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Osmosis Engineering - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780128210161

Osmosis Engineering

1st Edition

Editors: Nidal Hilal Ahmad Ismail Mohamed Khayet Souhaimi Daniel Johnson
Hardcover ISBN: 9780128210161
Imprint: Elsevier
Published Date: 23rd April 2021
Page Count: 388
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Osmosis Engineering provides a comprehensive overview of the state-of-the-art surrounding osmosis-based research and industrial applications. The book covers the underpinning theories, technology developments and commercial applications. Sections discuss innovative and advanced membranes and modules for osmosis separation processes (e.g., reverse osmosis, forward osmosis, pressure retarded osmosis, osmotic membrane distillation), different application of these osmosis separation processes for energy and water separation, such as the treatment of radioactive waste, oily wastewater and heavy metal removal, draw solutions, pretreatment technologies, fouling effects, the use of renewable energy driven osmotic processes, computational, environmental and economic studies, and more.

Key Features

  • Covers state-of-the-art osmotic engineering technologies and applications
  • Presents multidisciplinary topics in engineered osmosis, including both fundamental and applied EO concepts
  • Includes major challenges such as fouling mitigation, membrane development, pre-treatment and energy usage


Water treatment technologists, Chemical Engineers, Material Scientists, Chemistry. Researchers, technologists and industrial practitioners working within the desalination, water resource and energy production fields

Table of Contents

Chapter 1: Basic Principles of Osmosis and Osmotic Pressure

1.1 Introduction

1.2 What is Osmotic Pressure?

1.3 Relation of Osmotic Pressure to Other Colligative Properties1.3.1 Freezing Point Depression

1.3.2 Boiling Point Elevation1.4 Origins of Osmotic Pressure in Solution

1.5 Osmotic Flow

1.6 Reflection Coefficient

Chapter 2: Fundamentals and application of reverse osmosis membrane processes

21.1 Introduction

2.22. Principles of RO2.2.1. Definition of osmotic pressure and RO2.2.2. Theoretical minimum energy for separation from osmotic pressure

2.2.3. Permeation mechanism and equations in the RO process2.2.4 Concentration polarization

2.2.5. Mass balance and pressure drop equations in the RO process

2.2.6. Energy consumption in the RO process2.3. RO system and design

2.3.1. Single-stage/pass BWRO

2.3.2. Two/multistage BWRO

2.3.3. Single-stage/pass SWRO

2.3.4. Two-stage SWRO

2.3.5. Two-pass SWRO Full two pass Partial second pass Split partial second pass

2.3.6. Internally staged design (ISD)

2.3.7. Pressure-center design2.4. RO fouling

2.4.1. Particulate/colloidal fouling

2.4.2. Organic fouling

2.4.3. Biofouling

2.4.4. Scaling2.5. Detection of RO fouling potential

2.5.1. Silt density index (SDI)

2.5.2. Modified fouling index (MFI)2.6. Mitigation of RO fouling

2.6.1. Pretreatment processes

2.6.2. Membrane maintenance

Chapter 3: Principles of Nanofiltration Membrane Processes3.1. Introduction

3.2. Basic Principle of NF Membrane Separation Process3.2.1 Steric Effect

3.2.2 Donnan Effect

3.2.3 Dielectric Effect

3.2.4 Transport Effect

3.2.5 Adsorption Effect3.3. Synthesis and Modification of NF Membrane

3.3.1 Phase inversion

3.3.2 Interfacial Polymerization Monomer Additives Others

3.3.3 Grafting Polymerization UV/ photo-grafting EB irradiation Plasma treatment LBL3.4. Design and Operation of NF Process

3.4.1 Module Design

3.4.2 Operation3.5. Limitation of the NF Membrane Applications

3.5.1 Concentration Polarization and Membrane Fouling

3.5.2 Factors Affectingof Membrane Fouling

3.5.3 Fouling Mitigation Passive Fouling Control Active Fouling Control3.6 Conclusions

Chapter 4. Recent Development in Nanofiltration Process Applications

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Applications of Nanofiltration Membrane Process4.2.1 Water and Wastewater

4.2.2 Desalination

4.2.3 Food Industry

4.2.4 Biorefinery Applications

4.2.5 Organic Solvent Nanofiltration

4.3 Conclusions

Chapter 5: Principles of Forward Osmosis

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Water flux in FO

5.3 Practical challenges in FO process5.3.1 Concentration polarization External concentration polarization (ECP) Internal concentration polarization (ICP)

5.3.2 Reverse solute flux

Chapter 6: Recent developments in forward osmosis (FO) and its implication in expanding applications

