Transgenerational Epigenetics

Transgenerational Epigenetics

1st Edition - May 2, 2014
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  • Editor: Trygve Tollefsbol

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Description

Transgenerational Epigenetics provides a comprehensive analysis of the inheritance of epigenetic phenomena between generations. Recent research points to the existence of biological phenomena that are controlled not through gene mutations, but rather through reversible and heritable epigenetic processes. Epidemiological studies have suggested that environmental factors may be heritable. In fact, environmental factors often play a role in transgenerational epigenetics, which may have selective or adverse effects on the offspring. This epigenetic information can be transferred through a number of mechanisms including DNA methylation, histone modifications or RNA and the effects can persist for multiple generations. This book examines the evolution of epigenetic inheritance, its expression in animal and plant models, and how human diseases, such as metabolic disorders and cardiovascular diseases, appear to be affected by transgenerational epigenetic inheritance. It discusses clinical interventions in transgenerational epigenetic inheritance that may be on the horizon to help prevent diseases before the offspring are born, or to reduce the severity of diseases at the very earliest stages of development in utero, and current controversies in this area of study, as well as future directions for research.

Key Features

  • Focused discussion of metabolic disorders, cardiovascular diseases and longevity, which appear most affected by reversible and heritable epigenetic processes
  • Encompasses both foundational and clinical aspects including discussions of preventative in utero therapies
  • Covers history, future outlook, disease management and current controversies

Readership

Graduate students researching the fundamental basis of epigenetics to therapeutic interventions into epigenetic-based disorders

