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Physiology of the Gastrointestinal Tract, Two Volume Set - 5th Edition - ISBN: 9780123820266, 9780123820273

Physiology of the Gastrointestinal Tract, Two Volume Set

5th Edition

Editor: Hamid Said
Hardcover ISBN: 9780123820266
eBook ISBN: 9780123820273
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 30th April 2012
Page Count: 2308
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Physiology of the Gastrointestinal Tract, Fifth Edition — winner of a 2013 Highly Commended BMA Medical Book Award for Internal Medicine — covers the study of the mechanical, physical, and biochemical functions of the GI Tract while linking the clinical disease or disorder, bridging the gap between clinical and laboratory medicine.

The gastrointestinal system is responsible for the breakdown and absorption of various foods and liquids needed to sustain life. Other diseases and disorders treated by clinicians in this area include: food allergies, constipation, chronic liver disease and cirrhosis, gallstones, gastritis, GERD, hemorrhoids, IBS, lactose intolerance, pancreatic, appendicitis, celiac disease, Crohn’s disease, peptic ulcer, stomach ulcer, viral hepatitis, colorectal cancer and liver transplants.

The new edition is a highly referenced and useful resource for gastroenterologists, physiologists, internists, professional researchers, and instructors teaching courses for clinical and research students.

Key Features

  • 2013 Highly Commended BMA Medical Book Award for Internal Medicine
  • Discusses the multiple processes governing gastrointestinal function
  • Each section edited by preeminent scientist in the field
  • Updated, four-color illustrations


Clinical gastroenterologists, physiologists, and internists, as well as, professional researchers in gastroenterology, physiology, internal medicine, translational medicine and biomedicine.

Table of Contents


Preface to the First Edition




Section I Basic Cell Physiology, Genetics, and Growth of the GI Tract

Chapter 1. Transcription and Epigenetic Regulation

1.1 Overview of Gene Organization

1.2 Epigenetic Influences

1.3 Anatomy of a Gene Promoter

1.4 Methodology

1.5 Transcriptional Control of Gastrointestinal Peptides

1.6 Post-Transcriptional Processing

1.7 Transport Across the Nuclear Membrane

1.8 Concluding Remarks



Chapter 2. Post-translational Processing of Gastrointestinal Peptides

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Translation and Passage into the Endoplasmic Reticulum

2.3 Processing in the Endoplasmic Reticulum

2.4 Sorting to the Golgi

2.5 Processing in the Golgi

2.6 Sorting to the Secretory Vesicle

2.7 Processing in the Secretory Vesicle

2.8 Examples of Processing

2.9 Summary


Chapter 3. Genetic Tools in Gastrointestinal Diseases

3.1 The Genetic Architecture of Mendelian and Non-Mendelian Diseases

3.2 Genome-Wide Association Studies

3.3 DNA Sequencing and Disease Association Studies of Uncommon Variants

3.4 DNA-RNA Translation Mappings

3.5 Epigenetic Regulation of Gene Expression

3.6 Integrating Genetic and Environmental Factors

3.7 Clinical Applications

3.8 Future Directions


Chapter 4. Signaling Pathways Induced by G-protein-coupled Receptors

4.1 Introduction

4.2 GPCR Structure, Oligomerization, and Heterotrimeric G Proteins

4.3 GPCR Phosphorylation, Conformational Changes, Arrestin Recruitment, and G-Protein-Independent Signaling

4.4 GPCR-Induced Actin Remodeling and Phosphorylation of Focal Adhesion Proteins

4.5 GPCR-Induced Fak Phosphorylation at Tyrosine and Serine Residues

4.6 Signaling through Gs, cAMP, PKA, and EPAC

4.7 GPCR Signaling Leads to Cell Cycle Activation

4.8 Conclusions, Implications, and Emerging Themes



Chapter 5. Transgenic Animal Models of Gastrointestinal Function

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Generation of Transgenic Mice

