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Allegations of research errors, falsification and fabrication

Where referees or readers come to the publisher or editor saying that certain laboratories do not have the facilities to conduct the research they published; the gel images look manipulated; the data from the control experiments is too perfect, etc., then the possibilities of falsification or fabrication need to be considered.

Falsification is publishing data or conclusions that were not generated by experiments or observations by data manipulation. This may involve changing the data measurements to conveniently fit the desired end result or excluding inconvenient results with the same end result: falsification. Fabrication is inventing results.