International Journal of Infectious Diseases Marks World TB Day 2015 With Publication of Special Issue

London, United Kingdom, March 24, 2015

To mark World TB Day, March 24, 2015, the International Journal of Infectious Diseases is publishing a Special Issue that will help raise awareness about the burden of tuberculosis and present a collection of articles by some of the world’s most noted researchers and clinicians. The articles present recent successes and future challenges in the quest to eliminate TB from the planet.

March 24th is the day in 1882 when Professor Robert Koch announced his discovery of the cause of TB, Mycobacterium tuberculosis. One hundred and thirty-three years later, despite an effective cure available for the past half century, TB continues to plague humankind and remains one of the most common causes of death from an infectious disease worldwide, with more than 1.5 million people dying from TB each year.

“Over the past three decades, HIV/AIDS has attracted enormous investment in developing new drugs and decentralized models of care to turn the tide. Malaria has also mobilized huge financial resources with the distribution of cheap and effective impregnated bed nets, but investments into TB have sadly lagged behind!” commented Chief Guest Editors of the issue, Professor Alimuddin Zumla, GCDS, FRCP, FRCPath PhD, FSB, University College London, and NIHR BRC at University College Hospital, London, United Kingdom, and Professor Eskild Petersen, MD, DMSc, DTM&H, MBA, Aarhus University and Arhuas University Hospital, Skejby, Aarhus, Denmark.

Professors Zumla and Petersen have assembled a comprehensive survey of the current state of TB research and treatment. Articles cover the latest developments in vaccines and treatments. Epidemiological studies of regions as large as sub-Saharan Africa and populations as small as prison inmates are presented. As TB itself is evolving into more ominous drug-resistant varieties, several reports address Multi-Drug-Resistant TB (MDR-TB) and Extensively Drug- Resistant TB (XDR-TB), responsible for an estimated 480,000 new cases in 2013 alone.

A vaccine for preventing TB in children has been long available, but it has proven to be of limited effectiveness in older children and adults. Several contributions discuss new vaccines in various stages of clinical trials, recombinant and booster vaccines, repurposed drugs, and cellular therapies using the patient’s own bone marrow. Immunotherapies and some of the complications from such therapies are also covered.

Even surgery can be used as a treatment, particularly for damaged lungs due to MDR-TB and XDR-TB strains. Other articles concentrate on diagnostic techniques as keys to preventing epidemics such as Computed Tomography (CT), Positron Emission Tomography (PET) and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) scans, while recognizing that in much of the world, these modalities might be unavailable.

Zumla and Petersen hope that this year’s World TB Day will continue to inspire action. “WHO estimates that there are three million men, women, and children globally with active TB who are currently being missed by health services. Most of these three million people live in the world’s poorest countries and include the most vulnerable members of the community. To reach the three million we need to aggressively scale up political, funder, and governmental commitment to ensure universal access to TB care for all. In 2014, the World Health Assembly endorsed the ‘Global Strategy and Targets for Tuberculosis Prevention, Care, and Control after 2015,’ which aims to eliminate TB as a public health threat by 2035. An ambitious target that can be achieved if TB is made a priority by governments and donors, and backed up with increased investment and bold new public health approaches.”

Fiona Macnab, Executive Publisher at Elsevier, along with Professor Peterson, Editor-in-Chief of the International Journal of Infectious Diseases, are pleased to be publishing such a significant contribution to the world’s scientific literature devoted to TB on World TB Day 2015.