5.3 Generation of Genetically Engineered Mice by Gene Targeting

5.4 Promoters Used to Study Gastrointestinal Functions

5.5 Genetic Mouse Models for Studies of Normal Gastrointestinal Function

5.6 Genetic Mouse Models of Gastrointestinal Diseases

5.7 Conclusion


Chapter 6. Gastrointestinal Peptides

6.1 General Overview

6.2 Gastrin

6.3 Cholecystokinin

6.4 Somatostatin

6.5 Ghrelin

6.6 Concluding Remarks


Chapter 7. Postpyloric Gastrointestinal Peptides

7.1 Secretin

7.2 Intestinal Somatostatin

7.3 Vasoactive Intestinal Polypeptide and Related Peptides

7.4 Neurotensin

7.5 Neuropeptide Y

7.6 Motilin

7.7 Peptide YY

7.8 Conclusions


Chapter 8. Growth Factors in the Gastrointestinal Tract

8.1 Introduction

8.2 TGF-β Family of Peptides and Receptors

8.3 Epidermal Growth Factor Family of Peptides and Receptors

8.4 Insulin-Like Growth Factors

8.5 Trefoil Factor Family of Peptides

8.6 Hepatocyte Growth Factor

8.7 Fibroblast Growth Factor Family

8.8 Hedgehog Family of Peptides



Chapter 9. Developmental Signaling Networks

9.1 Introduction

9.2 History

9.3 THE WNT/β-Catenin Pathway

9.4 Non-Canonical WNT Signaling Pathways

9.5 WNT/β-catenin Pathway in Gastrointestinal Physiology

9.6 WNT/β-catenin Pathway Defects in Gastrointestinal Tumors

9.7 Conclusion


Chapter 10. Hedgehog Signaling in Gastrointestinal Morphogenesis and Morphostasis

10.1 Patterning

10.2 The Hedgehog Pathway

10.3 The Role of Hh Signaling in the Developing Gut

10.4 Hh Signaling in Homeostasis of the Adult Gastrointestinal Tract

10.5 Hh Signaling and Carcinogenesis of the Gastrointestinal Tract

10.6 Conclusions and Future Perspectives


Chapter 11. Notch Pathway Regulation of Intestinal Cell Fate

11.1 Notch Pathway Overview

11.2 Regulation of Notch Pathway Components

11.3 Overview of Intestinal Structure and Development

11.4 Notch Signaling in Intestine

11.5 Notch Signaling and Intestinal Stem and Progenitor Cells

11.6 Cell Fate Specification

11.7 Notch and Human Disease

11.8 Concluding Remarks


Chapter 12. Stem Cells in the Gastrointestinal Tract

12.1 Intestinal Stem Cells

12.2 The Gastrointestinal Stem Cell Niche

12.3 Stem Cells in the Gastric Gland

12.4 Symmetric and Asymmetric Stem Cell Divisions

12.5 The Human Gastrointestinal Tract

12.6 Stem Cells in Repair and Regeneration

12.7 Conclusion


Chapter 13. Programmed Cell Death in the Gastrointestinal Tract

13.1 Cell Death

13.2 Intestinal Epithelia: In Vivo Studies

13.3 Intestinal Cells: In Vitro Studies

13.4 Gastric Mucosa

13.5 Concluding Remarks


Chapter 14. Molecular Physiology of Gastrointestinal Function during Development

14.1 Ontogeny of Secretory Function

14.2 Ontogeny of Digestive Function

14.3 Ontogeny of Intestinal Transport

14.4 Ontogeny of Transport Function Along the Vertical and Horizontal Gut Axes

14.5 Developmental Regulation of Gastrointestinal Function

14.6 Acknowledgments


Chapter 15. The Cell Cycle

15.1 Components of the Cell Cycle

15.2 Control of the Cell Cycle

15.3 Checkpoints

15.4 Pathological Consequences of Cell Cycle Deregulation or Dysregulation

15.5 Conclusion



Section II Neurogastroenterology

Chapter 16. Development of the Enteric Nervous System

16.1 Origin and Migratory Pathways of ENS Precursors

16.2 Cellular and Molecular Regulation of ENS Development

16.3 Development of Enteric Neuron Subtypes, Glial Cells, and Ganglia

16.4 Development of Neural Control of Motility

16.5 Conclusions



Chapter 17. Cellular Physiology of Gastrointestinal Smooth Muscle

17.1 Signal Transduction

17.2 Small Heat Shock Proteins

17.3 Thin Filament Regulation

17.4 Special Mechanisms

17.5 Summary


Chapter 18. Organization and Electrophysiology of Interstitial Cells of Cajal and Smooth Muscle Cells in the Gastrointestinal Tract

18.1 Electrical Activity in Gastrointestinal Muscles

18.2 Role of Interstitial Cells of Cajal in Spontaneous Electrical Rhythmicity

18.3 Role of Interstitial Cells of Cajal in Neurotransmission

18.4 Role of Interstitial Cells of Cajal as Stretch Receptors

18.5 Motility Disorders Associated with Loss of Interstitial Cells of Cajal

18.6 Animal Models to Study Loss of Interstitial Cells of Cajal

18.7 Smooth Muscle Responses to Slow Waves and Neural Inputs

18.8 Integration of Electrical Activity in Gastrointestinal Muscles



Chapter 19. Enteric Nervous System Structure and Neurochemistry Related to Function and Neuropathology

