Principles of Tissue Engineering

Principles of Tissue Engineering

4th Edition - October 17, 2013

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  • Editors: Robert Lanza, Robert Langer, Joseph Vacanti
  • eBook ISBN: 9780123983701

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Description

Now in its fourth edition, Principles of Tissue Engineering has been the definite resource in the field of tissue engineering for more than a decade. The fourth edition provides an update on this rapidly progressing field, combining the prerequisites for a general understanding of tissue growth and development, the tools and theoretical information needed to design tissues and organs, as well as a presentation by the world’s experts of what is currently known about each specific organ system. As in previous editions, this book creates a comprehensive work that strikes a balance among the diversity of subjects that are related to tissue engineering, including biology, chemistry, material science, and engineering, among others, while also emphasizing those research areas that are likely to be of clinical value in the future. This edition includes greatly expanded focus on stem cells, including induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells, stem cell niches, and blood components from stem cells. This research has already produced applications in disease modeling, toxicity testing, drug development, and clinical therapies.  This up-to-date coverage of stem cell biology and other emerging technologies –such as brain-machine interfaces for controlling bionics and neuroprostheses– is complemented by a series of new and updated chapters on recent clinical experience in applying tissue engineering, as well as a new section on the application of tissue-engineering techniques for food production. The result is a comprehensive textbook that will be useful to students and experts alike.

Key Features

  • Includes new chapters on biomaterial-protein interactions, nanocomposite and three-dimensional scaffolds, skin substitutes, spinal cord, vision enhancement, and heart valves
  • Offers expanded coverage of adult and embryonic stem cells of the cardiovascular, hematopoietic, musculoskeletal, nervous, and other organ systems
  • Full-color presentation throughout

Readership

Basic and clinical researchers in fields such as biology, chemistry, materials science, and engineering with an interest in tissue engineering.

Table of Contents

  • Foreword

    Preface

    Preface to the Third Edition

    Preface to the Second Edition

    Preface to the First Edition

    List of Contributors

    Abstract

    Introduction to Tissue Engineering

    Chapter 1. The History and Scope of Tissue Engineering

    Abstract

    Introduction

    Scientific Challenges

    Cells

    Materials

    General Scientific Issues

    Social Challenges

    Further Reading

    Chapter 2. The Challenge of Imitating Nature

    Abstract

    Acknowledgment

    Introduction

    The Basic Paradigm

    Modeling Nature’s Orchestra

    Cell Technology

    Engineering Functional Characteristics

    Translation into the Living System

    Concluding Discussion

    References

    Chapter 3. From Mathematical Models to Clinical Reality

    Abstract

    Introduction

    Modeling Stem Cell Dynamics

    Modeling Tissue Growth and Development

    From Mathematical Models to Clinical Reality

    References

    Chapter 4. Stem Cells as Building Blocks

    Abstract

    List of Abbreviations

    Introduction

    Differentiation Potential of Stem Cells

    Stem Cell Niche

    Developmental Origin of Stem Cells

    Stem Cell Differentiation Methods

    Transdifferentiation and Reprogramming

    Challenges and Looking Forward

    References

    Chapter 5. Moving into the Clinic

    Abstract

    Acknowledgments

    Introduction

    History of Clinical Tissue Engineering

    Strategies to Advance toward the Clinic

    Bringing technology platforms to the clinical setting

    Transition to clinical testing

    Clinical Trial Planning

    Establishing a Regulatory Pathway

    Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 6. Tissue Engineering: Future Perspectives

    Abstract

    Clinical Need

    Current State of the Field

    Current Challenges

    Future Directions

    References

    Part 1: The Basis of Growth and Differentiation

    Chapter 7. Molecular Biology of the Cell

    Abstract

    The Cell Nucleus

    The Cytoplasm

    Growth and Death

    Cytoskeleton

    Cell Adhesion Molecules

    Extracellular Matrix

    Culture Media

    Cells in Tissues and Organs

    Further Reading

    Chapter 8. Molecular Organization of Cells

    Abstract

    Introduction

    Molecules that Organize Cells

    The EMT Transcriptional Program

    Molecular Control of the EMT

    Conclusion

    References

    Chapter 9. The Dynamics of Cell-ECM Interactions, with Implications for Tissue Engineering

    Abstract

    Introduction

    Cell-ECM Interactions

    Signal Transduction Events During Cell-ECM Interactions

    Relevance for Tissue Engineering

    References

    Chapter 10. Matrix Molecules and Their Ligands

    Abstract

    Introduction

    Collagens – Major Constituents of ECM

    Elastic Fibers and Microfibrils

    Other Multifunctional Proteins in ECM

    Proteoglycans – Multifunctional Molecules in the Extracellular Matrix and on Cell Surfaces

