Tree Rings and Climate

Tree Rings and Climate

1st Edition - January 1, 1976

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  • Author: H Fritts
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323145282

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Description

Tree Rings and Climate deals with the principles of dendrochronology, with emphasis on tree-ring studies involving climate-related problems. This book looks at the spatial and temporal variations in tree-ring growth and how they can be used to reconstruct past climate. Factors and conditions that appear most relevant to tree-ring research are highlighted. Comprised of nine chapters, this book opens with an overview of the basic biological facts and principles of tree growth, as well as the most important terms, principles, and concepts of dendrochronology. The discussion then shifts to the basic biology governing the response of ring width to variation in climate; systematic variations in the width and cell structure of annual tree rings; and the significance of tree growth and structure to dendroclimatology. The movement of materials and internal water relations of trees are also considered, along with photosynthesis, respiration, and the climatic and environmental system. Models of the growth-climate relationships as well as the basic statistics and methods of analysis of these relationships are described. The final chapter includes a general discussion of dendroclimatographic data and presents examples of statistical models that are useful for reconstructing spatial variations in climate. This monograph will be of interest to climatologists, college students, and practitioners in fields such as botany, archaeology, hydrology, oceanography, biology, physiology, forestry, and geophysics.

Table of Contents


  • Preface

    Dedication

    Chapter 1. Dendrochronology and Dendroclimatology

    I. Introduction

    II. Historical Background

    III. Scope of Dendrochronology

    IV. Some Basic Principles and Concepts of Dendrochronology

    V. Dendroclimatic Procedures and Analyses

    VI. Examples of Analysis

    VII. Further Definitions and Concepts

    VIII. The Climate-Growth System and Its Dendroclimatological Significance

    Chapter 2. Growth and Structure

    I. Introduction

    II. Gross Structure

    III. The Vascular Cambium

    IV. Growth—A Variable Process

    V. Variations in Shoot Growth

    VI. Variations in Radial Growth

    VII. Phenology and Its Relation to Ring Growth

    VIII. Systematic Variations in the Width and Cell Structure of Annual Rings

    IX. Growth of Roots

    X. Significance of Growth and Structure to Dendroclimatology

    Chapter 3. Basic Physiological Processes: Movement of Materials and Water Relations

    I. Limiting Factors and Plant Processes

    II. Some General Terms and Basic Concepts

    III. Cell Water Status

    IV. Transpiration

    V. Soil Moisture

    VI. The Soil System and Factors Affecting Its Development

    VII. Absorption of Water

    VIII. Internal Water Relations of Trees

    IX. Moisture Stress and Tree Form

    X. Soil Factors Affecting Root Growth, Ring-Width Sensitivity, and Longevity

    XI. Uptake of Mineral Salts

    XII. Translocation

    Chapter 4. Basic Physiological Processes: Food Synthesis and Assimilation of Cell Constituents

    I. Introduction

    II. Photosynthesis and Respiration

    III. Synthesis of Foods and Assimilation

    IV. Measurement of Photosynthesis and Respiration

    V. Factors Affecting Photosynthesis and Respiration

    VI. The Annual Net Photosynthetic Regime for a Pinus ponderosa on a Semiarid Site

    VII. Some Implications of these Physiological Measurements

    VIII. The Distribution of Foods and Interactions with Growth

    IX. Essential Mineral Salts

    X. Growth-Regulating Substances

    XI. Physiological Preconditioning and Correlating Systems

    XII. Changes in the Physiological Seasons with Varying Elevation of the Tree Sites

    Chapter 5. The Climate-Growth System

    I. Introduction

    II. The Energy and Water Balances

    III. Site Factors which can Modify the Energy Balance

    IV. Biotic and Other Nonclimatic Factors: Dendrochronological Examples

    V. Modeling Relationships in the Ring-Width and Climatic System

    VI. A Model for Factors Affecting Cambial Activity and Hence Ring Width

    VII. Modeling the Effects of Temperature and Precipitation on Ring Width

    VIII. The Concept of the Climatic "Window"

    IX. The Concept of the Response Function

    X. Suitability and Limitations of the Growth Model

    Chapter 6. The Statistics of Ring-Width and Climatic Data

    I. Reliability of Measurements

    II. General Statistics

    III. Standardization

    IV. Filtering Techniques

    V. Other Methods for Assessing the Growth Curves

    VI. Analysis of Variance

    VII. Analysis of Chronology Error

    VIII. Correlation Analysis

    IX. Power Spectrum and Cross-Power Spectrum Analyses

    X. Variability in Statistical Characteristics of Ring Widths among Sites

    XI. Statistical Characteristics of Ring Widths within a Tree

    Chapter 7. Calibration

    I. Introduction

    II. The Procedure of Calibration

    III. The Role of Statistics and Sample Size

    IV. Degrees of Freedom and the Effective Sample Size

    V. Selecting the Statistical Model

    VI. The Diversity in Variable Selection

    VII. Testing the Association between Variables

    VIII. Multivariate Techniques

    Chapter 8. Interpretation of Climatic Calibrations, Reconstruction, and Verification

    I. Introduction

    II. Response Functions

    III. Strengths and Weaknesses of Response Function Analysis

    IV. Significance of Response Function Capability

    V. Assessing Effects on Growth of Varying Climate

    VI. Climatic Reconstruction and Verification

    VII. Inferences from Chronologies with Different Growth Responses

    VIII. Reconstruction Using Multivariate Transfer Functions

    Chapter 9. Reconstructing Spatial Variations in Climate

    I. Introduction

    II. The General Nature of Dendroclimatographic Analysis

    III. The Statistical Model

    IV. A Feasibility Study

    V. Recalibration

    VI. Climatological Studies

    VII. Summarization of Reconstructions for Winter Using the Pressure Types

    VIII. Verification of Reconstructions for Winter

    IX. Summarization of Reconstructions for Summer Using the Pressure Types

    X. Verification of Reconstructions for Summer Using Independent Tree-Ring Data

    XI. Verification Using Journals, Historical Data, and Various Proxy Records of Climate

    XII. Applications to Climatological Problems

    XIII. Present and Future Prospects of Dendroclimatology

    Appendix—Scientific and Common Names of Trees

    Bibliography

    Glossary

    Author Index

    Subject Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 582
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 1976
  • Published: January 1, 1976
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323145282

About the Author

H Fritts

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