19.1 General Organization of the Enteric Nervous System

19.2 Neuronal Morphology

19.3 Morphological and Neurochemical Characteristics of Functionally Defined Neurons

19.4 Chemical Coding, Multiple Transmitters, and Species Variation and its Relevance

19.5 The Organization of Enteric Circuits

19.6 A Possible Explanation of the Functional Differences But Structural Similarities Between Regions

19.7 Enteric Neuropathies

19.8 Conclusions



Chapter 20. Physiology of Prevertebral Sympathetic Ganglia

20.1 Overview

20.2 General Properties of PVG Neurons

20.3 Reflexes Through Peripheral Ganglia

20.4 PVG and the Immune System

20.5 PVG and Inflammation

20.6 PVG Diabetes and Aging

20.7 Concluding Remarks



Chapter 21. Cellular Neurophysiology of Enteric Neurons

21.1 The Enteric Nervous System

21.2 AH- and S-Type Enteric Neurons

21.3 Synaptic Transmission


Chapter 22. Integrative Functions of the Enteric Nervous System

22.1 Enteric Nervous System

22.2 Integrated Control of the Stomach

22.3 Integrated Control of the Small and Large Intestine

22.4 Plasticity in the ENS

22.5 Integrative Mechanisms for Defecation

22.6 Epilogue


Chapter 23. Processing of Gastrointestinal Sensory Signals in the Brain

23.1 Introduction

23.2 Neuroanatomical Representation of GI Sensation

23.3 Functional Brain Imaging

23.4 Functional Brain Imaging of GI Sensation

23.5 Structural Brain Imaging

23.6 Summary


Chapter 24. Innervation of the Gastrointestinal Tract by Spinal and Vagal Afferent Nerves

24.1 Introduction

24.2 Anatomy of the Afferent Innervation

24.3 Structure–Function Relationships and Physiological Roles

24.4 Ion Channels and Receptors in Sensory Functions of Gastrointestinal Afferents

24.5 Changes in Gastrointestinal Afferents in Disease

24.6 Conclusion


Chapter 25. Neuroimaging of Brain–Gut Interactions in Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders

25.1 Introduction

25.2 The Current Role of Neuroimaging in FGIDS

25.3 Neuroimaging of Pain in FGIDS

25.4 Neuroimaging to Probe Specific Receptor Systems: PET

25.5 Emerging Neuroimaging Techniques

25.6 Multimodal Imaging

25.7 Moving Neuroimaging of the Brain–Gut Axis into the Future


Chapter 26. The Neurobiology of Gustation

26.1 Basic Anatomy of the Gustatory System

26.2 The Taste Bud: the Functional Unit of the Peripheral Gustatory System

26.3 Receptors and Peripheral Transduction Mechanisms

26.4 Fat Detection and Taste

26.5 Gustatory Signaling Cascades are Expressed in Other Chemosensory Systems



Chapter 27. Enteric Neural Regulation of Mucosal Secretion

27.1 Physiology of Water and Electrolyte Transport Across the Mucosa

27.2 Basic Mechanisms of Absorption and Secretion

27.3 Secretomotor Neurons

27.4 Secretomotor Pathways

27.5 Significant Mediators Other than VIP and ACh

27.6 Local Reflexes

27.7 Enteric Reflexes Running Via the Myenteric Plexus

27.8 Sensory Transduction

27.9 Coupling Motility and Secretion

27.10 Pathophysiology of Intestinal Secretion


Chapter 28. Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis in Gastrointestinal Physiology