    Conclusion

    References

    Chapter 11. Morphogenesis and Tissue Engineering

    Abstract

    Acknowledgments

    Introduction

    Bone Morphogenetic Proteins (BMPs)

    Cartilage-Derived Morphogenetic Proteins (CDMPs)

    Pleiotropy and Thresholds

    BMPs Bind to Extracellular Matrix

    BMP Receptors

    Responding Stem Cells

    Morphogens and Gene Therapy

    Biomimetic Biomaterials

    Tissue Engineering of Bones and Joints

    Future Challenges

    References

    Chapter 12. Gene Expression, Cell Determination, and Differentiation

    Abstract

    Introduction

    Determination and Differentiation

    MyoD and the bHLH Family of Developmental Regulatory Factors

    MEFS and microRNAs – Coregulators of Development

    Pax in Development

    Satellite and Stem Cells in Skeletal Muscle Differentiation and Repair

    Conclusions

    References

    Part 2: In Vitro Control of Tissue Development

    Chapter 13. Engineering Functional Tissues: In Vitro Culture Parameters

    Abstract

    Acknowledgments

    Introduction

    Key Concepts for Engineering Functional Tissues

    Importance of in Vitro Studies for Engineering Functional Tissues

    Influence of Selected in Vitro Culture Parameters on the Development and Performance of Engineered Tissues

    Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 14. Principles of Bioreactor Design for Tissue Engineering

    Abstract

    Acknowledgment

    Introduction

    Principles of Bioreactor Design

    Advanced Bioreactors in Tissue Engineering

    Summary

    References

    Chapter 15. Regulation of Cell Behavior by Extracellular Proteins

    Abstract

    Introduction

    Thrombospondin-1

    Thrombospondin-2

    Tenascin-C

    Osteopontin

    SPARC

    Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 16. Growth Factors

    Abstract

    Introduction

    Wound Healing

    Biological Properties of the SIG (Chemokine) Family Members

    Growth Factors and Accelerated Healing

    Role of Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor and Angiogenesis

    Pleiotrophin Remodels Tumor Microenvironment and Stimulates Angiogenesis

    Other Roles of Growth Factors and Cytokines

    Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 17. Mechanobiology, Tissue Development and Organ Engineering

    Abstract

    Acknowledgments

    Introduction

    Extracellular Matrix Structure and Function

    Pattern Formation Through ECM Remodeling

    Mechanochemical Switching Between Cell Fates

    Mechanobiology Summary

    The Future

    References

    Part 3: In Vivo Synthesis of Tissues and Organs

    Chapter 18. In Vivo Synthesis of Tissues and Organs

    Abstract

    Acknowledgments

    Introduction

    Mammalian Response to Injury

    Regeneration Versus Repair

    Methods to Treat Loss of Organ Function

    Active Extracellular Matrix Analogs

    Basic Parameters for in Vivo Regeneration Studies: Reproducible, Non-regenerative Wounds

    Examples of in Vivo Organ Regeneration

    Conclusions

    References

    Part 4: Biomaterials in Tissue Engineering

    Chapter 19. Micro-Scale Patterning of Cells and their Environment

    Abstract

    Acknowledgments

    Introduction

    Soft Lithography

    Self-Assembled Monolayers (SAMS)

    Microcontact Printing (μCP)

    Microfluidic Patterning (μFP)

    Laminar Flow Patterning

    Dynamic Control of Surfaces

    Patterning With Micro-Topographies

    Three-Dimensional Patterning

    Conclusion and Future Prospects

    References

    Chapter 20. Cell Interactions with Polymers

    Abstract

    Methods for Characterizing Cell Interactions with Polymers

    Cell Interactions with Polymers

    Cell Interactions with Polymers in Suspension

    Cell Interactions with Three-Dimensional Polymer Scaffolds and Gels

    Cell Interactions Unique to the In Vivo Setting

    References

    Chapter 21. Matrix Effects

    Abstract

    Introduction

    Extracellular Matrix Proteins and Their Receptors

    Model Systems for Study of Matrix Interactions

    Cell Pattern Formation by Substrate Patterning

    Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 22. Polymer Scaffold Fabrication

