Aminoff's Neurology and General Medicine

Aminoff's Neurology and General Medicine

5th Edition - February 18, 2014

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  • Editors: Michael Aminoff, S. Andrew Josephson
  • eBook ISBN: 9780124077386

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Description

Aminoff's Neurology and General Medicine is the standard and classic reference providing comprehensive coverage of the relationship between neurologic practice and general medicine. As neurologists are asked to consult on general medical conditions, this reference provides an authoritative tool linking general medical conditions to specific neurologic issues and disorders. This is also a valuable tool for the general practitioner seeking to understand the neurologic aspects of their medical practice. Completely revised with new chapters covering metastatic disease, bladder disease, psychogenic disorders, dementia, and pre-operative and post-operative care of patients with neurologic disorders, this new edition will again be the go-to reference for both neurologists and general practitioners.

Key Features

  • The standard authoritative reference detailing the relationship between neurology and general medicine
  • 100% revised and updated with several new chapters
  • Well illustrated, with most illustrations in full color

Readership

Clinical neurologists and general medical practitioners

Table of Contents

  • Dedication

    Contributors

    Preface to the Fifth Edition

    Preface to the First Edition

    Section I: Respiratory and Cardiovascular Disorders

    Chapter 1. Breathing and the Nervous System

    Control of Breathing

    Evaluation of Pulmonary Function

    Patterns of Respiratory Dysfunction

    Respiratory Dysfunction from Neurologic Disorders

    Disorders of Breathing Associated with Sleep

    Neurologic Effects of Respiratory Dysfunction

    References

    Chapter 2. Neurologic Complications of Aortic Disease and Surgery

    Clinical Neurologic Syndromes Due to Aortic Pathology

    Aortic Diseases and Surgery

    References

    Chapter 3. Neurologic Complications of Cardiac Surgery

    Extracorporeal Circulation

    Neurologic Sequelae of Cardiac Surgery

    Neurocognitive Decline

    Risk Factors for Stroke

    Prevention of Neurologic Complications

    Cardiac Transplantation

    References

    Chapter 4. Neurologic Complications of Congenital Heart Disease and Cardiac Surgery in Children

    Neurologic Abnormalities before Cardiac Surgery

    Neurologic Injury During Cardiac Surgery

    Neurologic Abnormalities in the Postoperative Period

    References

    Chapter 5. Neurologic Manifestations of Acquired Cardiac Disease, Arrhythmias, and Interventional Cardiology

    Cardiogenic Embolism

    Syncope

    Interventional Procedures

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Chapter 6. Neurologic Manifestations of Infective Endocarditis

    Epidemiology of Neurologic Complications

    Pathophysiology of Neurologic Complications

    Risk Factors for Neurologic Complications

    Ischemic and Hemorrhagic Stroke

    Cerebral Infection

    Other Neurologic Complications

    Suggested Management Algorithm

    Prognosis

    Concluding Comments

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Chapter 7. Neurologic Complications of Hypertension