28.1 Introduction

28.2 Anatomy of the Human Hypothalamus

28.3 Integration of Autonomic and Endocrine Function by the Hypothalamus

28.4 CRH

28.5 Receptors of CRH

28.6 CRH-Binding Protein

28.7 ACTH

28.8 Glucocorticoid and Receptors of the Glucocorticoid

28.9 Stress-Induced Changes in Gastrointestinal Function and the Role of CRH

28.10 Animal Evidence of CRH on Gastrointestinal Motor Function

28.11 Animal Evidence of CRH on Visceral Sensation and Emotion

28.12 Clinical Evidence of CRH on Gastrointestinal Sensorimotor Function

28.13 Clinical Evidence of CRH Antagonist on Gastrointestinal Sensorimotor Function

28.14 Clinical Evidence of CRH Antagonist on Brain Function Under Colorectal Distension

28.15 Inflammation of the Gut and CRH

28.16 Differential Role of CRH-R1 and CRH-R2

28.17 Conclusion



Chapter 29. Neural Regulation of Gastrointestinal Blood Flow

29.1 Physiologic Relevance of Gastrointestinal Circulation

29.2 Anatomic and Functional Organization of GI Circulation

29.3 Innervation of GI Blood Vessels

29.4 Functional Implications of Vasomotor Neurons in the Regulation of GI Blood Flow

29.5 Interactive Control of GI Circulation

29.6 Physiologic and Pathologic Implications

29.7 Summary



Chapter 30. Neuromuscular Function in the Biliary Tract

30.1 The Gallbladder

30.2 The Sphincter of Oddi


Chapter 31. Brainstem Control of the Gastric Function

31.1 Efferent Autonomic Overlay

31.2 Visceral Afferent Inputs to Brainstem Reflex Control Circuits

31.3 Reflex Actions Triggered by Visceral Afferent Inputs

31.4 Components and Characteristics of Vagovagal Gastric Control Reflexes

31.5 Summary


Chapter 32. Physiology of Aerodigestive Reflexes in Neonates and Adults

32.1 Pharyngeal Motor Function: Anatomical Relationships

32.2 Pharyngeal Motor Function During Deglutition

32.3 Nasopharyngeal Motor Function During Swallowing and Belching

32.4 The Ues and Its Pressure Phenomena

32.5 Cerebral Cortical Representation of Pharyngeal/Reflexive and Volitional Swallow in Humans

32.6 Mechanisms of Airway Protection During Belching


Chapter 33. Motor Function of the Pharynx, the Esophagus, and Its Sphincters

33.1 Introduction

33.2 Central Pattern Generator and Brainstem

33.3 Pharynx — Anatomy, Neural Innervation, and Motor Pattern

33.4 UES

33.5 Neuromuscular Anatomy of the Esophagus and LES

33.6 Extrinsic Innervation: Parasympathetic and Sympathetic

33.7 Interstitial Cells of Cajal

33.8 Recording Techniques

33.9 Motor Patterns of the Esophagus — Aboral and Oral Transport

33.10 Deglutitive Inhibition and Muscle Refractoriness

33.11 Peristalsis in the Longitudinal Muscles of the Esophagus

33.12 Neural and Myogenic Mechanism of Peristalsis

33.13 Central Mechanism of Peristalsis — Cortical and Brainstem Control

33.14 Peripheral Mechanisms of Peristalsis

33.15 Central Versus Peripheral Mechanism of Deglutitive Inhibition

33.16 Neural Control of Longitudinal Muscle Contraction

33.17 Modulation of Primary and Secondary Peristalsis

33.18 Neural Control of the LES and Crural Diaphragm

33.19 The LES – Tonic Contraction

33.20 Swallow-Induced LES Relaxation

33.21 Crural Diaphragm Contribution to EGJ and Neural Control

33.22 Transient LES Relaxation and Pharmacological Inhibition

33.23 Compliance of the EGJ


Chapter 34. Neurophysiologic Mechanisms of Gastric Reservoir Function

34.1 Functional Anatomy

34.2 Different Phases of Gastric Motility

34.3 Measurement of Gastric Reservoir Function

34.4 Control of the Accommodation Reflex

34.5 Pathophysiologic Role of Impaired Accommodation

34.6 Conclusion


Chapter 35. Physiology of the Antral Pump and Gastric Emptying

35.1 Overview

35.2 Functional Anatomy

35.3 Innervation of the Distal Stomach

35.4 Tools to Study Gastric Emptying and Antropyloric Motility

35.5 Patterns of Antroduodenal Motor Activity

35.6 Integration of Motor Activity Involving the Antrum, Pylorus, and Duodenum

35.7 Conditions Associated with Disordered Gastric Emptying

35.8 Therapy for Delayed Gastric Emptying


Chapter 36. Neurophysiologic Mechanisms of Human Large Intestinal Motility

36.1 Introduction

36.2 Anatomy and Basic Control Mechanisms

36.3 Colonic Elecrophysiology

36.4 Innervation of the Colon

36.5 Measuring Colonic Perception and Motor Patterns

36.6 Colonic Motor Patterns

36.7 In vitro Studies of Colonic Motility

36.8 Modulators of Colonic Motility

36.9 Disorders of Colonic Motility



Chapter 37. Neuromuscular Physiology of the Pelvic Floor

37.1 Introduction

37.2 Anatomy

37.3 PFM Activity

37.4 Urethral and Anal Rhabdosphincters

37.5 PFMs and Pelvic Organ Function

37.6 PFMS and Neurologic Lesions



Section III Host Defense Mechanisms

Chapter 38. Tight Junctions and the Intestinal Barrier

38.1 Introduction

38.2 Intrinsic and Extrinsic Elements of the Barrier

38.3 The Intestinal Epithelial Barrier and Transcellular and Paracellular Transport

38.4 Protein Components of the TJ

38.5 Regulation of Intestinal Epithelial TJ Barrier

38.6 Clinical Disorders of Intestinal TJ Barrier Defect

38.7 Concluding Remarks


Chapter 39. Biology of Gut Immunoglobulins

39.1 Introduction

39.2 Origin of Gut Plasma Cells and Local Immunoglobulin Production

39.3 Polymeric Immunoglobulins and the Polymeric Immunoglobulin Receptor

39.4 IgG and the Neonatal Fc Receptor FcRn

39.5 IgE, FcεRI, and FcεRII

39.6 Conclusion


Chapter 40. Gastrointestinal Microbial Ecology with Perspectives on Health and Disease