    Abstract

    Acknowledgments

    Introduction

    Bioink: Cell Printing and Characterization

    Biopaper: Structural Material Printing and Characterization

    Printing Mechanism: Layer-By-Layer Approach

    Final Layer Architecture and Resolution

    Printing Applications: Vascularity and Organ Fabrication

    Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 23. Biodegradable Polymers

    Abstract

    Introduction

    Biodegradable Polymer Selection Criteria

    Biologically Derived Polymers

    Synthetic Polymers

    Combinations (Hybrids) of Synthetic and Biologically Derived Polymers

    Using Polymers to Create Tissue-Engineered Products

    Conclusion

    References

    Chapter 24. 3D Scaffolds

    Abstract

    Introduction

    3D Scaffold Design and Engineering

    Conclusions

    References

    Part 5: Transplantation of Engineered Cells and Tissues

    Chapter 25. The Role of the Host Immune Response in Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine

    Abstract

    Introduction

    Wound Healing

    The Foreign Body Response

    The Host Response in Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine

    Acquired and Innate Immunity in Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine

    Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 26. Tissue Engineering and Transplantation in the Fetus

    Abstract

    Introduction

    General Characteristics of Fetal Cells

    Fetal Tissue Engineering

    Ethical Considerations

    The Fetus as a Transplantation Host

    Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 27. Immunomodulation

    Abstract

    Introduction

    Origin of the Designer Tissue Concept

    First Demonstration of the Concept

    Expansion of Research on Designer Tissues

    Antibody Masking

    Gene Ablation

    Rna Ablation

    Enzyme Ablation

    Mechanisms of Graft Survival After Class i Donor Ablation or Antibody Masking

    Role of Class i Modifications in Resistance to Recurrent Autoimmunity

    The Launching of Xenogeneic Human Clinical Trials in the United States using Immunomodulation

    Comment

    References

    Chapter 28. Challenges in the Development of Immunoisolation Devices

    Abstract

    Introduction

    Engineering Challenges

    Strategies for Improving Immunobarrier Devices

    Theoretical Analysis of PFC-Containing Microcapsules

    Future Directions

    References

    Part 6: Stem Cells

    Chapter 29. Embryonic Stem Cells

    Abstract

    Acknowledgments

    Introduction

    Approaches to hESC Derivation

    Maintenance of hESCs

    Subculture of hESC

    Nuances of hESC Culture

    Directed Differentiation

    Safety Concerns

    Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 30. Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

    Abstract

    Acknowledgments

    Introduction

    Methodological Overview of iPSC Derivation

    Improving Reprogramming Efficiency and the Quality of iPSCs

    Comparison of iPSCs and ESCs

    Current Applications of Human iPSCs

    Challenges

    Conclusion

    References

    Chapter 31. Stem Cells in Tissue Engineering

    Abstract

    Potential Stem Cell Sources for use in Tissue Engineering

    Discovery of Embryonic Stem Cells

    Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

    Conclusion

    References

    Chapter 32. Embryonic Stem Cells as a Cell Source for Tissue Engineering

    Abstract

    Acknowledgments

    Introduction

    Maintenance of ESCs

    Directed Differentiation

    Isolation of Specific Progenitor Cells from ESCs

    Transplantation

    Future Prospects

    Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 33. Postnatal Stem Cells in Tissue Engineering

    Abstract

    Acknowledgments

    Introduction

    The reservoirs of postnatal stem cells

    Current Approaches to Tissue Engineering using Postnatal Stem Cells

    Conclusions

    References

    Part 7: Gene Therapy

    Chapter 34. Gene Therapy

    Abstract

    Acknowledgments

    Strategies of Gene Therapy

    Ex Vivo Vs. In Vivo Gene Therapy

    Chromosomal vs. Extra-Chromosomal Placement of the Transferred Gene

    Gene Transfer Vectors

    Cell-Specific Targeting Strategies

    Regulated Expression of the Transferred Gene

    Combining Gene Transfer with Stem Cell Strategies

    Challenges to Gene Therapy for Tissue Engineering

    References

    Chapter 35. Gene Delivery into Cells and Tissues

    Abstract

    Acknowledgments

    Introduction

    Fundamentals of Gene Delivery

    Biodistribution, Targeting, Uptake, and Trafficking

    Viral Nucleic Acid Delivery

    Nonviral Nucleic Acid Delivery

    Engineering Tissue Scaffolds for Viral and Nonviral Nucleic Acid Delivery

    Clinical Applications of Tissue Engineering to Nucleic Acid Delivery

    Outlook

    References

    Part 8: Breast

    Chapter 36. Breast Tissue Engineering: Reconstruction Implants and Three-Dimensional Tissue Test Systems

