Persistent Organic Pollutants and Toxic Metals in Foods

Persistent Organic Pollutants and Toxic Metals in Foods

1st Edition - May 15, 2013

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  • Editors: Martin Rose, Alwin Fernandes
  • eBook ISBN: 9780857098917
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780857092458

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Description

Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and toxic elements, such as dioxins, flame retardants, lead and mercury, are substances of major concern for the food industry, the regulator and the public. They persist in the environment, accumulate in food chains and may adversely affect human health if ingested over certain levels or with prolonged exposure. Persistent organic pollutants and toxic metals in foods explores the scientific and regulatory challenges of ensuring that our food is safe to eat.Part one provides an overview of regulatory efforts to screen, monitor and control persistent organic pollutants and heavy metals in foods and includes case studies detailing regulatory responses to food contamination incidents. Part two moves on to highlight particular POPs, toxic metals and metalloids in foods, including dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), mercury, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and phthalates.Persistent organic pollutants and toxic metals in foods is a standard reference for those in the food industry responsible for food safety, laboratories testing for food chemical safety, regulatory authorities responsible for ensuring the safety of food, and researchers in industry and academia interested in the science supporting food chemical safety.

Key Features

  • Includes case studies which detail regulatory responses to food contamination incidents
  • Considers the uptake and transfer of persistent organic pollutants in the food chain and the risk assessment of contaminates in food
  • Details perticular persistent organic pollutants, toxic metals and metalloids in foods including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), mercury and arsenic among others

Readership

Those in the food industry responsible for food safety; Laboratories testing for food chemical safety; Regulatory authorities responsible for food chemical safety; Researchers and academia interested in food chemical safety

Table of Contents

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    Woodhead Publishing Series in Food Science, Technology and Nutrition

    Foreword

    Preface

    Part I: Regulatory control and environmental pathways

    Chapter 1: Persistent organic pollutants in foods: science, policy and regulation

    Abstract:

    1.1 Introduction

    1.2 Dietary exposure and total diet studies (TDSs)

    1.3 Risk assessment, policy making and regulatory limits

    1.4 Enforcement and implications for food businesses

    1.5 Analytical methods and their influence on policy

    1.6 Future trends and conclusions

    1.7 References

    Chapter 2: Regulatory control and monitoring of heavy metals and trace elements in foods

    Abstract:

    2.1 Introduction

    2.2 Risk assessment and policy making

    2.3 Monitoring of foodstuffs

    2.4 Impact of legislation on industry and enforcement

    2.5 Suitability of analytical methods

    2.6 Future trends

    2.7 Sources of further information

    2.8 References

    Chapter 3: Screening and confirmatory methods for the detection of dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in foods

    Abstract:

    3.1 Introduction

    3.2 Biological versus physico-chemical screening for dioxins and PCBs in food and feed

    3.3 Specific analytical requirements for biological and physico-chemical tools

    3.4 Quantitative versus semi-quantitative approach

    3.5 Validation QA/QC

    3.6 Confirmatory methods for dioxins and PCBs in food and feed

    3.7 Future trends

    3.8 Sources of further information and advice

    3.9 References

    Chapter 4: Screening and confirmatory methods for the detection of heavy metals in foods

    Abstract:

    4.1 Introduction

    4.2 Screening methods for heavy metal detection in foods

    4.3 Confirmatory methods for heavy metal detection in foods

    4.4 Quality assurance and method validation

    4.5 Future trends

    4.6 References

    Chapter 5: Responding to food contamination incidents: principles and examples from cases involving dioxins

    Abstract:

    5.1 Introduction

    5.2 The risk analysis paradigm

    5.3 Food traceability

    5.4 Food recall and withdrawal

    5.5 Risk communication strategies

    5.6 Future trends

    5.7 Sources of further information

    5.8 References

    Chapter 6: Uptake of organic pollutants and potentially toxic elements (PTEs) by crops

    Abstract:

    6.1 Introduction

    6.2 Uptake of organic pollutants by plants

    6.3 Uptake of PTEs by plants

    6.4 In situ monitoring of plant available pollutants

    6.5 Conclusions

    6.6 References

    Chapter 7: Transfer and uptake of dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) into sheep: a case study

    Abstract:

    7.1 Introduction

    7.2 Uptake pathways and sources

    7.3 Transfer of PCBs and polychlorinated dibenzo-P-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) into animal tissues

    7.4 Experimental rearing, sampling and analysis

    7.5 Results and discussion for PCDD/Fs, dioxin-like PCBs (DL-PCBs) and ICES6 PCBs

    7.6 Conclusions and future trends

    7.7 Acknowledgements

    7.8 References

    Chapter 8: Risk assessment of chemical contaminants and residues in foods

    Abstract:

    8.1 Introduction

    8.2 Risk assessment

    8.3 Role of risk assessment in risk management

    8.4 Sources of further information

    8.5 References

    Part II: Particular persistent organic pollutants, toxic metals and metalloids

    Chapter 9: Dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in foods

    Abstract:

    9.1 Introduction

    9.2 Properties and occurrence of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs)

    9.3 Toxicity of PCDD/Fs

    9.4 Toxic effects of PCDD/Fs in humans and experimental animals

    9.5 Properties and occurrence of PCBs

    9.6 Toxicity of PCBs

    9.7 References

    Chapter 10: Non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (NDL-PCBs) in foods: exposure and health hazards

    Abstract:

    10.1 Introduction

    10.2 Sources, occurrence in foods, limit values and monitoring methods

    10.3 Human exposure and tissue levels

    10.4 Toxicokinetics and metabolism

    10.5 Classification of PCB congeners

    10.6 NDL-PCB regulatory status

    10.7 ATHON R&D project dedicated to generating NDL-PCB toxicity data for regulatory use

    10.8 Cell regulation and metabolism

    10.9 Classification of NDL-PCB congeners

    10.10 Conclusions and future trends

    10.11 Acknowledgements

    10.12 References

    Chapter 11: Brominated flame retardants in foods

    Abstract:

    11.1 Introduction

    11.2 Sources, occurrence in foods and human exposure

    11.3 Methods of analysis and monitoring of brominated flame retardants in foods

    11.4 Toxicity of brominated flame retardants

    11.5 Major incidences of brominated flame retardant contamination of foods

    11.6 Implications for the food industry and policy makers for prevention and control of contamination

    11.7 Future trends

    11.8 Sources of further information and advice

    11.9 References

    Chapter 12: Human dietary exposure to per- and poly-fluoroalkyl substances (PFASs)

    Abstract:

    12.1 Introduction

    12.2 Analytical methods for PFASs in foods

    12.3 Levels of PFASs in foods

    12.4 Pathways of food contamination

    12.5 Estimated exposure from food and other exposure media

    12.6 Conclusions and future trends

    12.8 References

    Chapter 13: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in foods

    Abstract:

    13.1 Introduction

    13.2 Sources and formation of PAHs in foods

    13.3 Methods of analysis of PAHs in foods

    13.4 Human dietary exposure to PAHs from foods

    13.5 Risk assessment of PAHs

    13.6 Food scandals

    13.7 Legislation of PAHs in foods within the EU

    13.8 References

    Chapter 14: Phthalates in foods

    Abstract:

    14.1 Introduction

    14.2 Human exposure to phthalates

    14.3 Sources and occurrence in foods

    14.4 Studies of the effects of phthalates on humans

    14.5 Methods of phthalate analysis and monitoring in foods

    14.6 Implications for the food industry and policy making for prevention and control of contamination

    14.7 Future trends

    14.8 Sources of further information and advice

    14.9 References

    Chapter 15: Polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) in foods: sources, analytical methodology, occurrence and human exposure

    Abstract:

    15.1 Introduction

    15.2 Sources of PCNs

    15.3 Toxicology

    15.4 Methods of analysis of PCNs in foods

    15.5 Occurrence in foods

    15.6 PCN occurrence in humans

    15.7 Conclusions and future trends

    15.8 References

    Chapter 16: Mercury in foods

    Abstract:

    16.1 Introduction

    16.2 Concentrations of mercury in foods

    16.3 Mercury exposures and risks from major food categories

    16.4 References

    Chapter 17: Arsenic in foods: current issues related to analysis, toxicity and metabolism

    Abstract:

    17.1 Introduction

    17.2 Sources and occurrence in foods

    17.3 Methods for determining arsenic in foods

    17.4 Toxicity of arsenic

    17.5 Implications for the food industry and policy makers

    17.6 References

    Chapter 18: Organotin compounds in foods

    Abstract:

    18.1 Introduction

    18.2 Technical, agricultural and industrial uses of organotin compounds

    18.3 Physical and chemical properties of organotin compounds

    18.4 Analysis of organotin compounds in foods

    18.5 Human dietary exposure to organotin compounds from foods

    18.6 Human exposure to organotin compounds from food packaging material

    18.7 Health risks and toxicity of organotin compounds

    18.8 Conclusions and future trends

    18.9 References

    18.10 Appendix: abbreviations

    Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 520
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Woodhead Publishing 2013
  • Published: May 15, 2013
  • Imprint: Woodhead Publishing
  • eBook ISBN: 9780857098917
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780857092458

About the Editors

Martin Rose

Alwin Fernandes

Alwyn Fernandes is a senior scientist at FERA with a particular interest in emerging environmental contaminants.

Affiliations and Expertise

FERA, UK

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