One in three US Veteran firearm owners keeps a gun loaded and unlocked

These unsafe practices are more prevalent among those who cite safety as the primary reason for gun ownership and contribute to heightened suicide risk, according to the American Journal of Preventive Medicine

Ann Arbor, August 27, 2018

One third of United States Armed Forces Veterans store at least one firearm loaded with ammunition and unlocked, according to a new study published in the American Journal of Preventive Medicine that reports on the first survey of a nationally representative sample of this group regarding storage practices. Unsafe firearm storage practices appeared to be strongly related to perceptions about the need to keep firearms for protection. This easy access to lethal means increases suicide risk in an already vulnerable population.

“We know that nearly half of all US Veterans have firearms, and like many non-Veteran adults, it is common for them to store at least one gun loaded and unlocked. The challenge we uncovered, although I think we already suspected this, is that firearm safety practices are strongly related to whether individuals keep their firearms for protection,” explained lead investigator Joseph A. Simonetti, MD, MPH, Assistant Professor at the University of Colorado School of Medicine, Denver, CO, USA. “We recommend that VA providers work on communication strategies to enable Veterans to make informed decisions about firearm safety by balancing the perceived benefits of firearm access against the thoroughly demonstrated risks of that access for those with elevated suicide risk.”

The survey was completed by 3,949 US adults, of whom 561 were US Veterans who own firearms. The prevalence of unsafe firearm storage ranges substantially within the group surveyed, from 9 percent to 65 percent, across individual, household, and firearm ownership characteristics, and is strongly related to other firearm-related behaviors (e.g., carrying handguns), reasons for firearm ownership (e.g., protection versus other), number of firearms owned, and perceptions about the utility of guns stored safely and whether guns make homes safer.

Approximately one in three of the US Veterans who own firearms reported storing at least one of their firearms loaded and unlocked while 22.5 percent stored all of their firearms unloaded and locked. Sixty-six percent of Veteran firearm owners stored at least one firearm unlocked, and 46.7 percent stored at least one loaded.

Storing a firearm loaded and unlocked was more common among Veteran firearm owners who:

  • Disagreed that firearms should be stored unloaded and locked when not in use
  • Agreed that firearms are not useful for personal protection if the owner has to take time to load or unlock them
  • Agreed that having a firearm in the home makes the household safer

This data was also analyzed by gender, presence of children in the household, urban vs. rural setting, service era, type of firearm and permit, and storage approach and location.

“This information would be informative for the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) initiatives aiming to address the high burden of suicide among all Veterans, including those not receiving VHA healthcare,” said Dr. Simonetti.

With Veterans accounting for nearly one in five adult suicides and two of every three Veteran suicides firearm-related, the study has important implications for the VHA. Suicide prevention is a leading clinical priority within the VHA and reducing access to common and highly lethal methods of suicide is considered essential to preventing suicide. Therefore, the VHA is expanding its efforts to promote firearm safety by developing materials to support lethal-means safety counseling by VHA providers and by distributing firearm-locking mechanisms to at-risk patients.

Previous studies had not comprehensively described firearm storage practices among a nationally representative sample of the overall or VHA-enrolled Veteran population. Studies assessing firearm-related risk perceptions in the general population have shown that only 6 percent of firearm owners agree that household firearms increase suicide risk, and that the intensity of such beliefs, along with reasons for ownership, are related to how firearms are stored. How these beliefs relate to storage practices has not been assessed among Veterans.


Notes for editors
The article is “Firearm Storage Practices Among American Veterans,” by Joseph A. Simonetti, MD, MPH, Deborah Azrael, PhD, Ali Rowhani-Rahbar, MD, MPH, PhD, and Matthew Miller, MD, ScD ( It appears in advance of the American Journal of Preventive Medicine, volume 55, issue 4 (October 2018) published by Elsevier.

Full text of this article is available to credentialed journalists upon request; contact Jillian B. Morgan at +1 734 936 1590 or Journalists who wish to interview the authors should contact Joseph Simonetti, MD, MPH, Assistant Professor, Division of Hospital Medicine, University of Colorado School of Medicine, at

The survey was supported by the Fund for a Safer Future and the Joyce Foundation.

About the American Journal of Preventive Medicine
The American Journal of Preventive Medicine is the official journal of the American College of Preventive Medicine and the Association for Prevention Teaching and Research. It publishes articles in the areas of prevention research, teaching, practice and policy. Original research is published on interventions aimed at the prevention of chronic and acute disease and the promotion of individual and community health. The journal features papers that address the primary and secondary prevention of important clinical, behavioral and public health issues such as injury and violence, infectious disease, women's health, smoking, sedentary behaviors and physical activity, nutrition, diabetes, obesity, and alcohol and drug abuse. Papers also address educational initiatives aimed at improving the ability of health professionals to provide effective clinical prevention and public health services. The journal also publishes official policy statements from the two co-sponsoring organizations, health services research pertinent to prevention and public health, review articles, media reviews, and editorials.

About Elsevier
Elsevier is a global information analytics business that helps scientists and clinicians to find new answers, reshape human knowledge, and tackle the most urgent human crises. For 140 years, we have partnered with the research world to curate and verify scientific knowledge. Today, we’re committed to bringing that rigor to a new generation of platforms. Elsevier provides digital solutions and tools in the areas of strategic research management, R&D performance, clinical decision support, and professional education; including ScienceDirect, Scopus, SciVal, ClinicalKey and Sherpath. Elsevier publishes over 2,500 digitized journals, including The Lancet and Cell, 39,000 e-book titles and many iconic reference works, including Gray's Anatomy. Elsevier is part of RELX, a global provider of information-based analytics and decision tools for professional and business customers.

Media contact
Jillian B. Morgan, MPH, Managing Editor
+1 734 936 1590