Physiology of the Gastrointestinal Tract, Two Volume Set

Physiology of the Gastrointestinal Tract, Two Volume Set

5th Edition - April 30, 2012

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  • Editor: Hamid Said
  • eBook ISBN: 9780123820273

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Description

Physiology of the Gastrointestinal Tract, Fifth Edition — winner of a 2013 Highly Commended BMA Medical Book Award for Internal Medicine — covers the study of the mechanical, physical, and biochemical functions of the GI Tract while linking the clinical disease or disorder, bridging the gap between clinical and laboratory medicine. The gastrointestinal system is responsible for the breakdown and absorption of various foods and liquids needed to sustain life. Other diseases and disorders treated by clinicians in this area include: food allergies, constipation, chronic liver disease and cirrhosis, gallstones, gastritis, GERD, hemorrhoids, IBS, lactose intolerance, pancreatic, appendicitis, celiac disease, Crohn’s disease, peptic ulcer, stomach ulcer, viral hepatitis, colorectal cancer and liver transplants. The new edition is a highly referenced and useful resource for gastroenterologists, physiologists, internists, professional researchers, and instructors teaching courses for clinical and research students.

Key Features

  • 2013 Highly Commended BMA Medical Book Award for Internal Medicine
  • Discusses the multiple processes governing gastrointestinal function
  • Each section edited by preeminent scientist in the field
  • Updated, four-color illustrations

Readership

Clinical gastroenterologists, physiologists, and internists, as well as, professional researchers in gastroenterology, physiology, internal medicine, translational medicine and biomedicine.

Table of Contents

  • Contributors

    Preface to the First Edition

    Preface

    Acknowledgments

    VOLUME 1

    Section I Basic Cell Physiology, Genetics, and Growth of the GI Tract

    Chapter 1. Transcription and Epigenetic Regulation

    1.1 Overview of Gene Organization

    1.2 Epigenetic Influences

    1.3 Anatomy of a Gene Promoter

    1.4 Methodology

    1.5 Transcriptional Control of Gastrointestinal Peptides

    1.6 Post-Transcriptional Processing

    1.7 Transport Across the Nuclear Membrane

    1.8 Concluding Remarks

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Chapter 2. Post-translational Processing of Gastrointestinal Peptides

    2.1 Introduction

    2.2 Translation and Passage into the Endoplasmic Reticulum

    2.3 Processing in the Endoplasmic Reticulum

    2.4 Sorting to the Golgi

    2.5 Processing in the Golgi

    2.6 Sorting to the Secretory Vesicle

    2.7 Processing in the Secretory Vesicle

    2.8 Examples of Processing

    2.9 Summary

    References

    Chapter 3. Genetic Tools in Gastrointestinal Diseases

    3.1 The Genetic Architecture of Mendelian and Non-Mendelian Diseases

    3.2 Genome-Wide Association Studies

    3.3 DNA Sequencing and Disease Association Studies of Uncommon Variants

    3.4 DNA-RNA Translation Mappings

    3.5 Epigenetic Regulation of Gene Expression

    3.6 Integrating Genetic and Environmental Factors

    3.7 Clinical Applications

    3.8 Future Directions

    References

    Chapter 4. Signaling Pathways Induced by G-protein-coupled Receptors

    4.1 Introduction

    4.2 GPCR Structure, Oligomerization, and Heterotrimeric G Proteins

    4.3 GPCR Phosphorylation, Conformational Changes, Arrestin Recruitment, and G-Protein-Independent Signaling

    4.4 GPCR-Induced Actin Remodeling and Phosphorylation of Focal Adhesion Proteins

    4.5 GPCR-Induced Fak Phosphorylation at Tyrosine and Serine Residues

    4.6 Signaling through Gs, cAMP, PKA, and EPAC

    4.7 GPCR Signaling Leads to Cell Cycle Activation

    4.8 Conclusions, Implications, and Emerging Themes

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Chapter 5. Transgenic Animal Models of Gastrointestinal Function

    5.1 Introduction

    5.2 Generation of Transgenic Mice

    5.3 Generation of Genetically Engineered Mice by Gene Targeting

    5.4 Promoters Used to Study Gastrointestinal Functions

    5.5 Genetic Mouse Models for Studies of Normal Gastrointestinal Function

    5.6 Genetic Mouse Models of Gastrointestinal Diseases

    5.7 Conclusion

    References

    Chapter 6. Gastrointestinal Peptides

    6.1 General Overview

    6.2 Gastrin

    6.3 Cholecystokinin

    6.4 Somatostatin

    6.5 Ghrelin

    6.6 Concluding Remarks

    References

    Chapter 7. Postpyloric Gastrointestinal Peptides

    7.1 Secretin

    7.2 Intestinal Somatostatin

    7.3 Vasoactive Intestinal Polypeptide and Related Peptides

    7.4 Neurotensin

    7.5 Neuropeptide Y

    7.6 Motilin

    7.7 Peptide YY

    7.8 Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 8. Growth Factors in the Gastrointestinal Tract