    Epidemiology

    Pathophysiology

    Evaluation and Treatment

    Stroke

    Cerebral Aneurysms

    Intracerebral Hemorrhage

    Lacunar Infarct

    Periventricular White Matter Disease

    CADASIL

    Carotid Artery Stenosis

    Intracranial Atherosclerosis

    Aortic Arch Atherosclerosis

    Cardiac Embolus

    Dementia

    Hypertensive Encephalopathy

    Eclampsia

    Immunosuppression

    References

    Chapter 8. Postural Hypotension and Syncope

    Non-Neurologic Causes of Postural Hypotension

    Autonomic Regulation of the Heart and Blood Vessels

    Neurologic Causes of Postural Hypotension

    Symptoms of Dysautonomia

    Evaluation of Autonomic Function

    Patient Management

    References

    Chapter 9. Neurologic Complications of Cardiac Arrest

    Introduction

    Anoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy

    Therapeutic Hypothermia

    Prognostic Determination

    Ethical Considerations

    References

    Chapter 10. Cardiac Manifestations of Acute Neurologic Lesions

    Historical Perspective

    Anatomy and Physiology

    Ischemic and Hemorrhagic Stroke

    Epilepsy, Trauma, and other Neurologic Injuries

    Cardiac Evaluation

    Clinical Management

    Concluding Comments

    References

    Chapter 11. Stroke as a Complication of General Medical Disorders

    Protein C, Protein S, and Antithrombin III Deficiency

    Activated Protein C Resistance and Factor V Leiden Deficiency

    Antiphospholipid Antibodies: Lupus Anticoagulant and Anticardiolipin Antibodies

    Homocysteine

    Lipoprotein (a)

    Sickle Cell Anemia

    Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    Cryoglobulins

    Stroke and Malignancy

    Medication Use and the Risk of Stroke

    Genetics and Stroke

    References

    Section II: Gastrointestinal Tract and Related Disorders

    Chapter 12. Hepatic and Pancreatic Encephalopathy

    Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Pancreatic Encephalopathy

    References

    Chapter 13. Other Neurologic Disorders Associated with Gastrointestinal Disease

    Gastrointestinal Disorders

    Hepatic Disorders

    References

    Chapter 14. Disturbances of Gastrointestinal Motility and the Nervous System

    Interactions Between Extrinsic Nervous System and the Gut

    Common Gastrointestinal Symptoms in Neurologic Disorders

    Extrinsic Neurologic Disorders Causing Gut Dysmotility

    General Muscle Diseases Causing Gut Dysmotility

    Identification of Extrinsic Neurologic Disease with Gastrointestinal Symptoms of Dysmotility

    Management of Gastrointestinal Motility Disorders

    Concluding Comments

    References

    Chapter 15. Neurologic Manifestations of Nutritional Disorders

    Vitamin B12 Deficiency

    Folate Deficiency

    Copper Deficiency

    Vitamin E Deficiency

    Thiamine (Vitamin B1) Deficiency

    Pyridoxine (Vitamin B6) Deficiency

    Niacin (Vitamin B3) Deficiency

    Vitamin A Deficiency

    Vitamin D Deficiency

    Lathyrism

    Konzo

    References

    Section III: Renal and Electrolyte Disorders

    Chapter 16. Neurologic Dysfunction and Kidney Disease

    Uremic Encephalopathy

    Uremic Neuropathy

    Restless Legs Syndrome

    Uremic Myopathy

    Stroke

    Optic Neuropathy

    Neurologic Complications of Nephrotic Syndrome

    Neurologic Complications of Dialysis

    Complications of Transplantation

    Hereditary Disorders of the Nervous SysTem and Kidneys

    References

    Chapter 17. Neurologic Complications of Electrolyte Disturbances

    Sodium

    Potassium

    Calcium

    Magnesium

    References

    Section IV: Endocrine Disorders

    Chapter 18. Thyroid Disease and the Nervous System

    Neurologic Complications of Hypothyroidism

    Neurologic Complications of Hyperthyroidism and Graves Disease

    Miscellaneous Associations Between Neurologic Disorders and Thyroid Dysfunction

    References

    Chapter 19. Diabetes and the Nervous System

    Acute Neurologic Features

    Peripheral Neuropathies

    Central Nervous System Complications

    Neuropathic Pain

    References

    Chapter 20. Sex Hormone, Pituitary, Parathyroid, and Adrenal Disorders and the Nervous System

    Sex Hormones and the Nervous System

    Pituitary Gland

    Parathyroid Glands

    Adrenal Glands

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Section V: Cutaneous Disorders