The issue is publicly available at The issue is also featured as part of a multi-journal virtual special issue published by Elsevier to commemorate World TB Day 2015, which is located at


Notes for Editors
International Journal of Infectious Diseases Volume 32 (March 2015)
Special Issue: Commemorating World Tuberculosis Day 2015
Openly available at

Full text of the articles is available to credentialed journalists upon request. Contact Rosanna Diogini at +44 207 424 4928or to obtain copies. Journalists wishing to set up interviews with the Guest Editors or authors should contact Harry Dayantis, Media Relations Manager, UCL Press Office, at +44 20 3108 3844 (Int: 53844) or

Chief Guest Editors
Professor Alimuddin Zumla, GCDS, FRCP, FRCPath PhD, FSB, University College London, and NIHR BRC at University College Hospital, London, United Kingdom

Professor Eskild Petersen, MD, DMSc, DTM&H, MBA, Aarhus University and Arhuas University Hospital, Skejby, Aarhus, Denmark

Co-Guest Editors
Professor Markus Maeurer, MD, PhD, FRCP, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
Professor Ben Marais, MD, PhD, FCP, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia
Professor Timothy D. McHugh, PhD, University College London, London, United Kingdom
Dr. Jeremiah Muhwa Chakaya, MD, PhD, Kenya Medical Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya
Dr. Marc Lipman, MD, FRCP, Royal Free London NHS Foundation Trust, and University College London, London, United Kingdom
Dr. Christian Wejse, MD, PhD, Aarhus University Hospital and Aarhus University, Skejby, Denmark

Table of Contents:
Commemorating World Tuberculosis Day 2015
A. Zumla, M. Maeurer, B. Marais, J. Chakaya, C. Wejse, M. Lipman, T.D. McHugh and E. Petersen 

Tuberculosis Vaccines – state of the art, and novel approaches to vaccine development
C. da Costa, B. Walker and A. Bonavia

Mycobacterium tuberculosis-specific and MHC class I-restricted CD8+ T-cells exhibit a stem cell precursor-like phenotype in patients with active pulmonary tuberculosis
R. Axelsson-Robertson, J.H. Ju, H.-Y. Kim, A. Zumla and M. Maeurer

Frequency of Mycobacterium tuberculosis-specific CD8+ T-cells in the course of anti-tuberculosis treatment
R. Axelsson-Robertson, M. Rao, A.G. Loxton, G. Walzl, M. Bates, A. Zumla and M. Maeurer

Host-directed therapies for tuberculous pericarditis
A. Zumla, M. Maeurer, G. Moll and B.M. Mayosi

Cellular therapy in Tuberculosis
S.K. Parida, R. Madansein, N. Singh, N. Padayatchi, I. Master, K. Naidu, A. Zumla and M. Maeurer

Paradoxical reactions and immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome in tuberculosis
L.C.K. Bell, R. Breen, R.F. Miller, M. Noursadeghi and M. Lipman

Tackling the Tuberculosis Epidemic in sub-Saharan Africa – unique opportunities arising from the second European Developing Countries Clinical Trials Partnership (EDCTP) programme 2015-2024
A. Zumla, E. Petersen, T. Nyirenda and J. Chakaya

Repurposing—a ray of hope in tackling extensively drug resistance in tuberculosis
A. Maitra, S. Bates, T. Kolvekar, P.V. Devarajan, J.D. Guzman and S. Bhakta

Access to new medications for the treatment of drug-resistant tuberculosis: Patient, provider and community perspectives

E. Lessem, H. Cox, C. Daniels, J. Furin, L. McKenna, C.D. Mitnick, T. Mosidi, C. Reed, B. Seaworth, J. Stillo, P. Tisile and D. von Delft

Surgical Treatment of Complications of Pulmonary Tuberculosis, including Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis
R. Madansein, S. Parida, N. Padayatchi, N. Singh, I. Master, K. Naidu, A. Zumla and M. Maeurer

Health status and quality of life in tuberculosis
J. Brown, S. Capocci, C. Smith, S. Morris, I. Abubakar and M. Lipman

Understanding anti-tuberculosis drug efficacy: rethinking bacterial populations and how we model them
D. Evangelopoulos, J.D. da Fonseca and S.J. Waddell

New tuberculosis diagnostics and rollout
R. McNerney, J. Cunningham, P. Hepple and A. Zumla

Imaging in tuberculosis
E. Skoura, A. Zumla and J. Bomanji

The complex evolution of antibiotic resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis
J.D. Fonseca, G.M. Knight and T.D. McHugh