    8.1 Introduction

    8.2 TGF-β Family of Peptides and Receptors

    8.3 Epidermal Growth Factor Family of Peptides and Receptors

    8.4 Insulin-Like Growth Factors

    8.5 Trefoil Factor Family of Peptides

    8.6 Hepatocyte Growth Factor

    8.7 Fibroblast Growth Factor Family

    8.8 Hedgehog Family of Peptides

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Chapter 9. Developmental Signaling Networks

    9.1 Introduction

    9.2 History

    9.3 THE WNT/β-Catenin Pathway

    9.4 Non-Canonical WNT Signaling Pathways

    9.5 WNT/β-catenin Pathway in Gastrointestinal Physiology

    9.6 WNT/β-catenin Pathway Defects in Gastrointestinal Tumors

    9.7 Conclusion

    References

    Chapter 10. Hedgehog Signaling in Gastrointestinal Morphogenesis and Morphostasis

    10.1 Patterning

    10.2 The Hedgehog Pathway

    10.3 The Role of Hh Signaling in the Developing Gut

    10.4 Hh Signaling in Homeostasis of the Adult Gastrointestinal Tract

    10.5 Hh Signaling and Carcinogenesis of the Gastrointestinal Tract

    10.6 Conclusions and Future Perspectives

    References

    Chapter 11. Notch Pathway Regulation of Intestinal Cell Fate

    11.1 Notch Pathway Overview

    11.2 Regulation of Notch Pathway Components

    11.3 Overview of Intestinal Structure and Development

    11.4 Notch Signaling in Intestine

    11.5 Notch Signaling and Intestinal Stem and Progenitor Cells

    11.6 Cell Fate Specification

    11.7 Notch and Human Disease

    11.8 Concluding Remarks

    References

    Chapter 12. Stem Cells in the Gastrointestinal Tract

    12.1 Intestinal Stem Cells

    12.2 The Gastrointestinal Stem Cell Niche

    12.3 Stem Cells in the Gastric Gland

    12.4 Symmetric and Asymmetric Stem Cell Divisions

    12.5 The Human Gastrointestinal Tract

    12.6 Stem Cells in Repair and Regeneration

    12.7 Conclusion

    References

    Chapter 13. Programmed Cell Death in the Gastrointestinal Tract

    13.1 Cell Death

    13.2 Intestinal Epithelia: In Vivo Studies

    13.3 Intestinal Cells: In Vitro Studies

    13.4 Gastric Mucosa

    13.5 Concluding Remarks

    References

    Chapter 14. Molecular Physiology of Gastrointestinal Function during Development

    14.1 Ontogeny of Secretory Function

    14.2 Ontogeny of Digestive Function

    14.3 Ontogeny of Intestinal Transport

    14.4 Ontogeny of Transport Function Along the Vertical and Horizontal Gut Axes

    14.5 Developmental Regulation of Gastrointestinal Function

    14.6 Acknowledgments

    References

    Chapter 15. The Cell Cycle

    15.1 Components of the Cell Cycle

    15.2 Control of the Cell Cycle

    15.3 Checkpoints

    15.4 Pathological Consequences of Cell Cycle Deregulation or Dysregulation

    15.5 Conclusion

    Acknowledgment

    References

    Section II Neurogastroenterology

    Chapter 16. Development of the Enteric Nervous System

    16.1 Origin and Migratory Pathways of ENS Precursors

    16.2 Cellular and Molecular Regulation of ENS Development

    16.3 Development of Enteric Neuron Subtypes, Glial Cells, and Ganglia

    16.4 Development of Neural Control of Motility

    16.5 Conclusions

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Chapter 17. Cellular Physiology of Gastrointestinal Smooth Muscle

    17.1 Signal Transduction

    17.2 Small Heat Shock Proteins

    17.3 Thin Filament Regulation

    17.4 Special Mechanisms

    17.5 Summary

    References

    Chapter 18. Organization and Electrophysiology of Interstitial Cells of Cajal and Smooth Muscle Cells in the Gastrointestinal Tract

    18.1 Electrical Activity in Gastrointestinal Muscles

    18.2 Role of Interstitial Cells of Cajal in Spontaneous Electrical Rhythmicity

    18.3 Role of Interstitial Cells of Cajal in Neurotransmission

    18.4 Role of Interstitial Cells of Cajal as Stretch Receptors

    18.5 Motility Disorders Associated with Loss of Interstitial Cells of Cajal

    18.6 Animal Models to Study Loss of Interstitial Cells of Cajal

    18.7 Smooth Muscle Responses to Slow Waves and Neural Inputs

    18.8 Integration of Electrical Activity in Gastrointestinal Muscles

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Chapter 19. Enteric Nervous System Structure and Neurochemistry Related to Function and Neuropathology

    19.1 General Organization of the Enteric Nervous System

    19.2 Neuronal Morphology

    19.3 Morphological and Neurochemical Characteristics of Functionally Defined Neurons

    19.4 Chemical Coding, Multiple Transmitters, and Species Variation and its Relevance

    19.5 The Organization of Enteric Circuits

    19.6 A Possible Explanation of the Functional Differences But Structural Similarities Between Regions

    19.7 Enteric Neuropathies

    19.8 Conclusions

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Chapter 20. Physiology of Prevertebral Sympathetic Ganglia