    Abstract

    Introduction

    Breast Anatomy and Development

    Breast Cancer Diagnosis and Treatments

    Breast Reconstruction

    Breast Cancer Modeling

    Concluding Remarks

    References

    Part 9: Cardiovascular System

    Chapter 37. Progenitor Cells and Cardiac Homeostasis and Regeneration

    Abstract

    Introduction

    Cardiac Progenitors in the Adult Heart

    C-KIT-Positive Cardiac Stem Cells

    Cardiac Stem Cell Niches

    Origin of Newly Formed Cardiomyocytes

    Myocyte Turnover and Cardiac Aging

    Cardiac Stem Cell Senescence

    Concluding Remarks

    References

    Chapter 38. Cardiac Tissue Engineering

    Abstract

    Acknowledgments

    Introduction

    Clinical Problem

    Engineering Cardiac Tissue: Design Principles and Key Components

    Directed Cardiac Differentiation of Human Stem Cells

    Scaffolds

    Biophysical Cues

    In Vivo Applications of Cardiac Tissue Engineering

    Modeling of Disease

    Summary and Challenges

    References

    Chapter 39. Blood Vessels

    Abstract

    Introduction

    Current Status of Vascular Conduits

    Physical or Chemical Modification of Current Grafts to Improve Durability

    Therapeutic Angiogenesis and Arteriogenesis

    Tissue-Engineered Vascular Grafts

    Endovascular Stents and Stent Grafts

    Conclusion

    References

    Chapter 40. Tissue-Engineering Heart Valves

    Abstract

    Introduction

    The Application of Tissue Engineering Towards the Construction of A Replacement Heart Valve

    Conclusion

    References

    Part 10: Endocrinology and Metabolism

    Chapter 41. Generation of Pancreatic Islets from Stem Cells

    Abstract

    Acknowledgments

    Introduction

    First Attempts to Obtain B-Cell Like Cells by Differentiation

    Steps Towards β-Cells: Protocol Comparison

    Alternative Strategies for Protocol Optimization

    Alternative Cell Sources

    Conclusion

    References

    Chapter 42. Bioartificial Pancreas

    Abstract

    Acknowledgments

    Introduction

    Cell Types for Pancreatic Substitutes

    Construct Technology

    In Vivo Transplantation

    References

    Chapter 43. Thymus and Parathyroid Organogenesis

    Abstract

    Acknowledgments

    Structure and Morphology of the Thymus

    In Vitro T Cell Differentiation

    Thymus Organogenesis

    Summary

    References

    Part 11: Gastrointestinal System

    Chapter 44. Stem Cells in the Gastrointestinal Tract

    Abstract

    Introduction

    Gastrointestinal Mucosa Contains Multiple Lineages

    Epithelial Cell Lineages Originate from a Common Precursor Cell

    Single Intestinal Stem Cells Regenerate Whole Crypts Containing All epithelial Lineages

    Mouse Aggregation Chimeras show that Intestinal Crypts are Clonal Populations

    Somatic Mutations in Stem Cells Reveal Stem Cell Hierarchy And clonal Succession

    Human Intestinal Crypts Contain Multiple Epithelial Cell Lineages Derived from a Single Stem Cell

    Bone Marrow Stem Cells Contribute to gut Repopulation After Damage

    Gastrointestinal Stem Cells Occupy a Niche Maintained by Isemfs in the Lamina Propria

    Multiple Molecules Regulate Gastrointestinal Development, Proliferation, and Differentiation

    Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling Pathway Controls Intestinal Stem Cell Function

    Transcription Factors Define Regional gut Specification and Intestinal Stem Cell Fate

    Multiple Molecules Define Stem Cell Fate and Cell Position in the Villus-Crypt Axis

    Gastrointestinal Neoplasms Originate in Stem Cell Populations

    Summary

    References

    Chapter 45. Liver Stem Cells

    Abstract

    Introduction

    Definition of a Tissue-Derived Stem Cell

    Cellular Organization of the Hepatobiliary System

    Development of the Hepatobiliary System

    Hepatocytes: Functional Units of the Liver with Stem Cell Properties

    Liver Stem Cells

    Stem Cells in the EHBD System

    Therapeutic Approaches for Using Stem Cells in the Hepatobiliary System

    Conclusion

    References

    Chapter 46. Hepatic Tissue Engineering

    Abstract

    Liver Failure and Current Treatments

    Cell Sources for Liver Cell-Based Therapies

    In Vitro Hepatic Culture Models

    Extracorporeal Bioartificial Liver Devices

    Implantable Technologies for Liver Therapies and Modeling

    Conclusion

    References

    Part 12: Hematopoietic System

    Chapter 47. Hematopoietic Stem Cells

    Abstract

    Introduction

    Historical Background

    Properties of Hematopoietic Stem Cells (HSCS)

