The Hydrocyclone

The Hydrocyclone

International Series of Monographs in Chemical Engineering

1st Edition - January 1, 1965

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  • Author: D. Bradley
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483155708

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The Hydrocyclone reviews data on the theoretical, design, and performance aspects of the liquid cyclone, hydraulic cyclone, or hydrocyclone. The book aims to be a source of reference to those who are in industries employing the use and application of the hydrocyclone. The text covers the historical development of the cyclone; flow pattern and distribution of velocities within the cyclone body; operational characteristics and areas of application in different phase separations; and the operating and design variables affecting the performance of the hydrocyclone. Categories of cyclone; commercially available cyclone equipment; and the specific industrial applications of the hydrocyclone are also surveyed. The text will be of practical use to industrial engineers, mechanical engineers, plant operators, miners, and researchers.

Table of Contents

  • Preface

    1. Introduction

    2. Historical Development

    3. Mode of Operation

    3.1. The Flow Pattern

    3.2. Velocity Distributions

    4. Tangential Velocity

    4.1. Alternative Velocity Distribution Relationships

    4.2. Experimental Measurement of Tangential Velocity Distributions

    4.3. Values for The Flow Pattern Constants, n, α and ß

    4.4. Summary of Data on n, α and ß and The Effects of Their Values on Design and Operating Variables

    5. Areas of Application and Operational Characteristics

    5.1. Separation of Solids from Liquid

    5.2. Separation of Solid from Solid

    5.3. Separation of Liquid from Liquid

    5.4. Separation of Gas from Liquid

    5.5. Miscellaneous Applications of the Hydrocyclone

    5.6 Operational Features of the Hydrocyclone

    6. Performance of Hydrocyclones

    6.1. The Efficiency of a Cyclone

    6.2. Pressure Drop in a Cyclone

    6.3. Volume Split or Flow Ratio

    7. Design Variables

    7.1. Cyclone Diameter

    7.2. Aperture Diameters

    7.3. Vortex Finder Dimensions

    7.4. Body Dimensions

    7.5. Feed Inlet Geometry

    7.6. Interior Surface Finish

    7.7. Materials of Construction

    7.8. Overflow and Underflow Collection Arrangements

    7.9. Manifolding of Feed Lines

    7.10. Summary of Design Variables

    8. Operating Variables and Control of Operation

    8.1. Feed Flow Rate

    8.2. Feed Pressure or Pressure Drop

    8.3. Solids Concentration in Feed and Underflow

    8.4. Solids Size and Shape

    8.5. Solids Density and Liquid Medium Density

    8.6. Liquid Medium Viscosity

    8.7. Reynolds Number in Cyclones

    8.8. Back Pressure

    8.9. Volume Split

    8.10. Control of Cyclone Operation

    9. Categories of Cyclone

    9.1. The Cyclone Thickener

    9.2. The Cyclone Classifier

    9.3. The Cyclone Washer

    9.4. Cyclone Liquid Separator

    9.5. Mass Transfer Cyclone

    9.6. Cyclone Gas Separator

    9.7. Miscellaneous Cyclone Duties

    10. Commercial Cyclones

    11. Fields of Application in Industry

    11.1. The Pulp and Paper Industry

    11.2. Coal Preparation

    11.3. Applications in Mineral Dressing

    11.4. Applications in the China Clay Industry

    11.5. Applications in the Cement Industry

    11.6. Applications in the Whiting Industry

    11.7. Applications in the Phosphate Mining Industry

    11.8. Applications in the Sand and Gravel Industry

    11.9. Applications in the Food Industry

    11.10. Applications in the Petroleum Industry

    11.11. Applications in the Chemical Industry

    11.12. Applications in the Nuclear Power Industry

    11.13. Applications in the Iron and Steel Industry

    12. Equipment of the Cyclone Type

    13. Bibliography

    14. Patent Review


    Author Index

    Subject Index

    Other Titles in the Series

    List of Illustrations

    Fig. 1. Principal Features of a Hydrocyclone

    Fig. 2. Schematic Representation of the Spiral Flow

    Fig. 3. Schematic Representation of the Locus of Zero Vertical Velocity and the Air Core

    Fig. 4. Schematic Representation of the Short Circuit and Eddy Flows

    Fig. 5. (a) Dye Photograph of Outer Downward Movement

    Fig. 5. (b) Dye Photograph of Inner Reversal

    Fig. 5. (c) Dye Photograph of "Mantle"