    20.1 Overview

    20.2 General Properties of PVG Neurons

    20.3 Reflexes Through Peripheral Ganglia

    20.4 PVG and the Immune System

    20.5 PVG and Inflammation

    20.6 PVG Diabetes and Aging

    20.7 Concluding Remarks

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Chapter 21. Cellular Neurophysiology of Enteric Neurons

    21.1 The Enteric Nervous System

    21.2 AH- and S-Type Enteric Neurons

    21.3 Synaptic Transmission

    References

    Chapter 22. Integrative Functions of the Enteric Nervous System

    22.1 Enteric Nervous System

    22.2 Integrated Control of the Stomach

    22.3 Integrated Control of the Small and Large Intestine

    22.4 Plasticity in the ENS

    22.5 Integrative Mechanisms for Defecation

    22.6 Epilogue

    References

    Chapter 23. Processing of Gastrointestinal Sensory Signals in the Brain

    23.1 Introduction

    23.2 Neuroanatomical Representation of GI Sensation

    23.3 Functional Brain Imaging

    23.4 Functional Brain Imaging of GI Sensation

    23.5 Structural Brain Imaging

    23.6 Summary

    References

    Chapter 24. Innervation of the Gastrointestinal Tract by Spinal and Vagal Afferent Nerves

    24.1 Introduction

    24.2 Anatomy of the Afferent Innervation

    24.3 Structure–Function Relationships and Physiological Roles

    24.4 Ion Channels and Receptors in Sensory Functions of Gastrointestinal Afferents

    24.5 Changes in Gastrointestinal Afferents in Disease

    24.6 Conclusion

    References

    Chapter 25. Neuroimaging of Brain–Gut Interactions in Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders

    25.1 Introduction

    25.2 The Current Role of Neuroimaging in FGIDS

    25.3 Neuroimaging of Pain in FGIDS

    25.4 Neuroimaging to Probe Specific Receptor Systems: PET

    25.5 Emerging Neuroimaging Techniques

    25.6 Multimodal Imaging

    25.7 Moving Neuroimaging of the Brain–Gut Axis into the Future

    References

    Chapter 26. The Neurobiology of Gustation

    26.1 Basic Anatomy of the Gustatory System

    26.2 The Taste Bud: the Functional Unit of the Peripheral Gustatory System

    26.3 Receptors and Peripheral Transduction Mechanisms

    26.4 Fat Detection and Taste

    26.5 Gustatory Signaling Cascades are Expressed in Other Chemosensory Systems

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Chapter 27. Enteric Neural Regulation of Mucosal Secretion

    27.1 Physiology of Water and Electrolyte Transport Across the Mucosa

    27.2 Basic Mechanisms of Absorption and Secretion

    27.3 Secretomotor Neurons

    27.4 Secretomotor Pathways

    27.5 Significant Mediators Other than VIP and ACh

    27.6 Local Reflexes

    27.7 Enteric Reflexes Running Via the Myenteric Plexus

    27.8 Sensory Transduction

    27.9 Coupling Motility and Secretion

    27.10 Pathophysiology of Intestinal Secretion

    References

    Chapter 28. Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis in Gastrointestinal Physiology

    28.1 Introduction

    28.2 Anatomy of the Human Hypothalamus

    28.3 Integration of Autonomic and Endocrine Function by the Hypothalamus

    28.4 CRH

    28.5 Receptors of CRH

    28.6 CRH-Binding Protein

    28.7 ACTH

    28.8 Glucocorticoid and Receptors of the Glucocorticoid

    28.9 Stress-Induced Changes in Gastrointestinal Function and the Role of CRH

    28.10 Animal Evidence of CRH on Gastrointestinal Motor Function

    28.11 Animal Evidence of CRH on Visceral Sensation and Emotion

    28.12 Clinical Evidence of CRH on Gastrointestinal Sensorimotor Function

    28.13 Clinical Evidence of CRH Antagonist on Gastrointestinal Sensorimotor Function

    28.14 Clinical Evidence of CRH Antagonist on Brain Function Under Colorectal Distension

    28.15 Inflammation of the Gut and CRH

    28.16 Differential Role of CRH-R1 and CRH-R2

    28.17 Conclusion

    Acknowledgment

    References

    Chapter 29. Neural Regulation of Gastrointestinal Blood Flow

    29.1 Physiologic Relevance of Gastrointestinal Circulation

    29.2 Anatomic and Functional Organization of GI Circulation

    29.3 Innervation of GI Blood Vessels

    29.4 Functional Implications of Vasomotor Neurons in the Regulation of GI Blood Flow

    29.5 Interactive Control of GI Circulation

    29.6 Physiologic and Pathologic Implications

    29.7 Summary

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Chapter 30. Neuromuscular Function in the Biliary Tract