40.1 Introduction

40.2 Overview of Culture-Independent Molecular Techniques for Characterizing the Human Gut Microbiome

40.3 Applying the Principles of Microbial Ecology to Analyze the Human Gut Microbiome

40.4 Membership and Diversity of the Human Gut Microbiome

40.5 Colonization and Succession of the Human Gut Microbiome

40.6 Modulation of the Gut Microbiota

40.7 Bacteria, their Metabolites, and Human Health

40.8 Perspectives on Health and Disease


Chapter 41. Mucosal Bacterial Recognition and Signaling Systems in the Intestine

41.1 Introduction

41.2 Functional Structure of PRRs

41.3 Expression of PRRs in the Gastrointestinal Tract

41.4 Bacterial Signaling Pathways and the Regulation of Mucosal Immunity

41.5 Physiological Roles of PRRS in the Gastrointestinal Mucosa

41.6 Concluding Remarks


Chapter 42. Mucosal Restitution and Repair

42.1 Introduction

42.2 Overview Of The Restitution Process

42.3 Modeling Restitution and Wound Healing

42.4 Regulation of Epithelial Wound Healing by Extracellular Signals

42.5 Intracellular Pathways Coordinating Migration

42.6 Relationship of Altered Migration to Disease

42.7 Future Challenges


Chapter 43. Gastroduodenal Mucosal Defense

43.1 Introduction

43.2 Animal Models of Gastroduodenal Injury

43.3 Juxtamucosal Environment and Pre-Epithelial Defenses

43.4 Gastroduodenal Epithelial Layer

43.5 Subepithelial Defense: Mucosal Blood Flow, Neurohormonal Effectors, Receptors, and Chemical Mediators

43.6 Injury and Restitution

43.7 Summary and Conclusions




Section IV Physiology of Secretion

Chapter 44. Paneth Cells

44.1 Introduction

44.2 Concluding Statement


Chapter 45. Salivary Gland Secretion

45.1 Introduction

45.2 Salivary Gland Development

45.3 Microscopic Anatomy

45.4 Secretion of Salivary Fluid and Electrolytes

45.5 Primary Saliva Secretion by Secretory Endpieces

45.6 Fluid Secretion Mechanism

45.7 Primary Saliva is Modified by the Salivary Gland Ducts

45.8 Protein Secretion

45.9 Factors Modulating Sorting of Secretory Proteins

45.10 Multiple Secretory Pathways in Salivary Gland Cells

45.11 Exocytosis

45.12 Functional Properties of Saliva

45.13 Saliva as a Diagnostic Fluid


Chapter 46. The Cell Biology of Gastric Acid Secretion

46.1 Cellular Plasticity of Gastric Acid Secretion

46.2 Molecular Mechanism of Hydrochloric Acid Secretion

46.3 Actin Cytoskeleton Plasticity in Parietal Cell Secretion

46.4 Stimulation-Secretion Coupling in the Parietal Cells


Chapter 47. Regulation of Gastric Acid Secretion

47.1 Introduction

47.2 Methods for Measurement of Gastric Acid Secretion

47.3 Functional Anatomy

47.4 Regulation of Gastric Acid Secretion: Central, Peripheral, and Intracellular Pathways



Chapter 48. Gastroduodenal Bicarbonate Secretion

48.1 Introduction

48.2 Gastric Secretion of HCO3−

48.3 Transport Proteins Involved in Gastric HCO3− Secretion

48.4 Regulation of Gastric HCO3− Secretion

48.5 Physiological Significance of Gastric HCO3− Secretion

48.6 Duodenal Secretion of HCO3−

48.7 Transport Proteins in Duodenal HCO3− Secretion

48.8 Physiological Regulation of Duodenal Bicarbonate Secretion

48.9 Summary and Future Directions


Chapter 49. Structure–function Relationships in the Pancreatic Acinar Cell

49.1 Organization of the Exocrine Pancreas

49.2 Pancreatic Development

49.3 Structural Organization

49.4 Functional Responses of the Acinar Cell: Protein Synthesis, Vectorial Transport, Modifications, and Sorting

49.5 Cell Signaling

49.6 Secretion

49.7 Early Acinar Cell Responses in Acute Pancreatitis



Chapter 50. Stimulus-secretion Coupling in Pancreatic Acinar Cells

50.1 Introduction

50.2 Receptors and Transmembrane Signaling

50.3 Intracellular Messengers

50.4 Action of Intracellular Messengers

50.5 Mechanisms of Exocytosis


Chapter 51. Cell Physiology of Pancreatic Ducts

51.1 Patterns Of Pancreatic Electrolyte Secretion

51.2 Structural Basis Of Secretion

51.3 Advances In Studying Duct Cell Physiology