    Ontogeny of HscS

    Migration, Mobilization and Homing of HSC

    Hsc Proliferation and Expansion in Vitro

    Morphogens and HSC Regulation

    Molecular Pathways Implicated in HSC Self-Renewal

    Negative Regulation of HSC

    Hematopoietic Stem Cell Niches

    Conclusion

    References

    Chapter 48. Blood Components from Pluripotent Stem Cells

    Abstract

    Introduction

    Red Blood Cells

    Megakaryocytes and Platelets

    White Blood Cells

    Perspectives

    References

    Chapter 49. Red Blood Cell Substitutes

    Abstract

    Acknowledgments

    Introduction

    Modified Hemoglobin

    First Generation Modified Hemoglobin

    New Generations of Modified Hemoglobin

    A Chemical Approach Based on Perfluorochemicals

    Conclusions

    Link to Websites

    References

    Chapter 50. Lymphoid Cells

    Abstract

    Acknowledgments

    Introduction

    Properties of Lymphocytes

    Lymphocyte Engineering: Reality and Potential

    Criteria for Engineering Developmental Stages of Lymphopoiesis

    Stages of Lymphopoiesis for Engineering

    Concluding Remarks and Prospects for Lymphocyte Engineering

    References

    Part 13: Kidney and Genitourinary System

    Chapter 51. Stem Cells in Kidney Development and Regeneration

    Abstract

    Acknowledgments

    Kidney Development

    Genes that Specify Early Kidney Cell Lineages

    The Establishment of Additional Cell Lineages

    Stem Cells in Kidney Regeneration

    References

    Chapter 52. Renal Replacement Devices

    Abstract

    Introduction

    Basics of Kidney Function

    Tissue-Engineering Approach to Renal Function Replacement

    Conclusion

    References

    Chapter 53. Genitourinary System

    Abstract

    Introduction

    Reconstitution Strategies

    The Role of Biomaterials

    Vascularization

    Progress in Tissue Engineering of Urologic Structures

    Additional Applications

    Conclusion

    References

    Part 14: Musculoskeletal System

    Chapter 54. Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Musculoskeletal Tissue Engineering

    Abstract

    Acknowledgments

    Introduction

    MSC Biology Relevant to Musculoskeletal Tissue Engineering

    MSCs in Musculoskeletal Tissue Engineering

    Conclusions and Future Perspectives

    References

    Chapter 55. Bone Regeneration

    Abstract

    Acknowledgments

    Introduction

    Current Clinical Practices

    Concepts and Definitions

    Fracture Healing Model

    Performance Criteria for Bone Regeneration

    Classical Research Approaches

    Vision for Bone Regeneration

    Conclusion

    References

    Chapter 56. Tissue Engineering for Regeneration and Replacement of the Intervertebral Disc

    Abstract

    Acknowledgments

    Introduction

    IVD Structure and Function

    Biomaterials for Nucleus Pulposus Replacement

    Cell-Biomaterial Constructs for IVD Regeneration

    Cellular Engineering for Intervertebral Disc Regeneration

    Growth Factors and Other Biologics for Intervertebral Disc Regeneration

    Gene Therapy for Intervertebral Disc Regeneration

    Concluding Remarks

    References

    Chapter 57. Articular Cartilage Injury

    Abstract

    Introduction

    Articular Cartilage Injury and Joint Degeneration

    Mechanisms of Articular Cartilage Injuries

    Response of Articular Cartilage to Injury

    Preventing Joint Degeneration Following Injury

    Promoting Articular Surface Repair

    Conclusion

    References

    Chapter 58. Engineering Cartilage and Other Structural Tissues: Principles of Bone and Cartilage Reconstruction

    Abstract

    Introduction

    Materials Development

    Conclusion

    References

    Chapter 59. Tendons and Ligament Tissue Engineering

    Abstract

    Acknowledgments

    Introduction

    Histological Description of Tendons and Ligaments

    Bioengineered Tendon and Ligament Substitutes

    Conclusion

    References

    Chapter 60. Skeletal Tissue Engineering

    Abstract

    Introduction

    Distraction Osteogenesis

    Critically Sized Defects

    Cellular Therapy

    Cytokines

    Scaffolds

    Tissue Engineering in Practice

    Conclusion

    References

    Part 15: Nervous System

    Chapter 61. The Nervous System

    Abstract

    Introduction

    Neural Development

    Neural Stem Cells

    Neural Differentiation of Mouse ES Cells and iPS Cells

    Derivation of ES and iPS Cell-Derived Neurons

    ES-Derived Glia

    Lineage Selection

    Neural Differentiation of Human and Non-Human Primate ES Cells

    Therapeutic Perspectives

    Conclusion

    References

    Chapter 62. Brain Implants

    Abstract

    Acknowledgment

    Introduction

    Cell Replacement Implants

    Cell Protection and Regeneration Implants

    Combined Replacement and Regeneration Implants

    Disease Targets for Brain Implants

    Surgical Considerations

    Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 63. Brain-Machine Interfaces