    30.1 The Gallbladder

    30.2 The Sphincter of Oddi

    References

    Chapter 31. Brainstem Control of the Gastric Function

    31.1 Efferent Autonomic Overlay

    31.2 Visceral Afferent Inputs to Brainstem Reflex Control Circuits

    31.3 Reflex Actions Triggered by Visceral Afferent Inputs

    31.4 Components and Characteristics of Vagovagal Gastric Control Reflexes

    31.5 Summary

    References

    Chapter 32. Physiology of Aerodigestive Reflexes in Neonates and Adults

    32.1 Pharyngeal Motor Function: Anatomical Relationships

    32.2 Pharyngeal Motor Function During Deglutition

    32.3 Nasopharyngeal Motor Function During Swallowing and Belching

    32.4 The Ues and Its Pressure Phenomena

    32.5 Cerebral Cortical Representation of Pharyngeal/Reflexive and Volitional Swallow in Humans

    32.6 Mechanisms of Airway Protection During Belching

    References

    Chapter 33. Motor Function of the Pharynx, the Esophagus, and Its Sphincters

    33.1 Introduction

    33.2 Central Pattern Generator and Brainstem

    33.3 Pharynx — Anatomy, Neural Innervation, and Motor Pattern

    33.4 UES

    33.5 Neuromuscular Anatomy of the Esophagus and LES

    33.6 Extrinsic Innervation: Parasympathetic and Sympathetic

    33.7 Interstitial Cells of Cajal

    33.8 Recording Techniques

    33.9 Motor Patterns of the Esophagus — Aboral and Oral Transport

    33.10 Deglutitive Inhibition and Muscle Refractoriness

    33.11 Peristalsis in the Longitudinal Muscles of the Esophagus

    33.12 Neural and Myogenic Mechanism of Peristalsis

    33.13 Central Mechanism of Peristalsis — Cortical and Brainstem Control

    33.14 Peripheral Mechanisms of Peristalsis

    33.15 Central Versus Peripheral Mechanism of Deglutitive Inhibition

    33.16 Neural Control of Longitudinal Muscle Contraction

    33.17 Modulation of Primary and Secondary Peristalsis

    33.18 Neural Control of the LES and Crural Diaphragm

    33.19 The LES – Tonic Contraction

    33.20 Swallow-Induced LES Relaxation

    33.21 Crural Diaphragm Contribution to EGJ and Neural Control

    33.22 Transient LES Relaxation and Pharmacological Inhibition

    33.23 Compliance of the EGJ

    References

    Chapter 34. Neurophysiologic Mechanisms of Gastric Reservoir Function

    34.1 Functional Anatomy

    34.2 Different Phases of Gastric Motility

    34.3 Measurement of Gastric Reservoir Function

    34.4 Control of the Accommodation Reflex

    34.5 Pathophysiologic Role of Impaired Accommodation

    34.6 Conclusion

    References

    Chapter 35. Physiology of the Antral Pump and Gastric Emptying

    35.1 Overview

    35.2 Functional Anatomy

    35.3 Innervation of the Distal Stomach

    35.4 Tools to Study Gastric Emptying and Antropyloric Motility

    35.5 Patterns of Antroduodenal Motor Activity

    35.6 Integration of Motor Activity Involving the Antrum, Pylorus, and Duodenum

    35.7 Conditions Associated with Disordered Gastric Emptying

    35.8 Therapy for Delayed Gastric Emptying

    References

    Chapter 36. Neurophysiologic Mechanisms of Human Large Intestinal Motility

    36.1 Introduction

    36.2 Anatomy and Basic Control Mechanisms

    36.3 Colonic Elecrophysiology

    36.4 Innervation of the Colon

    36.5 Measuring Colonic Perception and Motor Patterns

    36.6 Colonic Motor Patterns

    36.7 In vitro Studies of Colonic Motility

    36.8 Modulators of Colonic Motility

    36.9 Disorders of Colonic Motility

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Chapter 37. Neuromuscular Physiology of the Pelvic Floor

    37.1 Introduction

    37.2 Anatomy

    37.3 PFM Activity

    37.4 Urethral and Anal Rhabdosphincters

    37.5 PFMs and Pelvic Organ Function

    37.6 PFMS and Neurologic Lesions

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Section III Host Defense Mechanisms

    Chapter 38. Tight Junctions and the Intestinal Barrier

    38.1 Introduction

    38.2 Intrinsic and Extrinsic Elements of the Barrier

    38.3 The Intestinal Epithelial Barrier and Transcellular and Paracellular Transport

    38.4 Protein Components of the TJ

    38.5 Regulation of Intestinal Epithelial TJ Barrier

    38.6 Clinical Disorders of Intestinal TJ Barrier Defect

    38.7 Concluding Remarks

    References

    Chapter 39. Biology of Gut Immunoglobulins

    39.1 Introduction

    39.2 Origin of Gut Plasma Cells and Local Immunoglobulin Production

    39.3 Polymeric Immunoglobulins and the Polymeric Immunoglobulin Receptor

    39.4 IgG and the Neonatal Fc Receptor FcRn

    39.5 IgE, FcεRI, and FcεRII

    39.6 Conclusion

    References

    Chapter 40. Gastrointestinal Microbial Ecology with Perspectives on Health and Disease

