Persistent Organic Pollutants and Toxic Metals in Foods - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780857092458, 9780857098917

Persistent Organic Pollutants and Toxic Metals in Foods

1st Edition

Editors: Martin Rose Alwin Fernandes
eBook ISBN: 9780857098917
Hardcover ISBN: 9780857092458
Imprint: Woodhead Publishing
Published Date: 15th May 2013
Page Count: 520
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Table of Contents

Contributor contact details

Woodhead Publishing Series in Food Science, Technology and Nutrition

Foreword

Preface

Part I: Regulatory control and environmental pathways

Chapter 1: Persistent organic pollutants in foods: science, policy and regulation

Abstract:

1.1 Introduction

1.2 Dietary exposure and total diet studies (TDSs)

1.3 Risk assessment, policy making and regulatory limits

1.4 Enforcement and implications for food businesses

1.5 Analytical methods and their influence on policy

1.6 Future trends and conclusions

1.7 References

Chapter 2: Regulatory control and monitoring of heavy metals and trace elements in foods

Abstract:

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Risk assessment and policy making

2.3 Monitoring of foodstuffs

2.4 Impact of legislation on industry and enforcement

2.5 Suitability of analytical methods

2.6 Future trends

2.7 Sources of further information

2.8 References

Chapter 3: Screening and confirmatory methods for the detection of dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in foods

Abstract:

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Biological versus physico-chemical screening for dioxins and PCBs in food and feed

3.3 Specific analytical requirements for biological and physico-chemical tools

3.4 Quantitative versus semi-quantitative approach

3.5 Validation QA/QC

3.6 Confirmatory methods for dioxins and PCBs in food and feed

3.7 Future trends

3.8 Sources of further information and advice

3.9 References

Chapter 4: Screening and confirmatory methods for the detection of heavy metals in foods

Abstract:

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Screening methods for heavy metal detection in foods

4.3 Confirmatory methods for heavy metal detection in foods

4.4 Quality assurance and method validation

4.5 Future trends

4.6 References

Chapter 5: Responding to food contamination incidents: principles and examples from cases involving dioxins

Abstract:

5.1 Introduction

5.2 The risk analysis paradigm

5.3 Food traceability

5.4 Food recall and withdrawal

5.5 Risk communication strategies

5.6 Future trends

5.7 Sources of further information

5.8 References

Chapter 6: Uptake of organic pollutants and potentially toxic elements (PTEs) by crops

Abstract:

6.1 Introduction

6.2 Uptake of organic pollutants by plants

6.3 Uptake of PTEs by plants

6.4 In situ monitoring of plant available pollutants

6.5 Conclusions

6.6 References

Chapter 7: Transfer and uptake of dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) into sheep: a case study

Abstract:

7.1 Introduction

7.2 Uptake pathways and sources

7.3 Transfer of PCBs and polychlorinated dibenzo-P-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) into animal tissues

7.4 Experimental rearing, sampling and analysis

7.5 Results and discussion for PCDD/Fs, dioxin-like PCBs (DL-PCBs) and ICES6 PCBs

7.6 Conclusions and future trends

7.7 Acknowledgements

7.8 References

Chapter 8: Risk assessment of chemical contaminants and residues in foods

Abstract:

8.1 Introduction

8.2 Risk assessment

8.3 Role of risk assessment in risk management

8.4 Sources of further information

8.5 References

Part II: Particular persistent organic pollutants, toxic metals and metalloids

Chapter 9: Dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in foods

Abstract:

9.1 Introduction

9.2 Properties and occurrence of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs)

9.3 Toxicity of PCDD/Fs

9.4 Toxic effects of PCDD/Fs in humans and experimental animals

9.5 Properties and occurrence of PCBs

9.6 Toxicity of PCBs

9.7 References

Chapter 10: Non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (NDL-PCBs) in foods: exposure and health hazards

Abstract:

10.1 Introduction

10.2 Sources, occurrence in foods, limit values and monitoring methods

10.3 Human exposure and tissue levels

10.4 Toxicokinetics and metabolism

10.5 Classification of PCB congeners

10.6 NDL-PCB regulatory status

10.7 ATHON R&D project dedicated to generating NDL-PCB toxicity data for regulatory use

10.8 Cell regulation and metabolism

10.9 Classification of NDL-PCB congeners

10.10 Conclusions and future trends

10.11 Acknowledgements

10.12 References

Chapter 11: Brominated flame retardants in foods

Abstract:

11.1 Introduction

11.2 Sources, occurrence in foods and human exposure

11.3 Methods of analysis and monitoring of brominated flame retardants in foods

11.4 Toxicity of brominated flame retardants

11.5 Major incidences of brominated flame retardant contamination of foods

11.6 Implications for the food industry and policy makers for prevention and control of contamination

11.7 Future trends

11.8 Sources of further information and advice

11.9 References

Chapter 12: Human dietary exposure to per- and poly-fluoroalkyl substances (PFASs)