    Chapter 21. The Skin and Neurologic Disease

    Tumors

    Stroke

    Meningitis and Meningoencephalitis

    Intermittent Encephalopathies

    Dementia

    Seizure Disorders

    Ataxia

    Myelopathy

    Peripheral Neuropathy

    Myopathy

    References

    Section VI: Bone and Joint Disease

    Chapter 22. Neurologic Disorders Associated with Bone and Joint Disease

    Degenerative Disease of the Spine

    Lumbar Spinal Stenosis and Neurogenic Claudication

    Osteoporosis

    Osteomalacia

    Osteopetrosis

    Paget Disease of Bone

    Vertebral Osteomyelitis

    Ankylosing Spondylitis

    Relapsing Polychondritis

    References

    Section VII: Ears, Eyes, and Related Systems

    Chapter 23. Otoneurologic Manifestations of Otologic and Systemic Disease

    Neurologic Manifestations of Otologic Disease

    Otoneurologic Manifestations of Systemic Disease

    Neuro-Otologic Manifestations of Aging

    References

    Chapter 24. Neuro-ophthalmology in Medicine

    Afferent Visual Disturbances

    Efferent Visual Disturbances

    The Pupil

    References

    Section VIII: Hematologic and Neoplastic Disease

    Chapter 25. Neurologic Manifestations of Hematologic Disorders

    Anemia

    Rare Neurologic Syndromes and Red Cell Abnormalities

    Proliferative Disorders

    Hemorrhagic Disorders

    Coagulation Disorders

    References

    Chapter 26. Metastatic Disease and the Nervous System

    Metastases to the Central Nervous System and Related Structures

    Metastases to the Peripheral Nervous System

    Metastases to Muscles

    Concluding Comments

    References

    Chapter 27. Paraneoplastic Syndromes Involving the Nervous System

    General Considerations

    Specific Syndromes

    References

    Chapter 28. Neurologic Complications of Chemotherapy and Radiation Therapy

    Chemotherapy

    Radiation Therapy

    References

    Section IX: Genitourinary System and Pregnancy

    Chapter 29. Lower Urinary Tract Dysfunction and the Nervous System

    Neurologic Control of the Bladder

    Neurogenic Bladder Dysfunction

    Diagnostic Evaluation

    Investigations

    Complications of Neurogenic Bladder Dysfunction

    Management of Neurogenic Bladder Dysfunction

    References

    Chapter 30. Sexual Dysfunction in Patients with Neurologic Disorders

    Sexual Function and the Nervous System

    Evaluation of Patients with Sexual Dysfunction and Neurologic Disorders

    Sexual Dysfunction in Patients with Neurologic Disease

    Therapy

    Neurologic Problems Associated with Sexual Activity

    Concluding Comments

    Acknowledgment

    References

    Chapter 31. Pregnancy and Disorders of the Nervous System

    Epilepsy

    Migraine

    Tumors

    Pseudotumor Cerebri

    Cerebrovascular Disease

    Infections

    Metabolic and Toxic Disorders

    Movement Disorders

    Multiple Sclerosis

    Optic Neuritis

    Traumatic Paraplegia

    Root and Plexus Lesions

    Peripheral Nerve Disorders

    Myasthenia Gravis

    Myotonic Dystrophy

    Eclampsia and Pre-Eclampsia

    References

    Section X: Toxic, Environmental, and Traumatic Disorders

    Chapter 32. Drug-Induced Disorders of the Nervous System

    Headache

    Stroke

    Seizures

    Coma

    Encephalopathy

    Neuropsychiatric Disorders

    Movement Disorders

    Cerebellar Syndromes

    Ototoxicity

    Visual Disorders

    Disorders of taste and smell

    Spinal Disorders

    Autonomic Disorders

    Neuromuscular Disorders

    References

    Chapter 33. Alcohol and the Nervous System

    Alcohol Intoxication and Withdrawal

    Disorders of Cognition

    Wernicke Encephalopathy

    Korsakoff Syndrome

    Alcoholic Cerebellar Degeneration

    Central Pontine Myelinolysis

    Alcoholic Neuropathy

    Alcoholic Myopathy

    Alcohol and Stroke

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Chapter 34. Neurologic Complications of Recreational Drugs