    40.1 Introduction

    40.2 Overview of Culture-Independent Molecular Techniques for Characterizing the Human Gut Microbiome

    40.3 Applying the Principles of Microbial Ecology to Analyze the Human Gut Microbiome

    40.4 Membership and Diversity of the Human Gut Microbiome

    40.5 Colonization and Succession of the Human Gut Microbiome

    40.6 Modulation of the Gut Microbiota

    40.7 Bacteria, their Metabolites, and Human Health

    40.8 Perspectives on Health and Disease

    References

    Chapter 41. Mucosal Bacterial Recognition and Signaling Systems in the Intestine

    41.1 Introduction

    41.2 Functional Structure of PRRs

    41.3 Expression of PRRs in the Gastrointestinal Tract

    41.4 Bacterial Signaling Pathways and the Regulation of Mucosal Immunity

    41.5 Physiological Roles of PRRS in the Gastrointestinal Mucosa

    41.6 Concluding Remarks

    References

    Chapter 42. Mucosal Restitution and Repair

    42.1 Introduction

    42.2 Overview Of The Restitution Process

    42.3 Modeling Restitution and Wound Healing

    42.4 Regulation of Epithelial Wound Healing by Extracellular Signals

    42.5 Intracellular Pathways Coordinating Migration

    42.6 Relationship of Altered Migration to Disease

    42.7 Future Challenges

    References

    Chapter 43. Gastroduodenal Mucosal Defense

    43.1 Introduction

    43.2 Animal Models of Gastroduodenal Injury

    43.3 Juxtamucosal Environment and Pre-Epithelial Defenses

    43.4 Gastroduodenal Epithelial Layer

    43.5 Subepithelial Defense: Mucosal Blood Flow, Neurohormonal Effectors, Receptors, and Chemical Mediators

    43.6 Injury and Restitution

    43.7 Summary and Conclusions

    Acknowledgments

    References

    VOLUME 2

    Section IV Physiology of Secretion

    Chapter 44. Paneth Cells

    44.1 Introduction

    44.2 Concluding Statement

    References

    Chapter 45. Salivary Gland Secretion

    45.1 Introduction

    45.2 Salivary Gland Development

    45.3 Microscopic Anatomy

    45.4 Secretion of Salivary Fluid and Electrolytes

    45.5 Primary Saliva Secretion by Secretory Endpieces

    45.6 Fluid Secretion Mechanism

    45.7 Primary Saliva is Modified by the Salivary Gland Ducts

    45.8 Protein Secretion

    45.9 Factors Modulating Sorting of Secretory Proteins

    45.10 Multiple Secretory Pathways in Salivary Gland Cells

    45.11 Exocytosis

    45.12 Functional Properties of Saliva

    45.13 Saliva as a Diagnostic Fluid

    References

    Chapter 46. The Cell Biology of Gastric Acid Secretion

    46.1 Cellular Plasticity of Gastric Acid Secretion

    46.2 Molecular Mechanism of Hydrochloric Acid Secretion

    46.3 Actin Cytoskeleton Plasticity in Parietal Cell Secretion

    46.4 Stimulation-Secretion Coupling in the Parietal Cells

    References

    Chapter 47. Regulation of Gastric Acid Secretion

    47.1 Introduction

    47.2 Methods for Measurement of Gastric Acid Secretion

    47.3 Functional Anatomy

    47.4 Regulation of Gastric Acid Secretion: Central, Peripheral, and Intracellular Pathways

    Acknowledgment

    References

    Chapter 48. Gastroduodenal Bicarbonate Secretion

    48.1 Introduction

    48.2 Gastric Secretion of HCO3−

    48.3 Transport Proteins Involved in Gastric HCO3− Secretion

    48.4 Regulation of Gastric HCO3− Secretion

    48.5 Physiological Significance of Gastric HCO3− Secretion

    48.6 Duodenal Secretion of HCO3−

    48.7 Transport Proteins in Duodenal HCO3− Secretion

    48.8 Physiological Regulation of Duodenal Bicarbonate Secretion

    48.9 Summary and Future Directions

    References

    Chapter 49. Structure–function Relationships in the Pancreatic Acinar Cell

    49.1 Organization of the Exocrine Pancreas

    49.2 Pancreatic Development

    49.3 Structural Organization

    49.4 Functional Responses of the Acinar Cell: Protein Synthesis, Vectorial Transport, Modifications, and Sorting

    49.5 Cell Signaling

    49.6 Secretion

    49.7 Early Acinar Cell Responses in Acute Pancreatitis

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Chapter 50. Stimulus-secretion Coupling in Pancreatic Acinar Cells

