New Techniques in Metabolic Bone Disease - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780723608981, 9781483163185

New Techniques in Metabolic Bone Disease

1st Edition

Authors: John C. Stevenson
eBook ISBN: 9781483163185
Imprint: Butterworth-Heinemann
Published Date: 7th February 1990
Page Count: 302
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Description

New Techniques in Metabolic Bone Disease presents reviews of the major metabolic bone diseases and the advancement in the techniques used in both research and practice. The text particularly focuses on diagnostic, assessment, and measurement concerns and methodologies such as humoral and local factors affecting bone formation and resorption; photon absorptiometric techniques for measurement of bone mass; and computerized axial tomography scanning. The book will be of great use to both researchers and practitioners of medical fields concerned with bone disease, such as orthopedics.

Table of Contents


Preface

List of Contributors

1 Humoral and Local Factors Affecting Bone Formation and Resorption

The Cells of Bone

Experimental Approaches

Regulation of Bone Cell Activity

Cytokines and Growth Factors as Local Regulators of Bone Metabolism

The Interactions Among Cytokines

Cytokines and Growth Factors Made by and Found in Bone and Cartilage

Coupling of Bone Formation and Resorption

Systemic Versus Local Effects of Cytokines

Mode of Action of Steroids (Glucocorticoids, Oestrogens, androgens and Anabolic Steroids) on Bone

The Mode of Action of Drugs on Bone

Possible Roles for Cytokines in Bone and Joint Disease

Prospects for the Future

2 Bone Cell Physiology and in Vitro Techniques in its Investigation

Introduction

Function and Origin of Bone Cells

Methods for Studying Bone in Organ Culture

Methods for Studying Bone Cells in Culture

Cloned or Transformed Cells

Concluding Remarks

3 New Concepts of Vitamin D Physiology

4 Physiology of Parathyroid Hormone and Assessment of Parathyroid Function

Biosynthesis and Secretion of PTH

Metabolism of PTH

Pth Action, Receptors

Structure-Function Relationships of the PTH Peptide

Primary Hyperparathyroidism

Parathyroid Function in Chronic Renal Failure

Parathyroid Function in Pseudohypoparathyroidism (PHP)

5 Calcitonin Gene Peptides and Bone Metabolism

Introduction

Calcitonin

Calcitonin Receptors

Action of Calcitonin on Osteoclasts

Action of Calcitonin on Osteoblasts

Other Actions of Calcitonin

Function of Calcitonin in Humans

PDN-21 (Katacalcin)

Calcitonin-Gene-Related Peptide

6 New Perspectives in Hormone Measurement

Introduction

Radioimmunoassay: Potential Alternatives

Particle Immunoassay

Enzyme Immunoassay

Fluorescence Immunoassay

Luminescence Immunoassay

Monoclonal Antibodies

Summary

7 The Use of Biochemical and Isotopic Studies in the Investigation of Bone Disorders

Introduction

Routine Biochemical Indices

Biochemical Markers of Bone Formation

Biochemical Markers of Bone Resorption

Radioisotope Techniques

Bone Turnover: Methodological Intercomparisons

Isotopic Bone Scanning

8 Bone Biopsy and Histomorphometry in Metabolic Bone Disease

Introduction

Bone Biopsy Procedure

Histomorphometry

Morphometric Techniques

New Developments

9 Recent Advances in Photon Absorptiometric Techniques for Measurement of Bone Mass

Introduction

Methodology

Study 1

Study 2

Study 3

Conclusion

10 Developments in Computerized Axial Tomography Scanning and Its Use in Bone Disease Measurement

Accuracy and Precision

Types of QCT

Ct and DPA

Summary

11 The Measurement of Calcium and Other Body Elements by in Vivo Neutron Activation Analysis

Introduction

The Physics of Neutron Activation

Practical Requirements of IVNA

Analysis of the Gamma Ray Spectrum and Calculation of Calcium Content

Normalization of Total-Body Calcium

The Application of Neutron Activation to the Study of Osteoporosis

Paget's Disease

Other Endocrine Disorders

Renal Disease

Comparison with Other Techniques of Bone Mass Measurement

Conclusions

12 Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Bone Marrow

Introduction

History

Physical Principles

Pulse Sequences

Chemical Shift Imaging

Understanding the Image and Normal Appearances

Physiological Considerations

Bone Infarction

Metastatic Bone Disease

Primary Bone Tumors

Infection

Leukemia

The Spinal Column

Trauma

Miscellaneous Observations

Technical Considerations

Patient Care

Safety Considerations

Glossary of Terms

13 Clinical, Biochemical and Molecular Aspects of Bone Collagen Disorders

Inherited Abnormalities of Collagen

Clinical and Genetic Classification

Pathology

Biochemistry of Collagen

Structural Properties of Interstitial Collagens

Collagen Genes

Gene Analysis

Technical Aspects

Restriction Enzymes

DNA Cloning

Molecular Mechanisms of Disease in Osteogenesis Imperfecta

Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphisms (RFLP)

Possible Drawbacks of Using RFLPs in Linkage Studies

14 The Pathogenesis, Prevention and Treatment of Osteoporosis

Epidemiology of Osteoporosis

Pathogenesis

Risk Factors

Bone Mass Measurements

Prevention of Bone Loss

Treatment

15 Controversies in the Use of Hormone Replacement Therapy

Introduction

Background

Endometrial Cancer

Ovarian Cancer

Breast Cancer

Thrombotic Disease

Conclusions

16 Current Problems with Rickets and Osteomalacia

Definition and Diagnosis

Vitamin D Deficiency

Vitamin D - The Active Form?

Rickets/Osteomalacia in Asian Immigrants

Malabsorption of Vitamin D

Osteomalacia Related to Impaired Vitamin D-25-Hydroxylase Function

Anticonvulsant Therapy

Osteomalacia Due to Defective 25(OH)D-1α-Hydroxylase Activity

Renal Osteodystrophy

Vitamin D-Dependency Rickets

X-Linked Hypophosphataemic Rickets/Osteomalacia

Other Causes of Hypophosphataemic Rickets

Osteomalacia Due to Toxic Substances

Hypophosphatasia

Prematurity

Conclusion

17 Paget's Disease of Bone

Epidemiology

Aetiology

Pathogenesis

Clinical Features

Investigations and Diagnosis

Management

Cessation of Therapy

Future Outlook

Glossary

Index


Details

No. of pages:
302
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Butterworth-Heinemann 1990
Published:
Imprint:
Butterworth-Heinemann
eBook ISBN:
9781483163185

About the Author

John C. Stevenson