51.4 Mechanisms Of Ductal Electrolyte Secretion

51.5 Regulation Of Ductal Bicarbonate Secretion

51.6 Concluding Remarks


Chapter 52. Regulation of Pancreatic Secretion

52.1 Patterns of Secretion

52.2 Phases of the Meal Response

52.3 Neural and Hormonal Regulators

52.4 Inhibition of Pancreatic Secretion

52.5 Pancreatic Function Testing


Chapter 53. Bile Formation and the Enterohepatic Circulation

53.1 Introduction to the Structure and Major Functions of Bile Acids

53.2 Biosynthesis, Chemistry, and Physical Chemistry of Bile Acids

53.3 Enterohepatic Circulation of Bile Acids

53.4 Bile Secretion and Hepatic Bile Acid Transport

53.5 Intestinal Absorption of Bile Acids


Chapter 54. Mechanisms of Hepatocyte Organic Anion Transport

54.1 Introduction

54.2 Mechanisms of Non-Bile Acid Organic Anion Uptake

54.3 Mechanisms of Bile Acid Uptake

54.4 Organic Anion Excretion Across the Bile Canaliculus


Chapter 55. Mechanisms of Hepatocyte Detoxification

55.1 Introduction

55.2 Metabolism and Excretion

55.3 Detoxification of Metals

55.4 Liver Self-Defense Mechanisms

55.5 Summary


Section V Digestion and Absorption

Chapter 56. Physiology of Cholangiocytes

56.1 Functional Anatomy of the Biliary Tract

56.2 Molecular Physiology of Ductal Bile Formation

56.3 Intracellular Signaling

56.4 Regulation of Ductal Bile Formation

56.5 Conclusion


Chapter 57. Molecular Mechanisms of Protein Sorting in Polarized Epithelial Cells

57.1 Introduction to Epithelial Cell Polarity

57.2 Cytoarchitecture and Membrane Compartments in Polarized Epithelial Cells

57.3 Sorting Pathways

57.4 Post-Endocytic Pathway

57.5 Sorting Signals

57.6 Recognition of Sorting Signals

57.7 Polarized Transport and Delivery

57.8 Polarized Docking and Fusion

57.9 Selective Retention

57.10 Summary


Chapter 58. Sugar Absorption

58.1 Overview

58.2 Absorption of Glucose, Galactose, and Fructose

58.3 The SGLT Gene Family

58.4 The GLUT Gene Family

58.5 SGLT1, GLUT2, and GLUT5 are the Major Intestinal Sugar Transporters

58.6 SGLT1 Sugar Selectivity

58.7 GLUT Sugar Selectivity

58.8 SGLT1 Cation Selectivity

58.9 Transport Kinetics

58.10 Genetic Defects

58.11 Regulation of Sugar Absorption

58.12 Future Directions



Chapter 59. Protein Digestion and Absorption

59.1 An Overview of Protein Digestion and Absorption

59.2 Role of Gastric and Pancreatic Proteases in Protein Digestion

59.3 Role of Membrane-Bound and Cytoplasmic Peptidases in the Enterocyte in Protein Digestion

59.4 Sites of Protein Absorption

59.5 Generation of Driving Forces for Active Transport Systems in the Enterocyte

59.6 Entry of Protein Digestion Products into the Enterocyte across the Brush Border Membrane

59.7 Fate of Absorbed Amino Acids and Peptides in the Enterocyte

59.8 Exit of Protein Digestion End Products across the Basolateral Membrane

59.9 Transport of Glutathione in the Small Intestine

59.10 Genetic Disorders of Intestinal Amino Acid and Peptide Transport

59.11 Nutritional, Clinical, and Pharmacological Relevance of Intestinal Peptide Transport

59.12 Regulation of Intestinal Amino Acid and Peptide Transport

59.13 Conclusions and Future Perspectives


Note Added in Proof

Chapter 60. Enterocyte Fatty Acid Handling Proteins and Chylomicron Formation

60.1 Overview of Dietary Fat Absorption


Chapter 61. Genetic Regulation of Intestinal Lipid Transport and Metabolism

61.1 Major Pathways and Genes Involved in Intestinal Triglyceride-Rich Lipoprotein Assembly

61.2 Genetic Defects in APOB and MTTP

61.3 Apolipoprotein B mRNA Editing: Overview, Molecular Mechanisms, and Functional Relevance

61.4 Other Genes Involved in Intestinal Lipoprotein Biogenesis: Apolipoprotein A-I and Apolipoprotein A-IV

61.5 Major Pathways and Genes Involved in Intestinal Sterol Transport

61.6 Other Genetic Defects of Intestinal Lipoprotein Assembly and Secretion and Potential New Pathways


Chapter 62. Digestion and Intestinal Absorption of Dietary Carotenoids and Vitamin A