    50.1 Introduction

    50.2 Receptors and Transmembrane Signaling

    50.3 Intracellular Messengers

    50.4 Action of Intracellular Messengers

    50.5 Mechanisms of Exocytosis

    References

    Chapter 51. Cell Physiology of Pancreatic Ducts

    51.1 Patterns Of Pancreatic Electrolyte Secretion

    51.2 Structural Basis Of Secretion

    51.3 Advances In Studying Duct Cell Physiology

    51.4 Mechanisms Of Ductal Electrolyte Secretion

    51.5 Regulation Of Ductal Bicarbonate Secretion

    51.6 Concluding Remarks

    References

    Chapter 52. Regulation of Pancreatic Secretion

    52.1 Patterns of Secretion

    52.2 Phases of the Meal Response

    52.3 Neural and Hormonal Regulators

    52.4 Inhibition of Pancreatic Secretion

    52.5 Pancreatic Function Testing

    References

    Chapter 53. Bile Formation and the Enterohepatic Circulation

    53.1 Introduction to the Structure and Major Functions of Bile Acids

    53.2 Biosynthesis, Chemistry, and Physical Chemistry of Bile Acids

    53.3 Enterohepatic Circulation of Bile Acids

    53.4 Bile Secretion and Hepatic Bile Acid Transport

    53.5 Intestinal Absorption of Bile Acids

    References

    Chapter 54. Mechanisms of Hepatocyte Organic Anion Transport

    54.1 Introduction

    54.2 Mechanisms of Non-Bile Acid Organic Anion Uptake

    54.3 Mechanisms of Bile Acid Uptake

    54.4 Organic Anion Excretion Across the Bile Canaliculus

    References

    Chapter 55. Mechanisms of Hepatocyte Detoxification

    55.1 Introduction

    55.2 Metabolism and Excretion

    55.3 Detoxification of Metals

    55.4 Liver Self-Defense Mechanisms

    55.5 Summary

    References

    Section V Digestion and Absorption

    Chapter 56. Physiology of Cholangiocytes

    56.1 Functional Anatomy of the Biliary Tract

    56.2 Molecular Physiology of Ductal Bile Formation

    56.3 Intracellular Signaling

    56.4 Regulation of Ductal Bile Formation

    56.5 Conclusion

    References

    Chapter 57. Molecular Mechanisms of Protein Sorting in Polarized Epithelial Cells

    57.1 Introduction to Epithelial Cell Polarity

    57.2 Cytoarchitecture and Membrane Compartments in Polarized Epithelial Cells

    57.3 Sorting Pathways

    57.4 Post-Endocytic Pathway

    57.5 Sorting Signals

    57.6 Recognition of Sorting Signals

    57.7 Polarized Transport and Delivery

    57.8 Polarized Docking and Fusion

    57.9 Selective Retention

    57.10 Summary

    References

    Chapter 58. Sugar Absorption

    58.1 Overview

    58.2 Absorption of Glucose, Galactose, and Fructose

    58.3 The SGLT Gene Family

    58.4 The GLUT Gene Family

    58.5 SGLT1, GLUT2, and GLUT5 are the Major Intestinal Sugar Transporters

    58.6 SGLT1 Sugar Selectivity

    58.7 GLUT Sugar Selectivity

    58.8 SGLT1 Cation Selectivity

    58.9 Transport Kinetics

    58.10 Genetic Defects

    58.11 Regulation of Sugar Absorption

    58.12 Future Directions

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Chapter 59. Protein Digestion and Absorption

    59.1 An Overview of Protein Digestion and Absorption

    59.2 Role of Gastric and Pancreatic Proteases in Protein Digestion

    59.3 Role of Membrane-Bound and Cytoplasmic Peptidases in the Enterocyte in Protein Digestion

    59.4 Sites of Protein Absorption

    59.5 Generation of Driving Forces for Active Transport Systems in the Enterocyte

    59.6 Entry of Protein Digestion Products into the Enterocyte across the Brush Border Membrane

    59.7 Fate of Absorbed Amino Acids and Peptides in the Enterocyte

    59.8 Exit of Protein Digestion End Products across the Basolateral Membrane

    59.9 Transport of Glutathione in the Small Intestine

    59.10 Genetic Disorders of Intestinal Amino Acid and Peptide Transport

    59.11 Nutritional, Clinical, and Pharmacological Relevance of Intestinal Peptide Transport

    59.12 Regulation of Intestinal Amino Acid and Peptide Transport

    59.13 Conclusions and Future Perspectives

    References

    Note Added in Proof

    Chapter 60. Enterocyte Fatty Acid Handling Proteins and Chylomicron Formation

    60.1 Overview of Dietary Fat Absorption

    References

    Chapter 61. Genetic Regulation of Intestinal Lipid Transport and Metabolism

    61.1 Major Pathways and Genes Involved in Intestinal Triglyceride-Rich Lipoprotein Assembly

    61.2 Genetic Defects in APOB and MTTP

    61.3 Apolipoprotein B mRNA Editing: Overview, Molecular Mechanisms, and Functional Relevance

    61.4 Other Genes Involved in Intestinal Lipoprotein Biogenesis: Apolipoprotein A-I and Apolipoprotein A-IV

    61.5 Major Pathways and Genes Involved in Intestinal Sterol Transport

    61.6 Other Genetic Defects of Intestinal Lipoprotein Assembly and Secretion and Potential New Pathways

    References

    Chapter 62. Digestion and Intestinal Absorption of Dietary Carotenoids and Vitamin A

