to be a significant source of nitrogen in remote coastal ecosystems, contributing to nutrient enrichment (eutrophication) and acidification in ecosystems. While most ammonia emissions originate from domesticated animals such as poultry and pigs, seabirds are the most significant emitters of ammonia to the atmosphere in remote regions.

A recent study, “Temporal variation in atmospheric ammonia concentrations above seabird colonies”, published in Atmospheric Environment, has shown how emissions may vary between seabird species, with a higher proportion of ammonia volatilized from bare ground nesting birds compared to burrow nesters. Seabird populations are fluctuating, with some species increasing as others undergo dramatic declines. This has a significant effect on seabird-mediated marine to terrestrial nutrient flow—and atmospheric acidification.

Lead author, Dr.Trevor Blackall believes that the "results presented in this paper will help scientists to predict the likely changing contributions of seabirds to atmospheric emissions of ammonia.” According to Dr Blackall, “the findings will help further understanding of the effects of biodiversity loss and climate change on ecosystem function."

According to Chief Editor Peter Brimblecombe, this study is “fascinating in the context that birds excrete uric acid unlike mammals, where excreted urea is readily converted to ammonia. Ammonia is the only major alkaline gas in the atmosphere and has a major effect on atmospheric acidity. This work uncovers a potentially large biological source of ammonia.”

“The results should be of interest not only to scientists, but to the wider public, in particular people with ornithological interests,” emphasized Elsevier publisher Friso Veenstra, “And climate change is of concern to us all.”

# # #

Notes to editors:
T.D. Blackall, L.J. Wilson, J. Bull, M.R. Theobald, P.J. Bacon, K.C. Hamer, S. Wanless and M.A. Sutton, Temporal variation in atmospheric ammonia concentrations above seabird colonies, 2008, Atmospheric Environment, published by Elsevier, In press (available on-line 16 July, 2008). To receive a copy of the article, please contact the press office at

About Atmospheric Environment
Atmospheric Environment covers air pollution research and its applications. Papers present novel results based on experiments, theory and modelling of the atmosphere extending from the scale of buildings and streets to the globe. The main aim of Atmospheric Environment is to provide a scientific understanding of the consequences of natural and human-induced perturbations of the earth's atmosphere. Areas covered include air pollution research and its applications, air quality and its effects, dispersion and transport, deposition, biospheric- atmospheric exchange, atmospheric chemistry and induced changes in radiation and climate. Atmospheric Environment publishes original research and review articles, special issues and supplements, and New Directions columns.

About Elsevier
Elsevier is a global information analytics company that helps institutions and professionals progress science, advance healthcare and improve performance for the benefit of humanity. Elsevier provides digital solutions and tools in the areas of strategic research management, R&D performance, clinical decision support, and professional education; including ScienceDirect, Scopus, ClinicalKey and Sherpath. Elsevier publishes over 2,500 digitized journals, including The Lancet and Cell, more than 35,000 e-book titles and many iconic reference works, including Gray's Anatomy. Elsevier is part of RELX Group, a global provider of information and analytics for professionals and business customers across industries.

Media Contact:
Carolien van der Zanden
Phone: +31 20 485 3346