    Abstract

    Introduction

    BMI Signals

    Voluntary Activity vs. Evoked Potentials

    Mutual Learning

    Context-Aware BMI

    Future Directions

    References

    Chapter 64. Spinal Cord

    Abstract

    Acknowledgments

    Introduction

    The Problem

    Spinal Cord Organization

    Injury

    Spontaneous Regeneration

    Current Limitations and Approaches to Repair and Redefining Goals

    Spinal Cord Development

    Embryonic Stem Cells

    Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

    Alternative Transplantation Options

    Embryonic Stems Cells and The Neural Lineage

    Embryonic Stem Cell Transplantation

    Novel Approaches to CNS Repair

    Toward Human Trials

    Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 65. Protection and Repair of Hearing

    Abstract

    Introduction

    Interventions to Prevent Hearing Loss/Cochlear Damage

    Hair Cell Regeneration by Transdifferentiation

    Loss of Auditory Nerve Connections and Auditory Nerve

    Genetic Deafness

    Methods of Therapeutic Intervention

    Conclusions

    References

    Part 16: Ophthalmic

    Chapter 66. Stem Cells in the Eye

    Abstract

    Introduction

    Corneal Epithelial Stem Cells

    Retinal Progenitor Cells

    Bone Marrow Stem Cells

    The Potential for Stem Cells in Ocular Repair and Tissue Engineering

    References

    Chapter 67. Corneal Replacement Tissue

    Abstract

    Introduction

    Cornea: Overall Structure

    Epithelium: Protects Eye From Noxious Stimuli and The Environment

    Stroma: Provides Strength and Transparency

    Endothelium: Maintains Proper Dehydration and Nutrition

    Approaches to Engineering Cornea

    Current Progress: Epithelium

    Current Progress: Stroma

    Current Progress: Endothelium

    Current Progress: Biosynthetic Corneas

    Sensory Innervation: Important for Corneal Health

    Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 68. Retinal Degeneration

    Abstract

    Definitions

    Epidemiology – Prevalence and Causes of Low Vision

    Neurosensory Retina and Retinal Pigment Epithelium – Anatomy and Background

    The Eye and the RPE

    RPE Transplantation

    Stem Cells in Retinal Degeneration

    Delivery of Cells

    Conclusions and Future Directions

    References

    Chapter 69. Vision Enhancement Systems

    Abstract

    Acknowledgments

    Introduction

    Visual System, Architecture, and (DYS)Function

    Current and Near-Term Approaches to Vision Restoration

    Emerging Application Areas for Engineered Cells and Tissues

    Conclusion: Toward 2020 Vision

    References

    Part 17: Oral/Dental Applications

    Chapter 70. Biological Tooth Replacement and Repair

    Abstract

    Introduction

    Tooth Development

    Whole Tooth-Tissue Engineering

    Dental-Tissue Regeneration

    Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 71. Tissue Engineering in Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery

    Abstract

    Introduction

    Special Challenges in Oral and Maxillofacial Reconstruction

    Current Methods of Oral and Maxillofacial Reconstruction

    Relevant Strategies in Oral and Maxillofacial Tissue Engineering

    The Future of Oral and Maxillofacial Tissue Engineering

    References

    Chapter 72. Periodontal Tissue Engineering

    Abstract

    Acknowledgments

    Introduction

    Stem Cells for Periodontal Bioengineering

    Signaling Molecules

    Scaffolding and Biomaterials Science

    Periodontal Bioengineering Strategies

    Challenges and Future Directions

    Closing Remarks

    References

    Part 18: Respiratory System

    Chapter 73. Tissue Engineering for the Respiratory Epithelium: Cell-Based Therapies for Treatment of Lung Disease

    Abstract

    Introduction: The Challenges Facing Cell-Based Therapy for Treatment of Lung Disease

    Lung Morphogenesis

    Exogenous Sources of Stem Cells: ES, iPS, HSC, and Mscs

    Do Bone Marrow-Derived Cells Directly Contribute to Repair and Provide Protective Factors?

