Strictly necessary cookies: These cookies are essential in order to enable you to move around the website and use its features, such as accessing secure areas of the website. For example, authentication and security cookies are used to identify and recognize registered users and to enable them to gain access to requested content or features. Without these cookies, services you have asked for cannot be provided.
Functionality cookies: These cookies allow our websites to remember the choices you make and your account preferences and to provide enhanced, more personal features. For example, these cookies will remember your log-in details.
Performance cookies: These are analytics and research cookies that allow us to collect information about how visitors use a website, for instance which pages visitors go to most often, and if they get error messages from web pages. This helps us to improve the way the website works and allows us to test different ideas on the site.
Targeting cookies: These cookies record your visit to the website, the pages you have visited and the links you have followed. We will use this information to make the website and the advertising displayed on it more relevant to your interests. We may also share this information with third parties for this purpose.
The table below explains performance and targeting cookies from our suppliers and their purpose. Please note that the cookies and other technologies may change over time.
Google Analytics with Display Advertising, Google Remarketing and Google DoubleClick
These web analytics cookies, provided by Google Inc., are used to collect information about how visitors use our site. We use the information to compile reports and to help us improve the site. In addition, we use first-party cookies (such as the Google Analytics cookie) and third-party cookies (such as the Google DoubleClick cookie) together to inform, optimize and serve ads based on someone's past visits to our website and report how ad impressions, other uses of ad services and interactions with these ad impressions and ad services are related to visits to our site.
Adobe Analytics and Adobe Audience Manager
These cookies, provided by Adobe System Inc., are used to provide an A/B testing framework that helps us to experiment with new features on our site and analyze how those features are performing. It may also be used to personalize your web experience.
LinkedIn Inc and Slideshare
These cookies, provided by LinkedIn Inc, allow serving users with relevant & targeted ads through the social network. Cookies collect usage and conversion type of information.
Inspectlet monitors site's visitors in real-time and relays this information back to the servers, where it's compiled and presented. Sensitive information obtained is anonymized and only a portion of visitors is tracked (sampled tracking).
These cookies, provided by Facebook, are set when a visitor is logged in to or otherwise using their service. This allows a user to easily comment or share an article with their peers through the social network. They also help us measure and optimize the effectiveness of our online marketing campaigns and service you with advertisements that may be relevant to you and your interests.
Capturing non-personally identifiable information, such as date and time of the request, pages viewed, browser type, the referring URL, and computer’s operating system.
These advertising tracking cookies, provided by Criteo Corp., are used to enable retargeting of third-party-delivered advertisements that may be of interest to you as you browse the internet. They are also used to limit the number of times you see an advertisement and help measure the effectiveness of the advertising campaign.
These cookies, provided by Clearspring Technologies, Inc., are used in conjunction with the AddThis Button to enable you to share our content through email, social networking sites, blogs and more.
These cookies, provided by ShareThis Inc., are used in conjunction with the ShareThis Button to enable you to share our content through email, social networking sites, blogs and more.
Matomo (prev. Piwik)
To track visitors, Matomo (Piwik) by default uses 1st party cookies, set on the domain of your website.
These cookies are used by Google to store user preferences and information when viewing pages with Google maps on them.
Survey software used to enhance website experience based on user feedback.
Ratings and review widget allowing users to place and view reviews of books available on Elsevier.com.
These advertising tracking cookies are used to enable retargeting of third-party-delivered advertisements that may be of interest to you as you browse the internet.
For webinars, Elsevier.com embeds the BrightTalk functionality for signing-up and attend webinars. Users can update/remove their webinar accounts at BrightTalk.
Elsevier Connect functionality allowing user to interact with and comment on our stories.
These advertising cookies are used to deliver advertisements more relevant to you and your interests. They are also used to limit the number of times you see an advertisement as well as help measure the effectiveness of an advertising campaign. They are usually placed by advertising networks with our permission.
We use the information collected via cookies to make your use of the website more enjoyable, to improve the functionality of the website, and tailor the content and information that we may send or display to you.
ion collects several cookie types to enhance site performance and can cater a personalized experience for visitors. Core fields data are collected to give the possibility of advanced features in the future and understanding the reach of the website. Personally Identifiable Information is deleted from ion, every 24 hours.
UX research solution which allows to generate qualitative and quantitative insights, based on user feedback. All study responses are provided on a voluntary basis.
Outbrain offers a content marketing service that aims to present users to content that they are interested in, based on their behavior and preference. The pixel we've added helps with attribution and overall performance.
We use a LeadBoxer tracking pixel. A tracking pixel is a miniature graphic embedded in a web page to enable log file recording and log file analysis to subsequently perform a statistical analysis. LeadBoxer also sets a cookie on the information technology system of the data subject. The definition of cookies is explained above. The setting of the cookie enables us to analyze the usage of our website.
Using the data obtained, usage profiles are created. The usage profiles are used for the purpose of analyzing visitor behavior and enabling an improvement of our Internet offer. Data collected through the LeadBoxer component are not used to identify the data subject without first obtaining a separate and explicit consent from the data subject. These data will not be merged with personal data or with other data which contains the same usage profile.
These cookies provided by Bing are used by the advertiser to promote their business online. To more effectively market their product or service, this advertiser uses a small text file known as a cookie to record the completion of your transaction. Bing Ads wants to assure you that any information that is gathered will remain anonymous and cannot be used to identify you.
*Cookies in embedded content on Elsevier.com:
Please note that during your visits to this website you may notice some cookies that are external to this list.
The above cookies are embedded on Elsevier.com and may be presented with cookies from these websites and these third-party cookies may track your use of the Elsevier.com website. Elsevier.com does not control the dissemination of these cookies and you should check the relevant third party's website for more information.
You can prevent your browser from accepting certain cookies, have the browser require your consent before a new cookie is placed in your browser, or block cookies altogether by selecting the appropriate settings on your browser privacy preferences menu.
To avoid receiving cookies on the browser of your mobile device, you will need to refer to its user manual. For information on how to opt-out of cookies set by our suppliers, please visit the applicable links listed in the table above. The links below will help you find the settings for some common browsers:
Manage cookie settings in Firefox(opens in new tab/window)
Manage cookie settings in Internet Explorer(opens in new tab/window)
Manage cookie settings in Opera (opens in new tab/window)
Last revised: 23 May 2018