Therapeutic drug monitoring: how to improve drug dosage and patient safety in tuberculosis treatment
G. Sotgiu, J.C. Alffenaar, R. Centis, L. D’Ambrosio, A. Spanevello, A. Piana and G.B. Migliori

The social context of tuberculosis treatment in urban risk groups in the United Kingdom: a qualitative interview study
G.M. Craig and A. Zumla

Tuberculosis control in prisons: current situation and research gaps
M. Dara, C.D. Acosta, N.V.S.V. Melchers, H.A.A. Al-Darraji, D. Chorgoliani, H. Reyes, R. Centis, G. Sotgiu, L. D’Ambrosio, S.S. Chadha and G.B. Migliori

Fluoroquinolone-resistant tuberculosis: implications in settings with weak healthcare systems
K. Jabeen, S. Shakoor and R. Hasan

Perspectives on tuberculosis in pregnancy
M. Bates, Y. Ahmed, N. Kapata, M. Maeurer, P. Mwaba and A. Zumla

Impact of HIV-1, HIV-2, and HIV-1+2 dual infection on the outcome of tuberculosis
C. Wejse, C.B. Patsche, A. Kühle, F.J.V. Bamba, M.S. Mendes, G. Lemvik, V.F. Gomes and F. Rudolf

Tuberculosis among older adults – time to take notice
J. Negin, S. Abimbola and B.J. Marais

Tuberculosis and chronic respiratory disease: a systematic review
A.L. Byrne, B.J. Marais, C.D. Mitnick, L. Lecca and G.B. Marks

Why healthcare workers are sick of TB
A. von Delft, A. Dramowski, C. Khosa, K. Kotze, P. Lederer, T. Mosidi, J.A. Peters, J. Smith, H.-M. van der Westhuizen, D. von Delft, B. Willems, M. Bates, G. Craig, M. Maeurer, B.J. Marais, P. Mwaba, E.A. Nunes, T. Nyirenda, M. Oliver and A. Zumla 

Tuberculosis elimination in the post Millennium Development Goals era
C. Wejse

Supporting clinical management of the difficult-to-treat TB cases: the ERS-WHO TB Consilium
L. D’Ambrosio, M. Tadolini, R. Centis, R. Duarte, G. Sotgiu, S. Aliberti, M. Dara and G.B. Migliori

Western Pacifi c Regional Green Light Committee: progress and way forward
T. Islam, B.J. Marais, N.V. Nhung, C.-Y. Chiang, W.W. Yew, T. Yoshiyama, N.R. Mira, J. van den Broek, R. Lumb, N. Nishikiori and L.B. Reichman

Regional initiatives to address the challenges of tuberculosis in children: perspectives from the Asia-Pacific region
S.M. Graham, M. Grzemska, A. Brands, H. Nguyen, J. Amini, R. Triasih, K. Talukder, S. Ahmed, F. Amanullah, B. Kumar, P. Tufail, A. Detjen, B. Marais, C. Hennig and T. Islam

Tuberculosis and HIV co-infection—focus on the Asia-Pacific region
Q.M. Trinh, H.L. Nguyen, V.N. Nguyen, T.V.A. Nguyen, V. Sintchenko and B.J. Marais 

The History of Tuberculosis Management in Sweden
H. Wallstedt and M. Maeurer

The economic burden of Tuberculosis in Denmark 1998-2010. Cost analysis in patients and their spouses
A. Fløe, O. Hilberg, C. Wejse, A. Løkke, R. Ibsen, J. Kjellberg and P. Jennum

Lessons for Tuberculosis from scrutiny of HIV/AIDS and Malaria UK Parliamentary Questions
M. Oliver, G.M. Craig and A. Zumla

About the Journal of Infectious Diseases
The International Journal of Infectious Diseases (IJID) is published by the International Society for Infectious Diseases ( IJID is a peer-reviewed, open access journal and publishes original clinical and laboratory-based research, together with reports of clinical trials, reviews, and some case reports dealing with the epidemiology, clinical diagnosis, treatment, and control of infectious diseases with particular emphasis placed on those diseases that are most common in under-resourced countries.

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