    62.1 Introduction

    62.2 Carotenoid and Vitamin a Metabolism — Overview

    62.3 Dietary Sources and Forms

    62.4 Solubilization of Carotenoids and Retinoids

    62.5 Conversion of Provitamin a Carotenoids to Retinoids

    62.6 Digestion of Retinyl Esters

    62.7 Intestinal Absorption of Carotenoids

    62.8 Intestinal Absorption of Vitamin A

    62.9 Overview

    References

    Chapter 63. 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3

    63.1 Introduction

    63.2 Overview of Vitamin D Production and Physiology

    63.3 The Molecular Mechanism of Action of 1,25(OH)2D3

    63.4 New Insights into the Regulation of Gene Expression by 1,25(OH)2D3

    63.5 The Transport of Calcium Across the Intestinal Epithelium

    63.6 Regulation of Calcium Transporter Expression by 1,25(OH)2D3

    63.7 Vitamin D Actions in the Colon: A New VDR Ligand, Xenobiotic Metabolism, and Anti-Carcinogenic and Anti-Cancer Actions

    63.8 Vitamin D Therapeutics and the Calcemic Side Effects

    63.9 Summary

    References

    Chapter 64. Mechanisms and Regulation of Intestinal Absorption of Water-soluble Vitamins

    64.1 Vitamin B1 (Thiamin)

    64.2 Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin)

    64.3 Vitamin B3 (Niacin, Nicotinic Acid)

    64.4 Vitamin B5 (Pantothenic Acid)

    64.5 Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine and Derivatives)

    64.6 Vitamin B9 (Folate)

    64.7 Vitamin B12 (Cobalamin)

    64.8 Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid)

    64.9 Vitamin H (Biotin)

    64.10 Concluding Remarks

    References

    Chapter 65. Water Transport in the Gastrointestinal Tract

    65.1 Introduction

    65.2 Epithelial Fluid Transporting Mechanisms

    65.3 AQPs

    65.4 Fluid Transport Mechanisms and AQPs in GI Organs

    65.5 Summary and Perspective

    References

    Chapter 66. Na+/H+ Exchange in Mammalian Digestive Tract

    66.1 Introduction

    66.2 Mammalian Monovalent Cation Proton Antiporter Superfamily

    66.3 Membrane Topology and Functional Domains

    66.4 Transport Characteristics and Pharmacology

    66.5 Gastrointestinal Na+/H+ Exchangers

    66.6 Physiological Role of Na+/H+ Exchange in the Digestive Tract

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Chapter 67. Intestinal Anion Absorption

    67.1 Mechanisms of Intestinal Chloride Absorption

    67.2 Mechanisms of SCFA Absorption

    67.3 Mechanisms of Intestinal SO42− Absorption

    67.4 Mechanisms of Intestinal Oxalate Absorption

    67.5 Conclusions

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Chapter 68. cAMP Sensor Epac and Gastrointestinal Function

    68.1 Introduction

    68.2 Identification of Epac as A Transducer of Intracellular cAMP Action

    68.3 Epac Protects Hepatocytes from Apoptosis

    68.4 Epac Participates in the Regulation of Intestinal Epithelial Cell Cl− Secretion

    68.5 Conclusion

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Note Added in Proof

    Chapter 69. Ion Channels of the Epithelia of the Gastrointestinal Tract

    69.1 CFTR in Chloride Transport in the Gastrointestinal Tract

    69.2 Calcium-Activated Chloride Channels

    69.3 CLC Family of Chloride Channels ClC-2

    69.4 Summary

    69.5 Epithelial Sodium Channel

    69.6 Potassium Channels

    69.7 Human Tissues and Human Cell Models: Species Differences

    69.8 Methods for Study of Ion Channels in Gastrointestinal Tissues

    69.9 Summary

    References

    Chapter 70. Molecular Mechanisms of Intestinal Transport of Calcium, Phosphate, and Magnesium

    70.1 Introduction

    70.2 Recommended Nutritional Requirements for Ca2+, Mg2+, and Pi

    70.3 Intestinal Calcium Transport

    70.4 Intestinal Phosphate Transport

    70.5 Intestinal Transport of Magnesium

    70.6 Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 71. Molecular Mechanisms of Intestinal Iron Transport

    71.1 Introduction

    71.2 The Anatomy of Iron Absorption — Specialization of the Proximal Small Intestine

    71.3 Dietary Forms of Iron and Factors Affecting Luminal Bioavailability

    71.4 Iron Transport Across the Enterocyte

    71.5 Regulation of Iron Absorption

    71.6 Developmental Changes in Iron Absorption

    71.7 Pathological Conditions and Intestinal Iron Transport

    71.8 Conclusions

    References

    Section VI Consequences of Disregulated Physiology

    Chapter 72. Trace Element Absorption and Transport

    72.1 General Properties of Trace Element Absorption

    72.2 Other Trace Elements

    Acknowledgment

    References

    Chapter 73. The Gastrointestinal Tract and Control of Food Intake

    73.1 Signals Arising from the Gut in Control of Food Intake

    73.2 Vagus Nerve

    73.3 Processing of Information in the CNS

    73.4 The Gut and Changes in Food Intake in Obesity

    References

    Chapter 74. Effects of Stress on Intestinal Mucosal Functions

    74.1 Introduction

    74.2 Mucosal Barrier Function

    74.3 What is Stress?

    74.4 Stress-induced Changes in Intestinal Mucosal Function

    74.5 Consequences of Stress-Induced Changes in Mucosal Function in Relation to Human Intestinal Diseases

    74.6 Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 75. Enteric Neurobiology of Stress