Table of Contents

    • Preface
    • Chapter 1. Transgenerational Epigenetics
      • Introduction
      • Definition and History of Generational Epigenetic Inheritance
      • Germline Epigenetics
      • Epidemiology of Epigenetic Inheritance
      • Basic Mechanisms/Processes of Epigenetic Inheritance
      • Model Organisms
      • Evolution of Transgenerational Epigenetics
      • Parental Epigenetic Inheritance
      • Environmental Epigenetic Effects on the Offspring
      • Impact of Transgenerational Epigenetics on Disease
      • Clinical Significance of Transgenerational Epigenetics
      • Controversies and Debate of Generational Epigenetic Inheritance
      • Conclusion
    • Section I. Definitions and History of Generational Epigenetic Inheritance
      • Chapter 2. Definition of Epigenetic Transgenerational Inheritance and Biological Impacts
        • Introduction and Historical Context
        • Epigenetic Transgenerational Inheritance
        • Germline Epimutations
        • Transgenerational Inheritance of Disease and Phenotypic Variation
        • Transgenerational Disease Etiology
        • Impact and Future Studies
        • Glossary
      • Chapter 3. Historical Perspective of Transgenerational Epigenetics
        • Introduction
        • Shifting Paradigms of Heredity and Evolution
        • Early Evidence of Non-Mendelian Inheritance
        • The Origins of Epigenetics
        • Intersection of Phenomena and Mechanisms
        • Transgenerational Epigenetics in Ecology and Physiology
        • Conclusion
    • Section II. Germline Epigenetics
      • Chapter 4. Epigenetics and the Maternal Germline
        • Introduction
        • Transgenerational Inheritance in the Maternal Germline
        • Discussion
        • Future Directions
      • Chapter 5. Epigenetic Changes in the Paternal Germline
        • Introduction
        • PGC Epigenetic Reprogramming
        • Epigenetics of Meiotic Prophase I
        • Histone-to-Protamine Transition during Spermiogenesis
        • Zygotic Epigenetic Reprogramming
        • Transgenerational Epigenetic Inheritance, Aging, and Environmental Effects
        • Epigenetics in Male-Factor Infertility
        • Conclusions
    • Section III. Epidemiology of Epigenetic Inheritance
      • Chapter 6. Epidemiology of Transgenerational Epigenetics
        • Introduction
        • The Evidence for Transgenerational Epigenetics in Humans
        • Potential Mechanisms of Transgenerational Transmission: Transgenerational Epigenetic Inheritance
        • Summary
    • Section IV. Basic Mechanisms/Processes of Epigenetic Inheritance
      • Chapter 7. Metastable Epialleles
        • Definitions
        • Murine MEs
        • Human ME Candidates
        • Potential for THE Transgenerational Inheritance of MEs
      • Chapter 8. Towards the Molecular Mechanisms of Transgenerational Epigenetic Inheritance: Insights from Transgenic Mice
        • Introduction
        • Tei IN Classical Transgenes: Heritable Transcription Silencing
        • Potential Mechanisms of TEI at the Classical Transgenes
        • Insights from Inducible Mouse Models: Timing is Everything for Mitotic Inheritance, But Location is also Crucial for TEI
        • Conclusions and Future Perspectives
      • Chapter 9. Histone-Mediated Transgenerational Epigenetics
        • Introduction
        • Histones and Histone Modifications
        • Evidence that Histones are not Completely Erased During Gametogenesis
        • Transgenerational Changes of Histone Modifications in Different Experimental Models
        • Altered Histone Modifications in Human Genetic Diseases
        • Future Directions
      • Chapter 10. Heritable Generational Epigenetic Effects through RNA
        • Introduction
        • Transgenerational Inheritance Via the Gametes
        • Gametic RNA Populations
        • Small RNA Pathways
        • RNA-Guided Genome Rearrangements in Ciliates
        • RNA Transport in Plant Systems
        • Paramutation in Maize
        • RNA Transfer Via the Gametes in Arabidopsis Thaliana
        • Transgenerational Inheritance of RNAi in Caenorhabditis Elegans
        • The PIRNA Pathway, Transposon Silencing, and Hybrid Dysgenesis in Drosophila Melanogaster
        • Transgenerational Epigenetic Inheritance in Mammals
        • Transgenerational Epigenetic Inheritance in Humans
        • Conclusion
    • Section V. Model Organisms
      • Chapter 11. Animal Models of Transgenerational Epigenetic Effects
        • Introduction
        • Considerations for Designing and Interpreting Transgenerational Animal Studies
        • Naturally Occurring Epigenetic/Transgenerational Animal Models
        • Extrinsic/Environmental Factor Induction of Transgenerational Effects in Animal Models
        • Mechanisms Leading to Transgenerational Inheritance
        • Conclusions and Future Directions
      • Chapter 12. Plant Models of Transgenerational Epigenetic Inheritance
        • Introduction
        • DNA Methylation in Plants
        • Histone Modification in Plants
        • Transgenerational Inheritance of Epigenetic Marks
        • Inheritance of Epigenetic Variants
        • Stress-Induced Epigenetic Modifications
        • Transgenerational Defense
        • Paramutation
        • Conclusion and Perspective
      • Chapter 13. Transgenerational Hormonal Imprinting in the Unicellular Tetrahymena
        • Introduction
        • The Hormonal System of Tetrahymena
        • Hormonal Imprinting
        • Is Hormonal Imprinting Executed by Influencing DNA Methylation?
        • Imprinting of the Nuclear Envelope
        • Imprinter Molecules (Hormones)
        • The Role of Signaling Pathways and Related Factors in the Provocation of Imprinting
        • Cell Functions Influenced by Hormonal Imprinting
        • The Receptor Nature of Binding Sites Induced by Imprinting
        • Biology of the Hormonal Imprinting at a Unicellular Level
    • Section VI. Evolution of Transgenerational Epigenetics
      • Chapter 14. Evolutionary Perspectives on Transgenerational Epigenetics
        • Introduction
        • Epigenetic Inheritance and Evolution
        • Evolutionary Responses: Beyond the Breeder’s Equation
        • Evolution of Epigenetic Inheritance: Stability Versus Plasticity
        • Conclusions
      • Chapter 15. Inheritance of Epigenome Variants Across Generations and its Implications on the Emergence of Phenotypic Novelties During Evolution
        • Introduction
        • Transgenerational Epigenetics
        • Gene–Environment Interactions and Phenotypic Variation
        • Epigenetic Modifications of Chromatin
        • The Transgenerational Stability and Variability of Epialleles
        • Population Epigenetics
        • Current Challenges and Future Directions
        • Conclusion
        • Glossary
    • Section VII. Parental Epigenetic Inheritance
      • Chapter 16. Maternal Epigenetic Inheritance and Stress During Gestation: Focus on Brain and Behavioral Disorders