    Fig. 5. (d) Dye Photograph of "Mantle" Obtained by Direct Injection

    Fig. 5. (e) Dye Photograph of Short Circuit Flow

    Fig. 5. (f) Dye Photograph of Multiple Eddys

    Fig. 6. (a) Photograph of Unestablished Vortex—With Overflow

    Fig. 6. (b) Photograph of Established Vortex—Low Rate

    Fig. 6. (c) Photograph of Established Vortex—High Rate

    Fig. 7. Vertical Velocity Distribution

    Fig. 8. Locus of Zero Vertical Velocity Extended into the Cylindrical Section

    Fig. 9. Radial Velocity Distribution

    Fig. 10. Tangential Velocity Distributions Corresponding to Given Relationships

    Fig. 11. Tangential Velocity Distribution

    Fig. 12. (a) Photograph of Spiral of Dye within the Region of Constant Angular Velocity

    Fig. 12. (b) Photograph of Dye Remaining Outside the Region of Constant Angular Velocity

    Fig. 13. Relationship Between α and β

    Fig. 14. Theoretical Tangential Velocity Distribution

    Fig. 15. Theoretical Tangential Velocity Distribution. Data of Fig. 14 Plotted Logarithmically

    Fig. 16. Element of Fluid in a Rotating Body

    Fig. 17 Relationship between β and Ac/Ai

    Fig. 18. Data of Fig. 17 Given in β Form and Compared with Yoshioka and Hotta Relationship

    Fig. 19. Comparison of Yoshioka and Hotta Equation for β with Data of Table 1

    Fig. 20. Arrangement for the Series Connection of Cyclones

    Fig. 21. Typical Efficiency Curves

    Fig. 22. Two-Stage Liquid-Liquid Separation

    Fig. 23. Capital Cost of Cyclones

    Fig. 24. Shear Rate as a Function of Cyclone Radius

    Fig. 25. Maximum Rate of Shear versus Cyclone Size

    Fig. 26. Shear Diagrams and Apparent Viscosities of Clay Suspensions

    Fig. 27. Calculated Values for Centrifugal Acceleration as a Function of Cyclone Radius

    Fig. 28. Reduced Efficiency Curve of Yoshioka and Hotta

    Fig. 29. Data Showing the Applicability of the Intermediate Law of Settling in Small Diameter Cyclones

    Fig. 30. Particle Equilibria in Relation to the Locus of Zero Vertical Velocity

    Fig. 31. Experimental Data on Cy50

    Fig. 32. Comparison of Calculated Reduced Efficiency Curve with Curves Obtained in Practice

    Fig. 33. Values for Correlation Parameter ζ of de Gelder

    Fig. 34. Plot of versus (From de Gelder)

    Fig. 35. Values for Correlation Parameter J of de Gelder

    Fig. 36. Constants for Use in Rietemas' Pressure Drop Correlation

    Fig. 37. Pressure Drop versus Flow Rate

    Fig. 38. Rate of Injection of Momentum versus Inlet Diameter

    Fig. 39. Change in Vortex Finder Length

    Fig. 40. The Effect of Change in Vortex Finder Length on the Efficiency of Separation of Different Size Groups

    Fig. 41. Pressure Drop versus Capacity for Cyclones of Different Length and Cone Angle

    Fig. 42. Types of Feed Inlet in Use

    Fig. 43. Pressure Drop versus Capacity for Different Feed Levels

    Fig. 44. Effect of Insertion of a Probe on Pressure Drop

    Fig. 45. Stroboscope Photograph of Oversize Particles Retained on the Cyclone Wall

    Fig. 46. Diagram of a Cyclone Overflow Header

    Fig. 47. Photographs of Underflow Pot Operation

    Fig. 47. (a) Low Flow Rate

    Fig. 47. (b) High Flow Rate

    Fig. 48. Effect of an Underflow Pot on Separation Efficiency

    Fig. 48. (a) Low Flow Rate

    Fig. 48. (b) High Flow Rate

    Fig. 49. Flow Ratio, Rf, as a Function of Feed Concentration

    Fig. 50. Effect of Feed Concentration on Total Flow Rate

    Fig. 51. Effect of Feed Concentration on Total Flow Rate, Comparing Two Suspensions

    Fig. 52. The Effect of Reynolds Number on the Relative Motion of Differently Shaped Particles

    Fig. 53. The Effect of Viscosity on the Pressure Drop Relationship

    Fig. 54. The Effect of Viscosity on Flow Rate at Constant Pressure Drop

    Fig. 55. Effect of Viscosity on Volume Split and Flow Ratio

    Fig. 56. Effect of Reynolds Number on Pressure Loss Coefficient

    Fig. 57. Evidence for Controlling Influence of Reynolds Number on Separation Efficiency

    Fig. 58. Evaluation of the Optimum Reynolds Number

    Fig. 59. Effect of Underflow Proportion on Separation at Constant Pressure Drop

    Fig. 60. Effect of Underflow Proportion on Separation at Constant Reynolds Number