    Cocaine

    Methamphetamines

    Bath Salts

    MDMA (Ecstasy)

    Gamma Hydroxybutyrate (GHB)

    Sedative-Hypnotics

    Opiates

    Hallucinogens

    N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Antagonists

    Dextromethorphan

    Nitrous Oxide

    Marijuana and Related Compounds

    Infectious Complications of Injection Drug USE

    Concluding Comments

    References

    Chapter 35. Neurotoxin Exposure in the Workplace

    Manifestations of Occupational Neurotoxic Disorders

    Screening AT-Risk Workers

    Selected Neurotoxic Disorders

    Concluding Comments

    References

    Chapter 36. Neurologic Complications of Thermal and Electric Burns

    Thermal Burns

    Electricity and Lightning

    References

    Chapter 37. Abnormalities of Thermal Regulation and the Nervous System

    Thermoregulatory System

    Neurologic Causes of Abnormal Thermoregulation

    Neurologic Consequences of Abnormal Thermoregulation

    Hyperthermia

    Hypothermia

    References

    Chapter 38. Postconcussion Syndrome

    Traditional Diagnosis

    Clinical Diagnosis

    Evaluation

    Differential diagnosis

    Treatment and prognosis

    Return to participation

    Chronic traumatic encephalopathy

    References

    Section XI: Infectious, Inflammatory, and Immunologic Disorders

    Chapter 39. Acute Bacterial Infections of the Central Nervous System

    Acute Bacterial Meningitis

    Brain Abscess

    Subdural Empyema and Epidural Abscess

    Spinal Epidural Abscess

    Septic Intracranial Thrombophlebitis

    References

    Chapter 40. Spirochetal Infections of the Nervous System

    Syphilis

    Lyme Disease

    References

    Chapter 41. Tuberculosis of the Central Nervous System

    Meningitis

    Tuberculoma

    Spinal Tuberculous Arachnoiditis

    Therapy

    Prognosis and Outcome

    Concluding CommentS

    References

    Chapter 42. Neurologic Complications of Leprosy

    General Manifestations

    Neuropathology

    Leprous Neuritis

    Lepromatous Leprosy

    Tuberculoid Leprosy

    Borderline Leprosy

    Treatment

    References

    Chapter 43. Nervous System Complications of Systemic Viral Infections

    Pathogenesis of Viral CNS Infections

    Viral Meningitis

    Viral Encephalitis

    Prion Diseases

    Postinfectious Complications of CNS Viral Infection

    Acknowledgements

    References

    Chapter 44. HIV and other Retroviral Infections of the Nervous System

    Thirty Years Later: HIV Beyond the Immune System

    HIV in the Nervous System

    Neurologic Dysfunction in the Setting of Antiretroviral Therapy

    Neurologic Dysfunction in Antiretroviral-Naive Patients

    Spinal Cord Disease Associated with HIV Infection

    HIV-Associated Peripheral Neuropathies

    Muscle Disorders and HIV Infection

    Infection with Human T-Lymphocytic Virus Type I

    References

    Chapter 45. Neurologic Complications of Organ Transplantation and Immunosuppressive Agents