62.1 Introduction

62.2 Carotenoid and Vitamin a Metabolism — Overview

62.3 Dietary Sources and Forms

62.4 Solubilization of Carotenoids and Retinoids

62.5 Conversion of Provitamin a Carotenoids to Retinoids

62.6 Digestion of Retinyl Esters

62.7 Intestinal Absorption of Carotenoids

62.8 Intestinal Absorption of Vitamin A

62.9 Overview


Chapter 63. 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3

63.1 Introduction

63.2 Overview of Vitamin D Production and Physiology

63.3 The Molecular Mechanism of Action of 1,25(OH)2D3

63.4 New Insights into the Regulation of Gene Expression by 1,25(OH)2D3

63.5 The Transport of Calcium Across the Intestinal Epithelium

63.6 Regulation of Calcium Transporter Expression by 1,25(OH)2D3

63.7 Vitamin D Actions in the Colon: A New VDR Ligand, Xenobiotic Metabolism, and Anti-Carcinogenic and Anti-Cancer Actions

63.8 Vitamin D Therapeutics and the Calcemic Side Effects

63.9 Summary


Chapter 64. Mechanisms and Regulation of Intestinal Absorption of Water-soluble Vitamins

64.1 Vitamin B1 (Thiamin)

64.2 Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin)

64.3 Vitamin B3 (Niacin, Nicotinic Acid)

64.4 Vitamin B5 (Pantothenic Acid)

64.5 Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine and Derivatives)

64.6 Vitamin B9 (Folate)

64.7 Vitamin B12 (Cobalamin)

64.8 Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid)

64.9 Vitamin H (Biotin)

64.10 Concluding Remarks


Chapter 65. Water Transport in the Gastrointestinal Tract

65.1 Introduction

65.2 Epithelial Fluid Transporting Mechanisms

65.3 AQPs

65.4 Fluid Transport Mechanisms and AQPs in GI Organs

65.5 Summary and Perspective


Chapter 66. Na+/H+ Exchange in Mammalian Digestive Tract

66.1 Introduction

66.2 Mammalian Monovalent Cation Proton Antiporter Superfamily

66.3 Membrane Topology and Functional Domains

66.4 Transport Characteristics and Pharmacology

66.5 Gastrointestinal Na+/H+ Exchangers

66.6 Physiological Role of Na+/H+ Exchange in the Digestive Tract



Chapter 67. Intestinal Anion Absorption

67.1 Mechanisms of Intestinal Chloride Absorption

67.2 Mechanisms of SCFA Absorption

67.3 Mechanisms of Intestinal SO42− Absorption

67.4 Mechanisms of Intestinal Oxalate Absorption

67.5 Conclusions



Chapter 68. cAMP Sensor Epac and Gastrointestinal Function

68.1 Introduction

68.2 Identification of Epac as A Transducer of Intracellular cAMP Action

68.3 Epac Protects Hepatocytes from Apoptosis

68.4 Epac Participates in the Regulation of Intestinal Epithelial Cell Cl− Secretion

68.5 Conclusion



Note Added in Proof

Chapter 69. Ion Channels of the Epithelia of the Gastrointestinal Tract

69.1 CFTR in Chloride Transport in the Gastrointestinal Tract

69.2 Calcium-Activated Chloride Channels

69.3 CLC Family of Chloride Channels ClC-2

69.4 Summary

69.5 Epithelial Sodium Channel

69.6 Potassium Channels

69.7 Human Tissues and Human Cell Models: Species Differences

69.8 Methods for Study of Ion Channels in Gastrointestinal Tissues

69.9 Summary


Chapter 70. Molecular Mechanisms of Intestinal Transport of Calcium, Phosphate, and Magnesium