    Bioengineering of Lung Tissues

    Conclusion

    References

    Chapter 74. Lungs

    Abstract

    Introduction

    Lung Function and Anatomy

    Lung Developmental Biology 101: Primer for Tissue Engineers

    Cell Sources for Lung Regenerative Medicine and Tissue Engineering

    Scaffolds and Three-Dimensional Pulmonary Tissue Constructs

    Conclusions and Challenges

    References

    Part 19: Skin

    Chapter 75. Cutaneous Epithelial Stem Cells

    Abstract

    Acknowledgments

    Introduction

    Interfollicular Stem Cells

    Hair Follicle Stem Cells

    The Bulge as Stem Cell Source

    Other Newly Discovered Hair Follicle Stem Cells

    Stem Cells of Other Ectodermal Appendages

    Hair Follicle Stem Cells in Skin Homeostasis, Wound Healing and Hair Regeneration

    Stem Cells and Alopecia

    Tissue Engineering with Epidermal Stem Cells

    Conclusion

    References

    Chapter 76. Wound Repair: Basic Biology to Tissue Engineering

    Abstract

    Introduction

    Basic Biology of Wound Repair

    Chronic Wounds

    Tissue-Engineered Therapy: Established Practice

    Tissue-Engineered Therapy: New Approaches

    References

    Chapter 77. Bioengineered Skin Constructs

    Abstract

    Introduction

    Skin Structure and Function

    Engineering Skin Tissue

    Epidermal Regeneration

    Dermal Replacement

    Bioengineered Living Skin Equivalents

    Bioengineered Skin: FDA Approved Indications

    Apligraf and Dermagraft: Off-Label Uses

    The Importance of Wound Bed Preparation (WBP)

    Proposed Mechanisms of Action (MOA) of Bioengineered Skin

    Construct Priming and a New Didactic Paradigm for Constructs

    Conclusion

    References

    Part 20: Tissue-Engineered Food

    Chapter 78. Principles of Tissue Engineering for Food

    Abstract

    Introduction

    Why Tissue Engineering of Food?

    Specifics of Tissue Engineering for Medical Application

    Skeletal Muscle and Fat Tissue Engineering

    Specifics of Food Tissue Engineering

    Enhanced Meat

    Other Foods

    Consumer Acceptance

    References

    Chapter 79. Prospects for In Vitro Cultured Meat – A Future Harvest

    Abstract

    Introduction

    Need for and Advantages of in Vitro Cultured Meat

    In Vitro Meat

    Challenges in the Commercial Production of in Vitro Meat

    Conclusion

    References

    Part 21: Clinical Experience

    Chapter 80. Current State of Clinical Application

    Abstract

    Introduction

    Current Challenges

    Clinical Applications

    Airway reconstruction

    Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 81. Tissue-Engineered Skin Products

    Abstract

    Introduction

    Types of Therapeutic Tissue-Engineered Skin Products

    Components of Tissue-Engineered Skin Grafts as Related to Function

    Commercial Production of Tissue-Engineered Skin Products

    The Manufacture of Dermagraft and Transcyte

    The Dermagraft and Transcyte Production Processes

    Clinical Trials

    Immunological Properties of Tissue-Engineered Skin

    Commercial Success

    Future Developments

    Conclusion

    References

    Chapter 82. Tissue-Engineered Cartilage Products: Clinical Experience

    Abstract

    Introduction

    Clinical Experience with First-Generation Aci

    Clinical Evolution of Advanced-Generation Aci

    Clinical Experience with Third-Generation Aci

    Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 83. Bone Tissue Engineering: Clinical Challenges and Emergent Advances in Orthopedic and Craniofacial Surgery

    Abstract

    Acknowledgments

    Introduction

    Cells, Scaffolds, and Biofactors: From Functional to Translational Tissue Engineering

    Clinical Successes and Opportunities in Regenerative Repair of Diaphyseal Defects

    Clinical Successes and Opportunities in Regenerative Repair of Craniofacial Defects

    Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 84. Tissue-Engineered Cardiovascular Products