    Neurologic Complications Common to All Transplantation Types

    Neurologic Complications Associated with Specific Transplantation Types

    References

    Chapter 46. Fungal Infections of the Central Nervous System

    Pathogens

    Host Factors

    Cryptococcus Neoformans and Gattii

    Coccidioides Immitis and Posadasii

    Histoplasma Capsulatum

    Blastomyces Dermatitidis

    Paracoccidioides Brasiliensis

    Sporothrix Schenckii

    Penicillium Marneffei

    Candida Species

    Aspergillus Species

    Mucormycosis

    Pseudallescheria Boydii

    Phaeohyphomycosis

    Hyalohyphomycosis

    Diagnosis

    Treatment

    References

    Chapter 47. Parasitic Infections of the Central Nervous System

    Protozoan Infections

    Helminthic Infection

    References

    Chapter 48. Neurologic Complications of Vaccination

    History of Vaccines

    Types of Vaccines

    Complications of Vaccination

    Detection of Vaccine Adverse Events

    Emerging Viruses

    Therapeutic Vaccination

    References

    Chapter 49. Sarcoidosis of the Nervous System

    Sarcoidosis

    Pathophysiology

    Epidemiology

    Neurologic Manifestations

    Differential Diagnosis

    Treatment

    General Supportive Care

    Alternative Treatments

    Prognosis

    References

    Chapter 50. Connective Tissue Diseases, Vasculitis, and the Nervous System

    Connective Tissue Diseases

    Vasculitis

    Differential Diagnosis

    Therapeutic Choices

    Acknowledgment

    References

    Section XII: Sleep and Its Disorders

    Chapter 51. Neurologic Aspects of Sleep Medicine

    Sleep Physiology

    Circadian Neurobiology

    Neuroanatomy of Sleep

    Approach to the Patient with Sleep Disorders

    Insomnia

    Hypersomnias

    Sleep-Related Breathing Disorders

    Circadian Rhythm Disorders

    Sleep-Related Movement Disorders

    Parasomnias

    Sleep Disorders in Patients with Neurologic Disorders

    References

    Section XIII: Psychogenic Disorders

    Chapter 52. Functional Neurologic Symptom Disorders

    Clinical Assessment Principles

    Specific Functional Disorders

    Ethical Dilemmas in Functional Neurologic Symptom Disorders

    References

    Section XIV: Imaging and Perioperative Care

    Chapter 53. Neurologic Complications of Imaging Procedures

    Complications of Intravenous Injection of Contrast Material

    Noninvasive Imaging Procedures

    Spinal Procedures

    Angiography

    Embolization and Stenting Procedures

    References

    Chapter 54. Preoperative and Postoperative Care of Patients with Neurologic Disorders

