The cookies used on this website are as follows:
- Strictly necessary cookies. These cookies are essential in order to enable you to move around the website and use its features, such as accessing secure areas of the website. For example, authentication and security cookies are used to identify and recognize registered users and to enable them to gain access to requested content or features. Without these cookies, services you have asked for cannot be provided.
- Functionality cookies. These cookies allow our websites to remember the choices you make and your account preferences and to provide enhanced, more personal features. For example, these cookies will remember your log-in details.
- Performance cookies. These are analytics and research cookies that allow us to collect information about how visitors use a website, for instance which pages visitors go to most often, and if they get error messages from web pages. This helps us to improve the way the website works and allows us to test different ideas on the site.
- Targeting cookies. These cookies record your visit to the website, the pages you have visited and the links you have followed. We will use this information to make the website and the advertising displayed on it more relevant to your interests. We may also share this information with third parties for this purpose.
The table below explains performance and targeting cookies from our suppliers and their purpose. Please note that the cookies and other technologies may change over time.
Google Analytics with Display Advertising, Google Remarketing and Google DoubleClick
These web analytics cookies, provided by Google Inc., are used to collect information about how visitors use our site. We use the information to compile reports and to help us improve the site. In addition, we use first-party cookies (such as the Google Analytics cookie) and third-party cookies (such as the Google DoubleClick cookie) together to inform, optimise and serve ads based on someone's past visits to our website and report how ad impressions, other uses of ad services and interactions with these ad impressions and ad services are related to visits to our site.
Adobe Analytics and Adobe Audience Manager
These cookies, provided by Optimizely Inc., are used to provide an A/B testing framework that helps us to experiment with new features on our site and analyse how those features are performing.
These cookies, provided by Linkedin inc, allow serving users with relevant & targeted ads through the social network. Cookies collect usage and conversion type of information
Inspectlet monitors site's visitors in real-time and relays this information back to the servers, where it's compiled and presented. Sensitive information obtained is anonymized and only a portion of visitors is tracked (sampled tracking).
These cookies, provided by Facebook, are set when a visitor is logged in to or otherwise using their service. This allows a user to easily comment or share an article with their peers through the social network. They also help us measure and optimise the effectiveness of our online marketing campaigns and service you with advertisements that may be relevant to you and your interests.
Capturing non-personally identifiable information, such as date and time of the request, pages viewed, browser type, the referring URL, and computer’s operating system.
These advertising tracking cookies, provided by Criteo Corp., are used to enable retargeting of third-party-delivered advertisements that may be of interest to you as you browse the internet. They are also used to limit the number of times you see an advertisement and help measure the effectiveness of the advertising campaign.
These cookies, provided by Clearspring Technologies, Inc., are used in conjunction with the AddThis Button to enable you to share our content through email, social networking sites, blogs and more
These cookies, provided by ShareThis Inc., are used in conjunction with the ShareThis Button to enable you to share our content through email, social networking sites, blogs and more
Matomo (prev. Piwik)
To track visitors, Matomo (Piwik) by default uses 1st party cookies, set on the domain of your website.
Capturing the IP address and page view activity of all site visitors. The pixel data is used to identify site visitors based on the visitor's IP address as part of the Elsevier Account-Based Marketing initiative. Azalead also captures email engagement activity based on the recipient opening the email, this information is used to track account-level engagement.
Azalead retargeting campaigns that run on the AppNexus Platform uses a cookie that contains a unique randomly-generated value. This value enables the Platform to distinguish browsers and devices. It is matched against information - such as advertising interest segments and histories of ads shown in the browser or device - provided by clients or other third parties and stored on the Platform. This information is used by clients to select advertisements for delivery by the Platform, and to measure the performance of, and attribute payment for, those advertisements. This cookie does not directly associate with any personal data that directly identifies an individual.
These cookies are used by Google to store user preferences and information when viewing pages with Google maps on them.
Survey software used to enhance website experience based on user feedback.
Ratings and review widget allowing users to place and view reviews of books available on elsevier.com
These advertising tracking cookies are used to enable retargeting of third-party-delivered advertisements that may be of interest to you as you browse the internet.
For webinars Elsevier.com embeds the BrightTalk functiality for signing-up and attend webinars. Users can update/remove their webinar accounts at BrightTalk
Elsevier Connect functionality allowing user to interact with and comment on our stories.
These advertising cookies are used to deliver advertisements more relevant to you and your interests. They are also used to limit the number of times you see an advertisement as well as help measure the effectiveness of an advertising campaign. They are usually placed by advertising networks with our permission.
We use the information collected via cookies to make your use of the website more enjoyable, to improve the functionality of the website, and tailor the content and information that we may send or display to you.
- * Cookies in embedded content on Elsevier.com:
- Please note that during your visits to this website you may notice some cookies that are external to this list.
- The above cookies are embedded on elsevier.com and may be presented with cookies from these websites and these third-party cookies may track your use of the Elsevier.com website. Elsevier.com does not control the dissemination of these cookies and you should check the relevant third party's website for more information.
You can prevent your browser from accepting certain cookies, have the browser require your consent before a new cookie is placed in your browser, or block cookies altogether by selecting the appropriate settings on your browser privacy preferences menu. To avoid receiving cookies on the browser of your mobile device, you will need to refer to its user manual. For information on how to opt-out of cookies set by our suppliers, please visit the applicable links listed in the table above.
The links below will help you find the settings for some common browsers:
- Manage cookie settings in Chrome and Chrome Android and Chrome iOS
- Manage cookie settings in Safari and Safari iOS
- Manage cookie settings in Firefox
- Manage cookie settings in Internet Explorer
- Manage cookie settings in Opera
Last revised: 23 May 2018