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Principles of Electron Optics, Volume 2 - 2nd Edition - ISBN: 9780128133699, 9780128134054

Principles of Electron Optics, Volume 2

2nd Edition

Applied Geometrical Optics

Authors: Peter Hawkes Erwin Kasper
Hardcover ISBN:
Paperback ISBN: 9780128133699
eBook ISBN: 9780128134054
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 30th November 2017
Page Count: 766
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Principles of Electron Optics: Applied Geometrical Optics, Second Edition gives detailed information about the many optical elements that use the theory presented in Volume 1: electrostatic and magnetic lenses, quadrupoles, cathode-lens-based instruments including the new ultrafast microscopes, low-energy-electron microscopes and photoemission electron microscopes and the mirrors found in their systems, Wien filters and deflectors. The chapter on aberration correction is largely new. The long section on electron guns describes recent theories and covers multi-column systems and carbon nanotube emitters. Monochromators are included in the section on curved-axis systems.

The lists of references include many articles that will enable the reader to go deeper into the subjects discussed in the text.

The book is intended for postgraduate students and teachers in physics and electron optics, as well as researchers and scientists in academia and industry working in the field of electron optics, electron and ion microscopy and nanolithography.

Key Features

  • Offers a fully revised and expanded new edition based on the latest research developments in electron optics
  • Written by the top experts in the field
  • Covers every significant advance in electron optics since the subject originated
  • Contains exceptionally complete and carefully selected references and notes
  • Serves both as a reference and text


Postgraduate students and teachers in physics and electron optics; researchers and scientists in academia and industry working in the field of electron optics, electron and ion microscopy, and nanolithography

Table of Contents

35. Electrostatic Lenses
35.1. Introduction
35.2. Immersion lenses
35.3. Einzel lenses
35.4. Grid or foil lenses
35.5. Cylindrical lenses
36. Magnetic Lenses
36.1. Introduction
36.2. Field models
36.3. Measurements and universal curves
36.4. Ultimate lens performance
36.5. Lenses of unusual geometry
36.6. Special purpose lenses
37. Electron Mirrors, Low-energy-electron Microscopes and Photoemission Electron Microscopes, Cathode Lenses and Field-emisssion Microscopy
37.1. The electron mirror microscope
37.2. Mirrors in energy analysis
37.3. Cathode lenses, low-energy-electron microscopes and photoemission electron microscopes
37.4. Field-emission microscopy
37.5. Ultrafast electron microscopy
38. The Wien Filter
39. Quadrupole Lenses
39.1. Introduction
39.2. The rectangular and bell-shaped models
39.3. Isolated quadrupoles and doublets
39.4. Triplets
39.5. Quadruplets
39.6. Other quadrupole geometries
40. Deflection Systems
40.1. Introduction
40.2. Field models for magnetic deflection systems
40.3. The variable-axis lens
40.4. Alternative concepts
40.5. Deflection modes and beam-shaping techniques

41. Aberration Correction
41.1. Introduction
41.2. Multipole correctors
41.3. Foil lenses and space charge
41.4. Axial conductors
41.5. Mirrors
41.6. High-frequency lenses
41.7. Other aspects of aberration correction
41.8. Concluding remarks
42. Caustics and their Applications
42.1. Introduction
42.2. The concept of the caustic
42.3. The caustic of a round lens
42.4. The caustic of an astigmatic lens
42.5. Intensity considerations
42.6. Higher order focusing properties
42.7. Applications of annular systems

43. General Features of Electron Guns
43.1. Thermionic electron guns
43.2. Schottky emission guns
43.3. Cold field electron emission guns
43.4. Beam transport systems
44. Theory of Electron Emission
44.1. General relations
44.2. Transmission through a plane barrier
44.3. Thermionic electron emission
44.4. The tunnel effect
44.5. Field electron emission
44.6. Schottky emission
44.7. Concluding remarks
45. Pointed Cathodes without Space Charge
45.1. The spherical cathode
45.2. The diode approximation
45.3. Field calculation in electron sources with pointed cathodes
45.4. Simple models
46. Space Charge Effects
46.1. The spherical diode
46.2. Asymptotic properties and generalizations
46.3. Determination of the space charge
46.4. The Boersch effect
47. Brightness
47.1. Application of Liouville’s theorem
47.2. The maximum brightness
47.3. The influence of apertures
47.4. Lenz’s brightness theory
47.5. Measurement of the brightness
47.6. Coulomb interactions and brightness

