Principles of Electron Optics, Volume 2

Principles of Electron Optics, Volume 2

Applied Geometrical Optics

2nd Edition - November 30, 2017

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  • Authors: Peter Hawkes, Erwin Kasper
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780128133699
  • eBook ISBN: 9780128134054

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Principles of Electron Optics: Applied Geometrical Optics, Second Edition gives detailed information about the many optical elements that use the theory presented in Volume 1: electrostatic and magnetic lenses, quadrupoles, cathode-lens-based instruments including the new ultrafast microscopes, low-energy-electron microscopes and photoemission electron microscopes and the mirrors found in their systems, Wien filters and deflectors. The chapter on aberration correction is largely new. The long section on electron guns describes recent theories and covers multi-column systems and carbon nanotube emitters. Monochromators are included in the section on curved-axis systems. The lists of references include many articles that will enable the reader to go deeper into the subjects discussed in the text. The book is intended for postgraduate students and teachers in physics and electron optics, as well as researchers and scientists in academia and industry working in the field of electron optics, electron and ion microscopy and nanolithography.

Key Features

  • Offers a fully revised and expanded new edition based on the latest research developments in electron optics
  • Written by the top experts in the field
  • Covers every significant advance in electron optics since the subject originated
  • Contains exceptionally complete and carefully selected references and notes
  • Serves both as a reference and text


Postgraduate students and teachers in physics and electron optics; researchers and scientists in academia and industry working in the field of electron optics, electron and ion microscopy, and nanolithography

Table of Contents

    35. Electrostatic Lenses 
    35.1. Introduction 
    35.2. Immersion lenses 
    35.3. Einzel lenses 
    35.4. Grid or foil lenses 
    35.5. Cylindrical lenses 
    36. Magnetic Lenses 
    36.1. Introduction 
    36.2. Field models 
    36.3. Measurements and universal curves 
    36.4. Ultimate lens performance 
    36.5. Lenses of unusual geometry 
    36.6. Special purpose lenses 
    37. Electron Mirrors, Low-energy-electron Microscopes and Photoemission Electron Microscopes, Cathode Lenses and Field-emisssion Microscopy 
    37.1. The electron mirror microscope 
    37.2. Mirrors in energy analysis 
    37.3. Cathode lenses, low-energy-electron microscopes and photoemission electron microscopes
    37.4. Field-emission microscopy
    37.5. Ultrafast electron microscopy
    38. The Wien Filter 
    39. Quadrupole Lenses 
    39.1. Introduction 
    39.2. The rectangular and bell-shaped models 
    39.3. Isolated quadrupoles and doublets 
    39.4. Triplets 
    39.5. Quadruplets 
    39.6. Other quadrupole geometries 
    40. Deflection Systems 
    40.1. Introduction 
    40.2. Field models for magnetic deflection systems 
    40.3. The variable-axis lens 
    40.4. Alternative concepts 
    40.5. Deflection modes and beam-shaping techniques 

    41. Aberration Correction 
    41.1. Introduction 
    41.2. Multipole correctors 
    41.3. Foil lenses and space charge 
    41.4. Axial conductors 
    41.5. Mirrors
    41.6. High-frequency lenses 
    41.7. Other aspects of aberration correction 
    41.8.  Concluding remarks
    42. Caustics and their Applications 
    42.1. Introduction 
    42.2. The concept of the caustic 
    42.3. The caustic of a round lens 
    42.4. The caustic of an astigmatic lens 
    42.5. Intensity considerations 
    42.6. Higher order focusing properties 
    42.7. Applications of annular systems 