6.1 Introduction

6.2 Forward osmosis (FO)6.2.1 Theoretical background

6.2.2. Process description6.3 Technological Factors

6.3.1 FO membrane

6.3.2. Draw solution6.4. Understanding of fouling in FO

6.4.1. Operation without hydraulic pressure

6.4.2. Bidirectional diffusion

6.4.3 Fouling control and cleaning in FO6.5. Exploiting advantages of FO in its applications

6.5.1. Feed concentration process with high water recovery High-quality product Effective resource recovery Minimal environmental impact

6.5.2. Draw dilution process with lower energy consumption Standalone FO system: direct use Hybrid FO systems Indirect desalting process along with wastewater reclamation Direct desalting process for draw solute recovery6.6 Conclusions and perspectives

Chapter 7: Principle and theoretical background of pressure retarded osmosis process

7.1 Introduction

7.2 Theory and modelling of osmotic pressure 7.2.1 Pitzer model for osmotic pressure

7.2.2 Laar’s model for osmotic pressure

7.2.3 Water and solute activities

7.2.4 Newton– Raphson method for osmotic pressure7.3 Osmotic power generation

7.3.1 Van’t Hoff model for Gibbs free energy

7.3.2 Piston model for Gibbs energy and energy density7.4 Dual- and Multi-stage PRO process

Chapter 8: Application of PRO process for seawater and wastewater treatment: Assessment of membrane performance

8.1 Introduction

8.2 Modelling PRO process 8.2.1 Water flux and extractable power

8.2.2 Reverse solute flux

8.2.3 Concentration polarization Internal concentration polarization External concentration polarization8.3. Membrane Development

8.3.1 Performance of RO flat sheet membranes

8.3.2 Performance of FO flat sheet membranes

8.3.3 Performance of TFC flat sheet membranes

8.3.4 Performance of nanofibre supported flat sheet membranes

8.3.5 Performance of hollow fibre membranes8.4 Applications in seawater and wastewater treatment

8.4.1 Individual PRO pilot plant

8.4.2 Hybrid PRO processes RO-PRO system PRO-FO system PRO-MD system NF-PRO system8.5 Conclusions and future research needs

Chapter 9: Osmotic distillation and osmotic membrane distillation for the treatment of different feed solutions

9.1 Introduction

9.2 Membranes used in OD & OMD processes

9.3 Osmotic solutions used in OD & OMD processes

9.4 Mechanism of transport in OD and OMD: Temperature polarization, concentration polarization and theoretical models9.4.1. Mass transfer through the membrane

9.4.2. Heat transfer in OD and OMD

9.4.3. Heat and mass transfer boundary layers: Temperature and concentration polarization effects in OD and OMD9.5. OD & OMD Applications and effects of different involved operating parameters

9.5.1. Temperature effect

9.5.2 Flowrate Effect

9.5.3 Osmotic solution effect9.6. Conclusions

Chapter 10: Thermo-osmosis (TO)

10.1 Introduction and a brief historical review

10.2. Membranes for TO10.3. Electrolyte solutions used in TO

10.4. Theoretical studies developed for TO10.4.1. TO and linear irreversible thermodynamics processes (ITP)

10.4.2. TO using intermolecular interactions

10.4.3. TO for energy conversion

10.5 Applications of TO process

Chapter 11: The Applications of Integrated Osmosis Processes for Desalination and Wastewater Treatment

11.1 Introduction11.2 Osmosis Processes11.2.1 Integration of Osmosis Processes

11.3 Integrated osmosis process for desalination11.3.1 Integration of RO process RO-AD and RO-NF MF-RO, UF-RO, NF-RO RO-PRO

11.3.2 Integration of FO process FO-RO FO-MD FO-UF and FO-NF

11.3.3 Integration of PRO process PRO-RO PRO-MD

11.4 Integrated osmosis process for wastewater treatment11.4.1 Integration of RO process MF-RO, UF-RO, NF-RO

11.4.2 Integration of FO process FO-RO FO-MD FO-NF

11.4.3 Integration of PRO process PRO-RO UF-PRO, NF-PRO 11.5 Future Outlook and Conclusions

Chapter 12: Development and Implementations of Integrated Osmosis System

12.1 Introduction 12.2 Development of Integrated Osmosis System12.2.1 Reverse Osmosis-Forward Osmosis (FO-RO)

12.2.2 Reverse Osmosis – Membrane Distillation (RO-MD)

12.2.3 Forward Osmosis – Membrane Distillation (FO-MD)

12.3 Implementation of Integrated Osmosis System12.3.1 Integrated FO-RO system

12.3.2 Integrated RO-MD system

12.3.3 Integrated FO-MD system

12.4 Conclusion and Future Research DirectionsConclusions


No. of pages:
© Elsevier 2021
23rd April 2021
Hardcover ISBN:

About the Editors

Nidal Hilal

Nidal Hilal

Professor Nidal Hilal is the Director and Founding Director of NYUAD Water Research Center at New York University-Abu Dhabi. His research interests lie broadly in the identification of innovative and cost-effective solutions within the fields of nano-water, membrane technology, and water treatment including desalination, colloid engineering and the nano-engineering applications of AFM. His internationally recognized research has led to the use of AFM in the development of new membranes with optimized properties for difficult separations. He has published 8 handbooks, 63 invited book chapters and around 500 articles in refereed scientific literature. He has chaired and delivered lectures at numerous international conferences. In 2005 he was awarded Doctor of Science (DSc) from the University of Wales and the Kuwait Prize for applied science “Water resources development”. He is also the Menelaus Medal Winner 2020 which is awarded by the Learned Society of Wales for excellence in engineering and technology. He is the Editor-in-Chief for the international journal Desalination. He sits on the editorial boards of a number of international journals, is an advisory board member of several multinational organizations and has served on/consulted for industry, government departments, research councils and universities on an international basis.

Affiliations and Expertise

NYUAD Water Research Center, New York University - Abu Dhabi Campus, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates

Ahmad Ismail

A.F. Ismail is a Professor at the Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM), where he runs a membrane technology research group at AMTEC. He has also held the post of Dean of Research for the Materials and Manufacturing Alliance at UTM. Dr. Ismail’s research interests cover membrane formation, membranes for wastewaster treatment and gas separation, and nanofibers and nanostructured materials for energy applications. He has authored or edited 4 books, and published several book chapters. Dr. Ismail has received several awards, including the ASEAN Young Scientist and Technologist Award in 2001 (the first Malaysian to receive this award), the Malaysian Young Scientist Award in 2000, and the Malaysian Intellectual Property Award for the Patent Category, and the Merdeka Award for Scholastic Achievements in 2014. He was also the first Malaysian scientist to twice win the National Innovation Award in Waste to Wealth and Product categories, both in 2009 and 2011. Prof. Dr. Ahmad Fauzi Ismail is the Founder and First Director of Advanced Membrane Technology Research Centre (AMTEC). His research interest are in development of polymeric, inorganic and novel mixed matrix membranes for water desalination, waste water treatment, gas separation processes, membrane for palm oil refining, photocatalytic membrane for removal of emerging contaminants, development of haemodialysis membrane and polymer electrolyte membrane for fuel cell applications. His research has been published in many high impact factor journals. He also actively authored many academic books in this field which published by reputable international publishers. He is the author and co-author of over 600 refereed journals. He has authored 6 books, over 50 book chapters and 4 edited books, 6 Patents granted, 14 Patents pending. His h-index is 66 with cumulative citation of over 19,300. He won more than 150 awards national and internationally. Among the most prestigious award won is the Merdeka Award for the Outstanding Scholastic Achievement Category at 4th September 2014, Malaysia’s Rising Star Award 2016 for Frontier Researcher category at 1st November 2016, Malaysia’s Research Star Award 2017 on 5 October 2017, Malaysia’s Research Start Award 2018. Recently, He was appointed as UNESCO Chair on Groundwater Arsenic within the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. He is the Chairman of Academy of Sciences Malaysia (Southern Region), Fellow of The Academy of Sciences Malaysia, Chartered Engineer in the UK (CEng) and a Fellow of the Institution of Chemical Engineers (FIChemE). Ahmad Fauzi also served as the Editorial Board Members of Desalination, Journal of Membrane Water Treatment, Jurnal Teknologi, Journal of Membrane Science and Research, Journal of Membrane and Separation Technology and the Advisory editorial board member of Journal of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology. He involved extensively in R&D&C for national and multinational companies related to membrane-based processes for industrial application and currently have two spin off companies. He is the founder of Advanced Membrane Technology Research Centre (AMTEC) and now recognized as Higher Education Centre of Excellence (HICoE). Currently Ahmad Fauzi is the Deputy Vice Chancellor of Research and Innovation, UTM.

Affiliations and Expertise

Advanced Membrane Technology Research Centre (AMTEC), Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Skudai, Malaysia

Mohamed Khayet Souhaimi

Professor Mohamed Khayett is a world leading expert on membrane science and technology (membrane design and fabrication, membrane processes, emerging technologies), renewable energy applications (solar thermal and photovoltaic energy), nanocomposites, nanofibres and nanofluids among others. He is a co-editor of Journal Desalination.

Affiliations and Expertise

Department of Structure of Matter, Thermal Physics and Electronics, Faculty of Physics, University Complutense of Madrid, Madrid, Spain

Daniel Johnson

Dr. Daniel Johnson is a researcher in the characterisation and development of membranes for water treatment, surface forces, osmometry and water treatment using membrane osmosis based processes.

Affiliations and Expertise

Researcher: characterisation and development of membranes for water treatment, surface forces, osmometry and water treatment using membrane osmosis based processes

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