    Introduction

    Movement Disorders

    Multiple Sclerosis

    Delirium and Dementia

    Headache

    Seizures and Epilepsy

    Neuromuscular Disorders

    Perioperative Stroke

    References

    Chapter 55. Neurologic Disorders and Anesthesia

    Perioperative Mental Status Changes

    Postoperative Neurologic Deficits

    Perioperative Rigidity

    Perioperative Seizures

    Perioperative Headache

    Anesthesia in Patients with Neurologic Disease

    Anesthesia in the Neurocritical Care Unit

    References

    Section XV: Critical Illness and General Medical Disorders

    Chapter 56. Neurologic Complications in Critically Ill Patients

    Septic Encephalopathy

    Neuromuscular Conditions in Critically Ill Patients

    References

    Chapter 57. Seizures and General Medical Disorders

    Renal Failure

    Hepatic Disease

    Cardiac Disease

    Seizures in Critically Ill Patients

    Connective Tissue Diseases

    Inflammatory and Autoimmune Diseases

    Hepatic Porphyrias

    Seizures in Transplant Recipients

    Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection and Seizures

    Seizures Associated with Systemic Cancer

    Endocrine or Metabolic Disorders

    Seizures Related to Alcohol, Medications, and Recreational Drug use

    Cerebral Trauma, Seizures, and Epilepsy

    References

    Chapter 58. Movement Disorders Associated with General Medical Diseases

    Chorea and Dystonia

    Myoclonus

    Tremor

    Parkinsonism

    References

    Chapter 59. Neuromuscular Complications of General Medical Disorders

    Disorders of the Motor Neuron

    Radiculopathy

    Disorders of Posterior Root Ganglia

    Plexopathy

    Peripheral Neuropathy

    Neuromuscular Junction Disorders

    Myopathy

    Rhabdomyolysis and Myoglobinuria

    References

    Chapter 60. Disorders of Consciousness in Systemic Diseases

    Consciousness

    Mechanisms of Impaired Consciousness in Specific Diseases

    Approach to Patients with Disordered Consciousness

    Prognosis

    Brain Death

    Persistent Vegetative and Minimally Conscious States

    References

    Chapter 61. Dementia and Systemic Disease

    Causes of Dementia

    Systemic Complications of Dementia

    References

    Section XVI: Palliative Care

    Chapter 62. Care at the End of Life

    Physician–Patient Interactions

    Provision of Care

    Special Neurologic Circumstances

    Concluding Comments

    References

    Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 1392
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 2014
  • Published: February 18, 2014
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780124077386

About the Editors

Michael Aminoff

Michael Aminoff
Dr. Michael Aminoff was born and educated in England, graduating from University College London in 1962 and as a physician from University College Hospital Medical School in 1965. He subsequently trained in neurology and neurophysiology at The National Hospital (Queen Square) in London, and in 1974 moved to UCSF where he has been Professor of Neurology since 1982. He was Director of the Clinical Neurophysiology Laboratories at UCSF until 2004, when he became Executive Vice Chair of the department of neurology, and also directs the Parkinson’s Disease Clinic and Research Center, a National Parkinson Foundation Center of Excellence.

He is the author of more than 230 published medical or scientific articles, as well as the author or editor of some 29 books. His published scientific contributions led to the award of a Doctorate in Science, an advanced doctorate in the Faculty of Science, by the University of London in 2000. He is the one of the two editors-in-chief of the four-volume Encyclopedia of the Neurological Sciences (2nd Edition, Academic Press, 2014), and one of the series editors of the multi-volume Handbook of Clinical Neurology (Elsevier). He was Editor-in Chief of the journal Muscle & Nerve from 1998 to 2007 and serves on numerous other editorial boards. He was a director of the American Board of Psychiatry & Neurology for 8 years, and chair of the board in 2011.

Dr. Aminoff has received numerous prizes including the Lifetime Achievement Award of the American Association of Neuromuscular & Electrodiagnostic Medicine in 2006 and the A.B. Baker Award of the American Academy of Neurology for life-time achievements and contributions to medical education in 2007. In 2010, he was awarded the title of “Distinguished Professor” at the University of California, San Francisco.

He is married and has three children, one a pediatric rheumatologist, another a federal defense attorney, and the third an assistant district attorney.

Affiliations and Expertise

Distinguished Professor and Endowed Chair in Parkinson's Disease Research, Department of Neurology University of California, San Francisco

S. Andrew Josephson

S. Andrew Josephson
Dr. S. Andrew Josephson is a neurologist who specializes in neurovascular and other neurologic disorders. At UCSF, he cares for general neurology and stroke patients in the hospital as well as in clinic. He is the Director and Founder of the UCSF Neurohospitalist Program and Fellowship, and Medical Director of Inpatient Neurology. He holds the Carmen Castro Franceschi and Gladyne K. Mitchell Neurohospitalist Distinguished Professorship.

After graduating from Stanford University, Dr. Josephson earned his medical degree at Washington University in St. Louis. He completed an internship in internal medicine and a residency in neurology at UCSF, where he was chief resident. He also completed fellowships in neurovascular neurology (stroke) and behavioral neurology at UCSF. He is an associate professor of neurology and Vice-Chairman of the Department of Neurology.

Dr. Josephson's research interests include improving models of inpatient neurologic care, quality and safety in hospitalized patients, neurologic education, delirium, and the contribution of stroke to dementia.

Dr. Josephson has won numerous teaching awards from medical students and residents including being selected to present the keynote speech for the School of Medicine Commencement; the Henry J. Kaiser Award for Excellence in Teaching; the Academic Senate Distinction in Teaching Award, and the Robert Layzer Golden Toe Award for resident teaching.

Affiliations and Expertise

Department of Neurology, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA

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