Abstract:

12.1 Introduction

12.2 Analytical methods for PFASs in foods

12.3 Levels of PFASs in foods

12.4 Pathways of food contamination

12.5 Estimated exposure from food and other exposure media

12.6 Conclusions and future trends

12.8 References

Chapter 13: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in foods

Abstract:

13.1 Introduction

13.2 Sources and formation of PAHs in foods

13.3 Methods of analysis of PAHs in foods

13.4 Human dietary exposure to PAHs from foods

13.5 Risk assessment of PAHs

13.6 Food scandals

13.7 Legislation of PAHs in foods within the EU

13.8 References

Chapter 14: Phthalates in foods

Abstract:

14.1 Introduction

14.2 Human exposure to phthalates

14.3 Sources and occurrence in foods

14.4 Studies of the effects of phthalates on humans

14.5 Methods of phthalate analysis and monitoring in foods

14.6 Implications for the food industry and policy making for prevention and control of contamination

14.7 Future trends

14.8 Sources of further information and advice

14.9 References

Chapter 15: Polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) in foods: sources, analytical methodology, occurrence and human exposure

Abstract:

15.1 Introduction

15.2 Sources of PCNs

15.3 Toxicology

15.4 Methods of analysis of PCNs in foods

15.5 Occurrence in foods

15.6 PCN occurrence in humans

15.7 Conclusions and future trends

15.8 References

Chapter 16: Mercury in foods

Abstract:

16.1 Introduction

16.2 Concentrations of mercury in foods

16.3 Mercury exposures and risks from major food categories

16.4 References

Chapter 17: Arsenic in foods: current issues related to analysis, toxicity and metabolism

Abstract:

17.1 Introduction

17.2 Sources and occurrence in foods

17.3 Methods for determining arsenic in foods

17.4 Toxicity of arsenic

17.5 Implications for the food industry and policy makers

17.6 References

Chapter 18: Organotin compounds in foods

Abstract:

18.1 Introduction

18.2 Technical, agricultural and industrial uses of organotin compounds

18.3 Physical and chemical properties of organotin compounds

18.4 Analysis of organotin compounds in foods

18.5 Human dietary exposure to organotin compounds from foods

18.6 Human exposure to organotin compounds from food packaging material

18.7 Health risks and toxicity of organotin compounds

18.8 Conclusions and future trends

18.9 References

18.10 Appendix: abbreviations

Index


Description

Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and toxic elements, such as dioxins, flame retardants, lead and mercury, are substances of major concern for the food industry, the regulator and the public. They persist in the environment, accumulate in food chains and may adversely affect human health if ingested over certain levels or with prolonged exposure. Persistent organic pollutants and toxic metals in foods explores the scientific and regulatory challenges of ensuring that our food is safe to eat.

Part one provides an overview of regulatory efforts to screen, monitor and control persistent organic pollutants and heavy metals in foods and includes case studies detailing regulatory responses to food contamination incidents. Part two moves on to highlight particular POPs, toxic metals and metalloids in foods, including dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), mercury, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and phthalates.

Persistent organic pollutants and toxic metals in foods is a standard reference for those in the food industry responsible for food safety, laboratories testing for food chemical safety, regulatory authorities responsible for ensuring the safety of food, and researchers in industry and academia interested in the science supporting food chemical safety.

Key Features

  • Includes case studies which detail regulatory responses to food contamination incidents
  • Considers the uptake and transfer of persistent organic pollutants in the food chain and the risk assessment of contaminates in food
  • Details perticular persistent organic pollutants, toxic metals and metalloids in foods including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), mercury and arsenic among others

Readership

Those in the food industry responsible for food safety; Laboratories testing for food chemical safety; Regulatory authorities responsible for food chemical safety; Researchers and academia interested in food chemical safety


Details

No. of pages:
520
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Woodhead Publishing 2013
Published:
Imprint:
Woodhead Publishing
eBook ISBN:
9780857098917
Hardcover ISBN:
9780857092458

Reviews

"This book…explores the scientific and regulatory challenges faced by those responsible for ensuring that our food is safe to eat…While this book is of interest for analytical chemists, it is intended to address to an evenly great extend to regulators and policy makers since it gives a comprehensive view of current knowledge of the presence of known and emerging contaminants in our food and a firm background of analytical capabilities."--Quality Assurance and Safety of Crops & Foods, March 2014


About the Editors

Martin Rose Editor

Alwin Fernandes Editor

Alwyn Fernandes is a senior scientist at FERA with a particular interest in emerging environmental contaminants.

Affiliations and Expertise

FERA, UK