Preface 1 Introduction 1.1 The Literature 1.2 Historical Developments 1.3 The Problem of Local Climate Modification References 2 The Assessment of the Urban Atmosphere 2.1 Synoptic versus Local Scale 2.2 Observational Procedures References 3 Urban Air Composition 3.1 The Urban Atmosphere 3.2 Air Standards and Observations 3.3 Pollutant- Weather Interactions 3.4 Urban Climatological Dispersion Models References 4 Urban Energy Fluxes 4.1 Solar Radiation 4.2 Other Flux Parameters 4.3 Man-Made Factors in the Urban Heat Balance References 5 The Urban Heat Island 5.1 Development and Growth of the Heat Island 5.2 Fluctuations of the Heat Island 5.3 Vertical Extent of the Heat Island 5.4 Wind Influence on the Heat Island 5.5 Consequences of the Urban Heat Island References 6 The Urban Wind Field 6.1 Empirical Evidence for Wind Alterations 6.2 Vertical Wind Structure in Urban Areas 6.3 Urban Wind Field and Other Mesoscale Circulations References 7 Models of Urban Temperature and Wind Fields 7.1 Static Models 7.2 Dynamic Models of Urban Flow 7.3 Model Applications to Air Pollution Studies List of Symbols References 8 Moisture, Clouds, and Hydrometeors 8.1 The Urban Humidity Field 8.2 Urban Clouds 8.3 Urban Precipitation References 9 Urban Hydrology Text References 10 Special Aspects of Urban Climate 10.1 Corrosion and Deterioration 10.2 Urban Noise 10.3 Plants in the Urban Atmosphere 10.4 Effects of Urban Atmosphere on Humans References 11 Urban Planning Text References Author Index Subject Index
The Urban Climate aims to summarize analytical studies directed toward physical understanding of the rural-urban differences in the atmospheric boundary layer. Attempts to quantify conditions have met with some success. There is certainly a clear understanding of the physical relations that create the climatic differences of urbanized areas. Although some of the earlier classical studies are cited here, the emphasis is on the work done during the last decade and a half. This volume comprises 11 chapters, beginning with an introductory chapter discussing the literature surrounding the topic, its historical development, and the problem of local climate modification. The second chapter presents an assessment of the urban atmosphere on a synoptic and local scale, and examines the observational procedures involved. The following chapters then go on to discuss urban air composition; urban energy fluxes; the urban heat island; the urban wind field; models of urban temperature and wind fields; moisture, clouds, and hydrometeors; urban hydrology; special aspects of urban climate; and finally, urban planning. This book will be of interest to practitioners in the fields of meteorology, urban planning, and urban climatology.
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- © Academic Press 1981
- 28th July 1981
- Academic Press
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University of Maryland, College Park, U.S.A.