    43. General Features of Electron Guns 
    43.1. Thermionic electron guns 
    43.2. Schottky emission guns
    43.3. Cold field electron emission guns 
    43.4. Beam transport systems 
    44. Theory of Electron Emission 
    44.1. General relations 
    44.2. Transmission through a plane barrier 
    44.3. Thermionic electron emission 
    44.4. The tunnel effect 
    44.5. Field electron emission 
    44.6. Schottky emission 
    44.7. Concluding remarks 
    45. Pointed Cathodes without Space Charge 
    45.1. The spherical cathode 
    45.2. The diode approximation 
    45.3. Field calculation in electron sources with pointed cathodes 
    45.4. Simple models 
    46. Space Charge Effects 
    46.1. The spherical diode 
    46.2. Asymptotic properties and generalizations 
    46.3. Determination of the space charge 
    46.4. The Boersch effect
    47. Brightness 
    47.1. Application of Liouville’s theorem 
    47.2. The maximum brightness 
    47.3. The influence of apertures 
    47.4. Lenz’s brightness theory 
    47.5. Measurement of the brightness
    47.6. Coulomb interactions and brightness 

    47.7. Aberrations in the Theory of Brightness


    48. Emittance 
    48.1. Trace space and hyperemittance 
    48.2. Two-dimensional emittances 
    48.3. Brightness and emittance 
    48.4. Emittance diagrams 
    49. Gun optics 
    49.1. The Fujita–Shimoyama theory 
    49.2. Rose's theory 
    49.3. Matching the paraxial approximation to a cathode surface 
    50. Complete Electron Guns 
    50.1. Justification of the point source model 
    50.2. The lens system in field emission devices 
    50.3. Hybrid emission 
    50.4. Conventional thermionic guns 
    50.5. Pierce guns 
    50.6. Multi-electron-beam systems
    50.7. Carbon nanotube emitters
    50.8. Further reading 

    51. General Curvilinear Systems 
    51.1. Introduction of a curvilinear coordinate system 
    51.2. Series expansion of the potentials and fields 
    51.3. Variational principle and trajectory equations 
    51.4. Simplifying symmetries 
    51.5. Trajectory equations for symmetric configurations 
    51.6. Aberration theory 
    52. Magnetic Sector Fields 
    52.1. Introduction 
    52.2. Magnetic devices with a circular optic axis 
    52.3. Radial (horizontal) focusing for a particular model field
    52.4. The linear dispersion 
    52.5. The axial (vertical) focusing 
    52.6. Fringing field effects 
    52.7. Aberration theory: the homogeneous field (n = 0)
    52.8. Optimization procedures
    52.9. Energy analysers and monochromators 
    53. Unified Theories of Ion Optical Systems 
    53.1. Introduction 
    53.2. Electrostatic prisms 
    53.3. A unified version of the theory 
    53.4. The literature of ion optics

    Notes and References

Product details

  • No. of pages: 766
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 2017
  • Published: November 30, 2017
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780128133699
  • eBook ISBN: 9780128134054

About the Authors

Peter Hawkes

Peter Hawkes
Peter Hawkes obtained his M.A. and Ph.D (and later, Sc.D.) from the University of Cambridge, where he subsequently held Fellowships of Peterhouse and of Churchill College. From 1959 – 1975, he worked in the electron microscope section of the Cavendish Laboratory in Cambridge, after which he joined the CNRS Laboratory of Electron Optics in Toulouse, of which he was Director in 1987. He was Founder-President of the European Microscopy Society and is a Fellow of the Microscopy and Optical Societies of America. He is a member of the editorial boards of several microscopy journals and serial editor of Advances in Electron Optics.

Affiliations and Expertise

Laboratoire d'Optique Electronique du Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CEMES), France

Erwin Kasper

Erwin Kasper studied physics at the Universities of Münster and Tübingen (Germany), where he obtained his PhD in 1965 and the habilitation to teach physics in 1969. After scientific spells in the University of Tucson, Arizona (1966) and in Munich (1970), he resumed his research and teaching in the Institute of Applied Physics, University of Tübingen, where he was later appointed professor. He lectured on general physics and especially on electron optics. The subject of his research was theoretical electron optics and related numerical methods on which he published numerous papers. After his retirement in 1997, he published a book on numerical field calculation (2001).

Affiliations and Expertise

Institute of Applied Physics, University of Tuebingen, Tuebingen, Germany

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