Tree Rings and Climate - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780122684500, 9780323145282

Tree Rings and Climate

1st Edition

Authors: H Fritts
eBook ISBN: 9780323145282
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 1st January 1976
Page Count: 582
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Tree Rings and Climate deals with the principles of dendrochronology, with emphasis on tree-ring studies involving climate-related problems. This book looks at the spatial and temporal variations in tree-ring growth and how they can be used to reconstruct past climate. Factors and conditions that appear most relevant to tree-ring research are highlighted. Comprised of nine chapters, this book opens with an overview of the basic biological facts and principles of tree growth, as well as the most important terms, principles, and concepts of dendrochronology. The discussion then shifts to the basic biology governing the response of ring width to variation in climate; systematic variations in the width and cell structure of annual tree rings; and the significance of tree growth and structure to dendroclimatology. The movement of materials and internal water relations of trees are also considered, along with photosynthesis, respiration, and the climatic and environmental system. Models of the growth-climate relationships as well as the basic statistics and methods of analysis of these relationships are described. The final chapter includes a general discussion of dendroclimatographic data and presents examples of statistical models that are useful for reconstructing spatial variations in climate. This monograph will be of interest to climatologists, college students, and practitioners in fields such as botany, archaeology, hydrology, oceanography, biology, physiology, forestry, and geophysics.

Table of Contents



Chapter 1. Dendrochronology and Dendroclimatology

I. Introduction

II. Historical Background

III. Scope of Dendrochronology

IV. Some Basic Principles and Concepts of Dendrochronology

V. Dendroclimatic Procedures and Analyses

VI. Examples of Analysis

VII. Further Definitions and Concepts

VIII. The Climate-Growth System and Its Dendroclimatological Significance

Chapter 2. Growth and Structure

I. Introduction

II. Gross Structure

III. The Vascular Cambium

IV. Growth—A Variable Process

V. Variations in Shoot Growth

VI. Variations in Radial Growth

VII. Phenology and Its Relation to Ring Growth

VIII. Systematic Variations in the Width and Cell Structure of Annual Rings

IX. Growth of Roots

X. Significance of Growth and Structure to Dendroclimatology

Chapter 3. Basic Physiological Processes: Movement of Materials and Water Relations

I. Limiting Factors and Plant Processes

II. Some General Terms and Basic Concepts

III. Cell Water Status

IV. Transpiration

V. Soil Moisture

VI. The Soil System and Factors Affecting Its Development

VII. Absorption of Water

VIII. Internal Water Relations of Trees

IX. Moisture Stress and Tree Form

X. Soil Factors Affecting Root Growth, Ring-Width Sensitivity, and Longevity

XI. Uptake of Mineral Salts

XII. Translocation

Chapter 4. Basic Physiological Processes: Food Synthesis and Assimilation of Cell Constituents

I. Introduction

II. Photosynthesis and Respiration

III. Synthesis of Foods and Assimilation

IV. Measurement of Photosynthesis and Respiration

V. Factors Affecting Photosynthesis and Respiration

VI. The Annual Net Photosynthetic Regime for a Pinus ponderosa on a Semiarid Site

VII. Some Implications of these Physiological Measurements

VIII. The Distribution of Foods and Interactions with Growth

IX. Essential Mineral Salts

X. Growth-Regulating Substances

XI. Physiological Preconditioning and Correlating Systems

XII. Changes in the Physiological Seasons with Varying Elevation of the Tree Sites

Chapter 5. The Climate-Growth System

I. Introduction

II. The Energy and Water Balances

III. Site Factors which can Modify the Energy Balance

IV. Biotic and Other Nonclimatic Factors: Dendrochronological Examples

V. Modeling Relationships in the Ring-Width and Climatic System

VI. A Model for Factors Affecting Cambial Activity and Hence Ring Width

VII. Modeling the Effects of Temperature and Precipitation on Ring Width

VIII. The Concept of the Climatic "Window"

IX. The Concept of the Response Function

X. Suitability and Limitations of the Growth Model

Chapter 6. The Statistics of Ring-Width and Climatic Data

I. Reliability of Measurements

II. General Statistics

III. Standardization

IV. Filtering Techniques

V. Other Methods for Assessing the Growth Curves

VI. Analysis of Variance

VII. Analysis of Chronology Error

VIII. Correlation Analysis

IX. Power Spectrum and Cross-Power Spectrum Analyses

X. Variability in Statistical Characteristics of Ring Widths among Sites

XI. Statistical Characteristics of Ring Widths within a Tree

Chapter 7. Calibration

I. Introduction

II. The Procedure of Calibration

III. The Role of Statistics and Sample Size

IV. Degrees of Freedom and the Effective Sample Size

V. Selecting the Statistical Model

VI. The Diversity in Variable Selection

VII. Testing the Association between Variables

VIII. Multivariate Techniques

Chapter 8. Interpretation of Climatic Calibrations, Reconstruction, and Verification

I. Introduction

II. Response Functions

III. Strengths and Weaknesses of Response Function Analysis

IV. Significance of Response Function Capability

V. Assessing Effects on Growth of Varying Climate

VI. Climatic Reconstruction and Verification

VII. Inferences from Chronologies with Different Growth Responses

VIII. Reconstruction Using Multivariate Transfer Functions

Chapter 9. Reconstructing Spatial Variations in Climate

I. Introduction

II. The General Nature of Dendroclimatographic Analysis

III. The Statistical Model

IV. A Feasibility Study

V. Recalibration

VI. Climatological Studies

VII. Summarization of Reconstructions for Winter Using the Pressure Types

VIII. Verification of Reconstructions for Winter

IX. Summarization of Reconstructions for Summer Using the Pressure Types

X. Verification of Reconstructions for Summer Using Independent Tree-Ring Data

XI. Verification Using Journals, Historical Data, and Various Proxy Records of Climate

XII. Applications to Climatological Problems

XIII. Present and Future Prospects of Dendroclimatology

Appendix—Scientific and Common Names of Trees



Author Index

Subject Index


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© Academic Press 1976
Academic Press
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H Fritts

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