    75.1 Stress: Case Examples

    75.2 Stress and the Sympathetic Nervous System

    75.3 Psychogenic Stress and Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders

    75.4 Psychogenic Stress and Enteric Mast Cells

    75.5 Neurobiology of Stress

    75.6 CRF Receptors

    75.7 Sources for CRF

    References

    Chapter 76. Mechanisms of Helicobacter pylori-induced Gastric Inflammation

    76.1 Introduction

    76.2 Colonization of the Gastric Mucosa

    76.3 Evasion of the Host Immune Response by H. pylori

    76.4 Development of Gastritis

    76.5 H. pylori Strain Variation, Gastric Inflammation and Disease

    76.6 Human Genetic Polymorphisms that Influence the Propensity Toward Development of Disease

    76.7 Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 77. Physiology of Host-pathogen Interactions

    77.1 Toxin-Mediated Effects on Ion Secretion

    77.2 Absorption

    77.3 Indirect Effects on Ion Secretion

    77.4 Barrier Function and Cytotoxicity

    77.5 Infection-Mediated Barrier Changes

    77.6 Junctions as Pathogen Receptors

    77.7 Pharmacopeia

    77.8 Summary

    References

    Chapter 78. Mechanisms and Consequences of Intestinal Inflammation

    78.1 Overview of Gut Function

    78.2 Initiators and Mediators of Acute Intestinal Inflammation

    78.3 Effectors of the Response to Luminal Triggers of Inflammation

    78.4 Resolution Phase of Inflammation

    78.5 Chronic Inflammation

    78.6 Characterizing Inflammatory Disorders of the Intestine

    78.7 Factors Contributing to the Development of Intestinal Inflammation

    78.8 Summary

    78.9 Effects of Inflammation on Intestinal Function

    78.10 Summary

    78.11 Future Directions for Research

    References

    Chapter 79. Recruitment of Inflammatory and Immune Cells in the Gut

    79.1 Introduction

    79.2 Adhesion Molecules

    79.3 Regulation of Blood Cell–Endothelial Cell Interactions in Non-Lymphoid Tissues

    79.4 Gut-Associated Lymphoid Tissue and Intestinal Immunity

    79.5 Leukocyte Movement Through the Interstitium

    79.6 Leukocyte Trafficking During Acute Inflammation

    79.7 Leukocyte Trafficking During Chronic Gut Inflammation

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Chapter 80. Mechanisms of GI Malignancies

    80.1 Principles of Oncogenesis

    80.2 Cardinal Features of Gastrointestinal Cancers

    80.3 Genetic Instability

    80.4 Novel Molecular Mechanisms Contributing to Gastrointestinal Carcinogenesis

    80.5 Summary and Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 81. Pathophysiology Underlying the Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    81.1 Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    81.2 Neuropathy in the Brain-in-the-Gut

    81.3 Neurogenic Secretion: Diarrhea and Constipation

    81.4 Abdominal Pain and Discomfort

    81.5 Psychogenic Stress

    References

    Chapter 82. Pathophysiology of Diarrhea and its Clinical Implications

    82.1 Introduction

    82.2 Physiology of Intestinal Absorption and Secretion

    82.3 Definitions of Diarrhea

    82.4 Pathophysiology of Diarrhea

    82.5 Clinical Manifestations

    82.6 Evaluation and Management

    82.7 Conclusions

    References

    Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 2308
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 2012
  • Published: April 30, 2012
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780123820273

About the Editor

Hamid Said

Dr. Said is a Professor of Medicine, Physiology and Biophysics at the University of California School of Medicine Irvine, CA. He is also a Senior Research Career Scientist at the VA Medical Center, Long Beach, CA; and Chairman for the Southern California Institute for Research and Education (VALBHS affiliated non-profit).

He serves as a reviewer on a variety of NIH, VA and other national study sections as well as international (European) study sections dealing with medical research in internal medicine and nutrition. He is also a member of Editorial Boards of a number of prestigious medical research journals.

Research in Dr. Said laboratory focuses on understanding cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in the transport of water-soluble vitamins (folate (vit. B), thiamine (vit. B1), riboflavin (vit. B2), pyridoxine (vit. B6), ascorbic acid (vit. C), biotin (vit. H) and niacin (vit. B3)) in the intestine, kidney, liver and pancreas. Dr. Said's laboratory has published over 160 original research papers in the gastrointestinal and nutrition fields. He has authored many chapters in scientific textbooks as well as a book in these areas. His laboratory has contributed many original discoveries to the field over the years. His research activities are funded by the VA and National Institutes of Health over the past twenty four years.

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor of Medicine, Physiology and Biophysics, Departments of Medicine and Physiology/Biophysics, University of California School of Medicine, Irvine, CA, USA

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