        • Introduction
        • Epigenetic Inheritance
        • Stress Effects
        • Behavioral Effects in Offspring Exposed to Prenatal Stress
        • HPA Axis Modifications in Offspring Exposed to Prenatal Stress
        • Neural Changes in Offspring Exposed to Prenatal Stress
        • Epigenetic Effects of Gestational Stress
        • Future Directions
        • Summary
      • Chapter 17. Paternal Epigenetic Inheritance
        • Introduction
        • Paternal Transgenerational Effects
        • Mechanisms of Paternal Transgenerational Effects
        • Issues and Future Directions
    • Section VIII. Environmental Epigenetic Effects on the Offspring
      • Chapter 18. Transgenerational Epigenetics of Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals
        • Introduction
        • Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals
        • Epigenetic Programming and the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
        • Pathways to Epigenetic Alterations
        • Epigenetic Requirements to Produce Disease
        • A Potential Role for the Microbiome in Risk of Adverse Epigenetic Alterations
        • Multigenerational Versus Transgenerational Epigenetic Programming
        • The Genomic Reset Issue
        • Specific EDCs, EDC Mixtures, and Transgenerational Epigenetics
        • Conflicting Results
        • Implications and Conclusions
      • Chapter 19. Transgenerational Effects of Perinatal Hormonal Imprinting
        • Introduction
        • Perinatal Hormonal Imprinting
        • Transgenerational Hormonal Imprinting
        • Perinatal Hormonal Mis-Imprinting by Endocrine Disruptors and its Inheritance
        • Phytosteroids as False Imprinters
        • Late Imprinting
        • The Importance of Hormonal Imprinting and its Heredity
      • Chapter 20. Phenotypic and Epigenetic Inheritance Across Multiple Generations in Mammals Through the Female Line
        • Introduction: Early Environment, Epigenetics and Induced Phenotypic Traits
        • Models of Environmental Challenge and Implications for Transgenerational Inheritance
        • Passage of Induced Traits Between Generations: Evidence from Transient Environmental Challenge
        • Passage of Induced Traits between Generations: Evidence from Persistent Environmental Challenge
        • Models of Transgenerational Phenotypic and Epigenetic Variation
        • Conclusions
    • Section IX. Impact of Transgenerational Epigenetics on Disease
      • Chapter 21. Transgenerational Epigenetic Inheritance of Type 2 Diabetes
        • Introduction
        • Transgenerational Effects
        • Transgenerational Epigenetic Inheritance in Mammals
        • Transgenerational Inheritance of Diabetes in Humans
        • Transgenerational Inheritance of Diabetes in Animal Models
        • The Debate: Transgenerational Epigenetic Inheritance of Diabetes?
        • Concluding Remarks
      • Chapter 22. Epigenetic Transgenerational Inheritance of Reproductive Disease
        • Introduction
        • The Epigenetic Control of Genes by DNA Methylation
        • Epigenetic Effects on the Reproductive System
        • Questions and Perspectives
        • Conclusions
      • Chapter 23. Cardiovascular Disease and Transgenerational Epigenetic Effects
        • Introduction
        • Transgenerational Effects in CVD
        • Transgenerational Epigenetic Changes in CVD: Single-Generation Transmission
        • Epigenetic Changes and Atherosclerosis
        • Epigenetic Changes and Lipid Metabolism
        • Transgenerational Epigenetic Changes in CVD: Multiple-Generation Transmission
        • Conclusions
      • Chapter 24. Mental Disorders and Transgenerational Epigenetics
        • Introduction
        • Epigenetic Understanding of Congenital Mental Disorders
        • Role of Epigenetics IN Acquired Mental Disorders
        • Transgenerational Epigenetic Inheritance
        • Perspectives
    • Section X. Clinical Significance of Transgenerational Epigenetics
      • Chapter 25. Clinical Aspects of Transgenerational Epigenetics
        • Introduction
        • How can Epigenetics be Transgenerational?
        • Physiological Consequences of Transgenerational Epigenetics
        • Pathophysiological Consequences of Transgenerational Epigenetics
        • Research and Diagnostics
        • Therapy
        • Nutrition During Pregnancy
        • Epigenetic Changes Caused by Radiation and Toxic Substances
        • Conclusion
    • Section XI. Controversies and Debate of Generational Epigenetic Inheritance
      • Chapter 26. Transgenerational Epigenetics: Current Controversies and Debates
        • Introduction
        • Epigenetics and Behavioral Biology
        • Epigenotypes Versus Epiphenotypes (Molecular vs. Molar Epigenetics)
        • Context-Dependent VS. Germline-Dependent Epigenetic Modifications
        • Body Burdens Include our Personal Exposures, and Those Inherited from our Ancestors
        • The Fallacy of Ecologically Relevant Dosages
        • Experimental Simulation of Exposures in the Real World (Mixtures and Synergy)
        • Thresholds
        • Species, Sex, and Individual Differences
        • Conclusion
        • Glossary
    • Glossary
    • Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 412
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 2014
  • Published: May 2, 2014
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • About the Editor

    Trygve Tollefsbol

    Trygve Tollefsbol
    Dr. Tollefsbol is a Professor of Biology and a Senior Scientist in the Center for Aging, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Nutrition Obesity Research Center, and the Comprehensive Diabetes Center at the University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB). He is Director of the UAB Cell Senescence Culture Facility which he established in 1999 and a Steering Committee Member of the UAB Center for Aging. Dr. Tollefsbol trained as a Postdoctoral Fellow and Assistant Research Professor with members of the National Academy of Science at Duke University and the University of North Carolina. He earned doctorates in molecular biology and osteopathic medicine from the University of North Texas Health Sciences Center and his bachelor’s degree in Biology from the University of Houston. He has received prior funding from the NIA, NCI, NHLBI, NIMH and other federal institutes as well as the Glenn Foundation for Medical Research, Susan G. Komen for the Cure, the American Federation for Aging Research (AFAR), and the American Institute for Cancer Research (AICR) among many other sources.

    Affiliations and Expertise

    Professor of Biology and Senior Scientist, Center for Aging, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Nutrition Obesity Research Center, and the Comprehensive Diabetes Center, University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB), USA