47.7. Aberrations in the Theory of Brightness

48. Emittance
48.1. Trace space and hyperemittance
48.2. Two-dimensional emittances
48.3. Brightness and emittance
48.4. Emittance diagrams
49. Gun optics
49.1. The Fujita–Shimoyama theory
49.2. Rose's theory
49.3. Matching the paraxial approximation to a cathode surface
50. Complete Electron Guns
50.1. Justification of the point source model
50.2. The lens system in field emission devices
50.3. Hybrid emission
50.4. Conventional thermionic guns
50.5. Pierce guns
50.6. Multi-electron-beam systems
50.7. Carbon nanotube emitters
50.8. Further reading

51. General Curvilinear Systems
51.1. Introduction of a curvilinear coordinate system
51.2. Series expansion of the potentials and fields
51.3. Variational principle and trajectory equations
51.4. Simplifying symmetries
51.5. Trajectory equations for symmetric configurations
51.6. Aberration theory
52. Magnetic Sector Fields
52.1. Introduction
52.2. Magnetic devices with a circular optic axis
52.3. Radial (horizontal) focusing for a particular model field
52.4. The linear dispersion
52.5. The axial (vertical) focusing
52.6. Fringing field effects
52.7. Aberration theory: the homogeneous field (n = 0)
52.8. Optimization procedures
52.9. Energy analysers and monochromators
53. Unified Theories of Ion Optical Systems
53.1. Introduction
53.2. Electrostatic prisms
53.3. A unified version of the theory
53.4. The literature of ion optics

Notes and References


No. of pages:
© Academic Press 2017
30th November 2017
Academic Press
Hardcover ISBN:
Paperback ISBN:
eBook ISBN:

About the Authors

Peter Hawkes

Peter Hawkes

Peter Hawkes graduated from the University of Cambridge and subsequently obtained his PhD in the Electron Microscopy Section of the Cavendish Laboratory. He remained there for several years, working on electron optics and digital image processing before taking up a research position in the CNRS Laboratory of Electron Optics (now CEMES-CNRS) in Toulouse, of which he was Director in 1987. During the Cambridge years, he was a Research Fellow of Peterhouse and a Senior Research fellow of Churchill College. He has published extensively, both books and scientific journal articles, and is a member of the editorial boards of Ultramicroscopy and the Journal of Microscopy. He was the founder-president of the European Microscopy Society, CNRS Silver Medallist in 1983 and is a Fellow of the Optical Society of America and of the Microscopy Society of America (Distinguished Scientist, Physics, 2015), Fellow of the Royal Microscopical Society and Honorary Member of the French Microscopy Society. In 1982, he was awarded the ScD degree by the University of Cambridge.

In 1982, he took over editorship of the Advances in Electronics & Electron Physics (now Advances in Imaging & Electron Physics) from Claire Marton (widow of the first editor, Bill Marton) and followed Marton's example in maintaining a wide range of subject matter. He added mathematical morphology to the topics regularly covered; Jean Serra and Gerhard Ritter are among those who have contributed.

In 1980, he joined Professor Wollnik (Giessen University) and Karl Brown (SLAC) in organising the first international conference on charged-particle optics, designed to bring together opticians from the worlds of electron optics, accelerator optics and spectrometer optics. This was so successful that similar meetings have been held at four-year intervals from 1986 to the present day. Peter Hawkes organised the 1990 meeting in Toulouse and has been a member of the organising committee of all the meetings. He has also participated in the organization of other microscopy-related congresses, notably EMAG in the UK and some of the International and European Congresses on electron microscopy as well as three Pfefferkorn conferences.

He is very interested in the history of optics and microscopy, and recently wrote long historical articles on the correction of electron lens aberrations, the first based on a lecture delivered at a meeting of the Royal Society. He likewise sponsored biographical articles for the Advances on such major figures as Ernst Ruska (Nobel Prize 1986), Helmut Ruska, Bodo von Borries, Jan Le Poole and Dennis Gabor (Nobel Prize, 1971). Two substantial volumes of the series were devoted to 'The Beginnings of Electron Microscopy' and 'The Growth of Electron Microscopy'. and others have covered 'Cold Field Emission Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy' and 'Aberration-corrected Electron Microscopy', with contributions by all the main personalities of the subject.

Affiliations and Expertise

Laboratoire d'Optique Electronique du Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CEMES), Toulouse, France

Erwin Kasper

Erwin Kasper

Erwin Kasper studied physics at the Universities of Münster and Tübingen (Germany), where he obtained his PhD in 1965 and the habilitation to teach physics in 1969. After scientific spells in the University of Tucson, Arizona (1966) and in Munich (1970), he resumed his research and teaching in the Institute of Applied Physics, University of Tübingen, where he was later appointed professor. He lectured on general physics and especially on electron optics. The subject of his research was theoretical electron optics and related numerical methods on which he published numerous papers. After his retirement in 1997, he published a book on numerical field calculation (2001).

Affiliations and Expertise

Institute of Applied Physics, University of Tuebingen, Tuebingen, Germany

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