New Techniques in Metabolic Bone Disease

New Techniques in Metabolic Bone Disease

1st Edition - February 7, 1990

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  • Author: John C. Stevenson
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483163185

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New Techniques in Metabolic Bone Disease presents reviews of the major metabolic bone diseases and the advancement in the techniques used in both research and practice. The text particularly focuses on diagnostic, assessment, and measurement concerns and methodologies such as humoral and local factors affecting bone formation and resorption; photon absorptiometric techniques for measurement of bone mass; and computerized axial tomography scanning. The book will be of great use to both researchers and practitioners of medical fields concerned with bone disease, such as orthopedics.

Table of Contents

  • Preface

    List of Contributors

    1 Humoral and Local Factors Affecting Bone Formation and Resorption

    The Cells of Bone

    Experimental Approaches

    Regulation of Bone Cell Activity

    Cytokines and Growth Factors as Local Regulators of Bone Metabolism

    The Interactions Among Cytokines

    Cytokines and Growth Factors Made by and Found in Bone and Cartilage

    Coupling of Bone Formation and Resorption

    Systemic Versus Local Effects of Cytokines

    Mode of Action of Steroids (Glucocorticoids, Oestrogens, androgens and Anabolic Steroids) on Bone

    The Mode of Action of Drugs on Bone

    Possible Roles for Cytokines in Bone and Joint Disease

    Prospects for the Future

    2 Bone Cell Physiology and in Vitro Techniques in its Investigation


    Function and Origin of Bone Cells

    Methods for Studying Bone in Organ Culture

    Methods for Studying Bone Cells in Culture

    Cloned or Transformed Cells

    Concluding Remarks

    3 New Concepts of Vitamin D Physiology

    4 Physiology of Parathyroid Hormone and Assessment of Parathyroid Function

    Biosynthesis and Secretion of PTH

    Metabolism of PTH

    Pth Action, Receptors

    Structure-Function Relationships of the PTH Peptide

    Primary Hyperparathyroidism

    Parathyroid Function in Chronic Renal Failure

    Parathyroid Function in Pseudohypoparathyroidism (PHP)

    5 Calcitonin Gene Peptides and Bone Metabolism



    Calcitonin Receptors

    Action of Calcitonin on Osteoclasts

    Action of Calcitonin on Osteoblasts

    Other Actions of Calcitonin

    Function of Calcitonin in Humans

    PDN-21 (Katacalcin)

    Calcitonin-Gene-Related Peptide

    6 New Perspectives in Hormone Measurement


    Radioimmunoassay: Potential Alternatives

    Particle Immunoassay

    Enzyme Immunoassay

    Fluorescence Immunoassay

    Luminescence Immunoassay

    Monoclonal Antibodies


    7 The Use of Biochemical and Isotopic Studies in the Investigation of Bone Disorders


    Routine Biochemical Indices

    Biochemical Markers of Bone Formation

    Biochemical Markers of Bone Resorption

    Radioisotope Techniques

    Bone Turnover: Methodological Intercomparisons

    Isotopic Bone Scanning

    8 Bone Biopsy and Histomorphometry in Metabolic Bone Disease


    Bone Biopsy Procedure


    Morphometric Techniques

    New Developments

    9 Recent Advances in Photon Absorptiometric Techniques for Measurement of Bone Mass



    Study 1

    Study 2

    Study 3


    10 Developments in Computerized Axial Tomography Scanning and Its Use in Bone Disease Measurement

    Accuracy and Precision

    Types of QCT

    Ct and DPA


    11 The Measurement of Calcium and Other Body Elements by in Vivo Neutron Activation Analysis


    The Physics of Neutron Activation

    Practical Requirements of IVNA

    Analysis of the Gamma Ray Spectrum and Calculation of Calcium Content

    Normalization of Total-Body Calcium

    The Application of Neutron Activation to the Study of Osteoporosis

    Paget's Disease

    Other Endocrine Disorders

    Renal Disease

    Comparison with Other Techniques of Bone Mass Measurement


    12 Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Bone Marrow



    Physical Principles

    Pulse Sequences

    Chemical Shift Imaging

    Understanding the Image and Normal Appearances

    Physiological Considerations

    Bone Infarction

    Metastatic Bone Disease

    Primary Bone Tumors



    The Spinal Column


    Miscellaneous Observations

    Technical Considerations

    Patient Care

    Safety Considerations

    Glossary of Terms

    13 Clinical, Biochemical and Molecular Aspects of Bone Collagen Disorders

    Inherited Abnormalities of Collagen

    Clinical and Genetic Classification


    Biochemistry of Collagen

    Structural Properties of Interstitial Collagens

    Collagen Genes

    Gene Analysis

    Technical Aspects

    Restriction Enzymes

    DNA Cloning

    Molecular Mechanisms of Disease in Osteogenesis Imperfecta

    Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphisms (RFLP)

    Possible Drawbacks of Using RFLPs in Linkage Studies

    14 The Pathogenesis, Prevention and Treatment of Osteoporosis

    Epidemiology of Osteoporosis


    Risk Factors

    Bone Mass Measurements

    Prevention of Bone Loss


    15 Controversies in the Use of Hormone Replacement Therapy



    Endometrial Cancer

    Ovarian Cancer

    Breast Cancer

    Thrombotic Disease


    16 Current Problems with Rickets and Osteomalacia

    Definition and Diagnosis

    Vitamin D Deficiency

    Vitamin D - The Active Form?

    Rickets/Osteomalacia in Asian Immigrants

    Malabsorption of Vitamin D

    Osteomalacia Related to Impaired Vitamin D-25-Hydroxylase Function

    Anticonvulsant Therapy

    Osteomalacia Due to Defective 25(OH)D-1α-Hydroxylase Activity

    Renal Osteodystrophy

    Vitamin D-Dependency Rickets

    X-Linked Hypophosphataemic Rickets/Osteomalacia

    Other Causes of Hypophosphataemic Rickets

    Osteomalacia Due to Toxic Substances




    17 Paget's Disease of Bone




    Clinical Features

    Investigations and Diagnosis


    Cessation of Therapy

    Future Outlook



Product details

  • No. of pages: 302
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Butterworth-Heinemann 1990
  • Published: February 7, 1990
  • Imprint: Butterworth-Heinemann
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483163185

About the Author

John C. Stevenson

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