70.1 Introduction

70.2 Recommended Nutritional Requirements for Ca2+, Mg2+, and Pi

70.3 Intestinal Calcium Transport

70.4 Intestinal Phosphate Transport

70.5 Intestinal Transport of Magnesium

70.6 Conclusions


Chapter 71. Molecular Mechanisms of Intestinal Iron Transport

71.1 Introduction

71.2 The Anatomy of Iron Absorption — Specialization of the Proximal Small Intestine

71.3 Dietary Forms of Iron and Factors Affecting Luminal Bioavailability

71.4 Iron Transport Across the Enterocyte

71.5 Regulation of Iron Absorption

71.6 Developmental Changes in Iron Absorption

71.7 Pathological Conditions and Intestinal Iron Transport

71.8 Conclusions


Section VI Consequences of Disregulated Physiology

Chapter 72. Trace Element Absorption and Transport

72.1 General Properties of Trace Element Absorption

72.2 Other Trace Elements



Chapter 73. The Gastrointestinal Tract and Control of Food Intake

73.1 Signals Arising from the Gut in Control of Food Intake

73.2 Vagus Nerve

73.3 Processing of Information in the CNS

73.4 The Gut and Changes in Food Intake in Obesity


Chapter 74. Effects of Stress on Intestinal Mucosal Functions

74.1 Introduction

74.2 Mucosal Barrier Function

74.3 What is Stress?

74.4 Stress-induced Changes in Intestinal Mucosal Function

74.5 Consequences of Stress-Induced Changes in Mucosal Function in Relation to Human Intestinal Diseases

74.6 Conclusions


Chapter 75. Enteric Neurobiology of Stress

75.1 Stress: Case Examples

75.2 Stress and the Sympathetic Nervous System

75.3 Psychogenic Stress and Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders

75.4 Psychogenic Stress and Enteric Mast Cells

75.5 Neurobiology of Stress

75.6 CRF Receptors

75.7 Sources for CRF


Chapter 76. Mechanisms of Helicobacter pylori-induced Gastric Inflammation

76.1 Introduction

76.2 Colonization of the Gastric Mucosa

76.3 Evasion of the Host Immune Response by H. pylori

76.4 Development of Gastritis

76.5 H. pylori Strain Variation, Gastric Inflammation and Disease

76.6 Human Genetic Polymorphisms that Influence the Propensity Toward Development of Disease

76.7 Conclusions


Chapter 77. Physiology of Host-pathogen Interactions

77.1 Toxin-Mediated Effects on Ion Secretion

77.2 Absorption

77.3 Indirect Effects on Ion Secretion

77.4 Barrier Function and Cytotoxicity

77.5 Infection-Mediated Barrier Changes

77.6 Junctions as Pathogen Receptors

77.7 Pharmacopeia

77.8 Summary


Chapter 78. Mechanisms and Consequences of Intestinal Inflammation

78.1 Overview of Gut Function

78.2 Initiators and Mediators of Acute Intestinal Inflammation

78.3 Effectors of the Response to Luminal Triggers of Inflammation

78.4 Resolution Phase of Inflammation

78.5 Chronic Inflammation

78.6 Characterizing Inflammatory Disorders of the Intestine

78.7 Factors Contributing to the Development of Intestinal Inflammation

78.8 Summary

78.9 Effects of Inflammation on Intestinal Function

78.10 Summary

78.11 Future Directions for Research


Chapter 79. Recruitment of Inflammatory and Immune Cells in the Gut

79.1 Introduction

79.2 Adhesion Molecules

79.3 Regulation of Blood Cell–Endothelial Cell Interactions in Non-Lymphoid Tissues

79.4 Gut-Associated Lymphoid Tissue and Intestinal Immunity

79.5 Leukocyte Movement Through the Interstitium

79.6 Leukocyte Trafficking During Acute Inflammation

79.7 Leukocyte Trafficking During Chronic Gut Inflammation



Chapter 80. Mechanisms of GI Malignancies

80.1 Principles of Oncogenesis

80.2 Cardinal Features of Gastrointestinal Cancers

80.3 Genetic Instability

80.4 Novel Molecular Mechanisms Contributing to Gastrointestinal Carcinogenesis

80.5 Summary and Conclusions


Chapter 81. Pathophysiology Underlying the Irritable Bowel Syndrome

81.1 Irritable Bowel Syndrome

81.2 Neuropathy in the Brain-in-the-Gut

81.3 Neurogenic Secretion: Diarrhea and Constipation

81.4 Abdominal Pain and Discomfort

81.5 Psychogenic Stress


Chapter 82. Pathophysiology of Diarrhea and its Clinical Implications

82.1 Introduction

82.2 Physiology of Intestinal Absorption and Secretion

82.3 Definitions of Diarrhea

82.4 Pathophysiology of Diarrhea

82.5 Clinical Manifestations

82.6 Evaluation and Management

82.7 Conclusions




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© Academic Press 2012
30th April 2012
Academic Press
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About the Editor

Hamid Said

Dr. Said is a Professor of Medicine, Physiology and Biophysics at the University of California School of Medicine Irvine, CA. He is also a Senior Research Career Scientist at the VA Medical Center, Long Beach, CA; and Chairman for the Southern California Institute for Research and Education (VALBHS affiliated non-profit).

He serves as a reviewer on a variety of NIH, VA and other national study sections as well as international (European) study sections dealing with medical research in internal medicine and nutrition. He is also a member of Editorial Boards of a number of prestigious medical research journals.

Research in Dr. Said laboratory focuses on understanding cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in the transport of water-soluble vitamins (folate (vit. B), thiamine (vit. B1), riboflavin (vit. B2), pyridoxine (vit. B6), ascorbic acid (vit. C), biotin (vit. H) and niacin (vit. B3)) in the intestine, kidney, liver and pancreas. Dr. Said's laboratory has published over 160 original research papers in the gastrointestinal and nutrition fields. He has authored many chapters in scientific textbooks as well as a book in these areas. His laboratory has contributed many original discoveries to the field over the years. His research activities are funded by the VA and National Institutes of Health over the past twenty four years.

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor of Medicine, Physiology and Biophysics, Departments of Medicine and Physiology/Biophysics, University of California School of Medicine, Irvine, CA, USA


BMA Medical Book Award 2013: Internal Medicine - Highly Commended, British Medical Association

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