    Abstract

    Introduction

    Clinical Need for Tissue-Engineered Cardiovascular Products

    Concepts and Achievements in Engineering Cardiovascular Products

    State of Myocardial Tissue Engineering

    Bottlenecks

    References

    Chapter 85. Tissue-Engineered Organs

    Abstract

    Introduction

    Tissue Engineering: Strategies for Tissue Reconstitution

    Cell Sources

    Alternate Cell Sources

    Therapeutic Cloning

    Biomaterials

    Growth Factors

    Vascularization

    Clinical Applications

    Conclusion

    References

    Part 22: Regulation, Commercialization and Ethics

    Chapter 86. The Regulatory Process from Concept to Market

    Abstract

    Introduction

    Regulatory Background

    Early-Stage Development

    FDA/Sponsor Meetings

    Submitting an IND

    Later-Phase Development Topics

    Medical devices

    Other Regulatory Topics

    Conclusion

    References

    Appendix: CFR Citations Relevant to Cellular and Cell-based Product Development

    Chapter 87. Business Issues

    Abstract

    Introduction

    The Aging Population

    Rise of Regenerative Medicine

    Product Development

    Reimbursement

    Conclusion

    References

    Chapter 88. Ethical Issues

    Abstract

    Introduction

    Are there Reasons, in Principle, Why Performing the Basic Research Should be Impermissible?

    What Contextual Factors Should be Taken Into Account, and do any of these Prevent the Development and use of the Technology?

    What Purposes, Techniques, or Applications Would be Permissible and Under What Circumstances?

    On What Procedures and Structures, Involving What Policies, Should Decisions on Appropriate Techniques and uses be Based?

    Conclusion

    References

    Epilogue

    Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 1936
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 2013
  • Published: October 17, 2013
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780123983701

About the Editors

Robert Lanza

Robert Lanza
Robert Lanza is an American scientist and author whose research spans the range of natural science, from biology to theoretical physics. TIME magazine recognized him as one of the “100 Most Influential People in the World,” and Prospect magazine named him one of the Top 50 “World Thinkers.” He has hundreds of scientific publications and over 30 books, including definitive references in the fields of stem cells, tissue engineering, and regenerative medicine. He’s a former Fulbright Scholar and studied with polio-pioneer Jonas Salk and Nobel laureates Gerald Edelman (known for his work on the biological basis of consciousness) and Rodney Porter. He also worked closely (and co-authored papers in Science on self-awareness and symbolic communication) with noted Harvard psychologist BF Skinner. Dr. Lanza was part of the team that cloned the world’s first human embryo, the first endangered species, and published the first-ever reports of pluripotent stem cell use in humans.

Affiliations and Expertise

Astellas Institute for Regenerative Medicine, Westborough, MA, USA

Robert Langer

Robert Langer
Robert Langer received honorary doctorates from the ETH (Switzerland) in 1996 and the Technion (Israel) in 1997. Dr. Langer is the Kenneth J. Germeshausen Professor of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering at MIT. He received a Bachelor’s Degree from Cornell University in 1970 and a Sc.D. from MIT in 1974, both in chemical engineering. Dr. Langer has written 590 articles, 400 abstracts, 350 patents, and has edited 12 books.Dr. Langer has received over 70 major awards, including the Gairdner Foundation International Award, the Lemelson-MIT prize, the American Chemical Society (ACS) Polymer Chemistry and Applied Polymer Science Awards, Creative Polymer Chemistry Award (ACS, Polymer Division), the Pearlman Memorial Lectureship Award (ACD, Biochemical Technology Division), and the A.I.Ch.E’s Walker, Professional Progress, Bioengineering, and Stine Materials Science and Engineering Awards. In 1989, Dr. Langer was elected to the Institute of Medicine and the National Academy of Sciences, and in 1992 he was elected to both the National Academy of Engineering and to the National Academy of Sciences. He is the only active member of all 3 United States National Academies.

Affiliations and Expertise

Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, USA

Joseph Vacanti

Dr. Joseph P. Vacanti received his M.D. degree from the university of Nebraska in 1974. He received his training in general surgery at the Massachusetts General Hospital from 1974 through 1981 and in pediatric surgery at The Children’s Hospital, Boston from 1981 through 1983. He then received clinical training in transplantation from the University of Pittsburgh. He spent two years in the laboratories of Dr. M. Judah Folkman working in the filed on angiogenesis from 1977 through 1979. Upon completion of his training, Dr. Vacanti joined the staff in surgery at children’s Hospital in Boston and began clinical programs in pediatric liver transplantation and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. In the laboratory, he continued studies in and began work in the filed of tissue engineering in 1985. Dr. Vacanti is now John Homans Professor of Surgery at Harvard Medical School, Visiting surgeon at Massachusetts General Hospital, director of the Wellman 6 Surgical laboratories, director of the Laboratory of Tissue Engineering and Organ Fabrication and Director of Pediatric Transplantation at Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston. He has authored more than 120 original reports, 30 book chapters, and 197 abstracts. He has more than 25 patents or patents pending in the United States, Europe, and Japan.

Affiliations and Expertise

Harvard Medical School and the Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, USA

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