    Fig. 61. Types of Underflow Valve

    Fig. 62. Types of Underflow Control

    Fig. 63. Pump Suction Control for Controlling Cyclone Performance

    Fig. 64. Cyclone Modifications to Improve Classification Performance

    Fig. 65. Methods of Expressing Performance and Efficiency of Sink-Float Separators

    Fig. 66. Effect of Du/D0 Ratio on Density of Separation

    Fig. 67. Effect of Inlet Pressure on Sink-Float Separation

    Fig. 68. Graphical Correlation of Sink-Float Data

    Fig. 69. Per Cent Solids to Overflow or Underflow as a Function of Density Difference, Particle Size, and Volume Split

    Fig. 70. Calculated Separation Curves for a 6 in Cyclone Washer

    Fig. 71. Cyclones for Liquid-Liquid Separation

    Fig. 72. Diagram Showing The Principle of a Super-Centrifuge Separator Bowl Top

    Fig. 73. Hydrostatically Balanced Liquid-Liquid Cyclone

    Fig. 74. Variation in Separation Efficiency with Volume Split

    Fig. 75. Variation in Composition of Overflow and Underflow with Volume Split

    Fig. 76. Variation in Separation Efficiency with Feed Rate

    Fig. 77. Effect of Premixing on Phase Separation

    Fig. 78. Example of Equilibrium and Operating Lines for Solvent Extraction

    Fig. 79. Mass Transfer Efficiencies and Phase Separation Efficiencies versus Feed Rate

    Fig. 80. Mass Transfer Efficiency versus Phase Separation

    Fig. 81. Types of Cyclonic Gas Liquid Separator

    Fig. 82. Cyclonic Gas Separators in the Pulp and Paper Industry

    Fig. 83. The Clust-R-Clone, Six 8 in Units

    Fig. 84. Dorr TM Cyclones

    Fig. 85. Dorr TM3 Cyclone Unit

    Fig. 86. Dorr TMC-60 Cyclone Unit

    Fig. 87. Photograph of Dorr P50 Porcelain Cyclones

    Fig. 88. Cross Sectional Drawing of a Dorr 6 in FR Cyclone

    Fig. 89. Glass "Laboratory Set" Cyclone of Liquid-Solid Separations Limited

    Fig. 90. Components of Liquid-Solid Separations Limited Cyclone

    Fig. 91. Two-Stage Krebs Cyclone

    Fig. 92. Capacity Ranges of Sharpies "HC" Cyclones

    Fig. 93. Capacity Ranges of Sharpies "HE" Cyclones

    Fig. 94. Daynor Decanter

    Fig. 95. An "Ideal" Three-Stage Pulp Cleaning System

    Fig. 96. Practical Example of Cyclone Coupling in Pulp Cleaning

    Fig. 97. Performance Data for 3 in and 6 in Cyclones on Pulp Cleaning

    Fig. 98. Fiber Loss as a Function of Inlet Concentration

    Fig. 99. The "Coretrap"

    Fig. 100. The "Hy-Kleener" Vortex Finder Shroud

    Fig. 101. Cross Sectional Drawing of the "Radiclone"

    Fig. 102. Original Flow Sheet of a Cyclone Washery

    Fig. 103. Flow Sheet of a Cyclone Washing Plant Using Water Only

    Fig. 104. Flow Sheet for The Closed Circuit Grinding of Copper Flotation Feed

    Fig. 105. Corn Starch Process Flow Sheet

    Fig. 106. Degritting of Mill Starch

    Fig. 107. Potato Starch Process Flow Sheet

    Fig. 108. Cyclone Battery for Corn Starch Processing

    Fig. 109. Savings in Load Time in Cyclic Centrifugal Filters by Preconcentration of the Feed

    Fig. 110. Fixed Impellor Cyclone of Sineath and Delia-Valle

    Fig. 111. Blade Angle and Throat Area Defined

    Fig. 112. Comparison of Efficiency Curves for Cyclone and Fixed Impellor Cyclone

    Fig. 113. Cut-Away View of the "Centriclone"

    Fig. 114. Photograph of Voith High Consistency Purifier

    Fig. 115. Schematic Drawing of the Statifuge

    Fig. 116. Photograph of the Statifuge

    Fig. 117. Theoretical Performance Area for the Statifuge

    Fig. 118. Performance Comparison Between The Statifuge and Cyclone

    Fig. 119. The Tedman Separator

    Fig. 120. Cross Section of the Turpinson Separator

    Fig. 121. Cut-Away Model of the Turpinson Separator

    Plates I-X

Product details

  • No. of pages: 348
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Pergamon 1965
  • Published: January 1, 1965
  • Imprint: Pergamon
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483155708

About the Author

D. Bradley

About the Editor

P. V. Danckwerts

Affiliations and Expertise

University of Cambridge, UK

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  • Frits D. Wed Jan 24 2018


    Good book, but not a lot of industrial examples for liquid-liquid separations.