Neuroimaging Personality, Social Cognition, and Character - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780128009352, 9780128011669

Neuroimaging Personality, Social Cognition, and Character

1st Edition

Editors: John Absher Jasmin Cloutier
eBook ISBN: 9780128011669
Hardcover ISBN: 9780128009352
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 24th February 2016
Page Count: 420
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Neuroimaging Personality, Social Cognition, and Character covers the science of combining brain imaging with other analytical techniques for use in understanding cognition, behavior, consciousness, memory, language, visual perception, emotional control, and other human attributes.

Multidimensional brain imaging research has led to a greater understanding of character traits such as honesty, generosity, truthfulness, and foresight previously unachieved by quantitative mapping. This book summarizes the latest brain imaging research pertaining to character with structural and functional human brain imaging in both normal individuals and those with brain disease or disorder, including psychiatric disorders.

By reviewing and synthesizing the latest structural and functional brain imaging research related to character, this book situates itself into the larger framework of cognitive neuroscience, psychiatric neuroimaging, related fields of research, and a wide range of academic fields, such as politics, psychology, medicine, education, law, and religion.

Key Features

  • Provides a novel innovative reference on the emerging use of neuroimaging to reveal the biological substrates of character, such as optimism, honesty, generosity, and others
  • Features chapters from leading physicians and researchers in the field
  • Contains full-color text that includes both an overview of multiple disciplines and a detailed review of modern neuroimaging tools as they are applied to study human character
  • Presents an integrative volume with far-reaching implications for guiding future imaging research in the social, psychological and medical sciences, and for applying these findings to a wide range of non-clinical disciplines such as law, politics, and religion
  • Connects brain structure and function to human character and integrates modern neuroimaging techniques and other research methods for this purpose


Neuroscientists, cognitive neuroscientists, neurophysiologists, neurologists, psychologists, sociologists, graduate students.

Table of Contents

  • List of Contributors
  • Preface
  • Acknowledgments
  • Section I. Introduction
    • Chapter 1. Hypersexuality and Neuroimaging Personality, Social Cognition, and Character
      • 1. Introductory Questions and Definitions
      • 2. Hypersexuality without and with Structural Brain Lesions
      • 3. The Many Challenges of NPSCC with Hypersexuality as an Example
      • 4. Summary
  • Section II. Perspectives on the Neural Basis of Personality and Dispositions
    • Chapter 2. Approach/Avoidance
      • 1. Basics of Approach/Avoidance—Behavior and Brain
      • 2. State Neuroimaging of Approach, Avoidance, and Goal Conflict
      • 3. Trait Neuroimaging of Approach, Avoidance, and Goal Conflict
      • 4. From Basics to States and Traits: Assessing Approach, Avoidance, and Goal Conflict
    • Chapter 3. Integrating Personality/Character Neuroscience with Network Analysis
      • 1. What Is Network Science?
      • 2. Personality and Progress Built upon Factor Analysis
      • 3. Network Science Applied to Behavioral Data
      • 4. Conclusions
    • Chapter 4. Genetics, Brain, and Personality: Searching for Intermediate Phenotypes
      • 1. Introduction: Searching for the Biological Roots of Personality and Individual Differences
      • 2. Genetic Determinants of Personality
      • 3. Personality and the Brain: Toward Intermediate Phenotypes (Endophenotypes)
      • 4. The Genetics of Potential Neurobiological Endophenotypes for Personality Traits
      • 5. Linking Genetics, Brain, and Personality
      • 6. Summary and Future Directions: In Search of a Unifying, Biologically Informed Model of Personality
      • Glossary
    • Chapter 5. Anxiety and Harm Avoidance
      • 1. What is Personality?
      • 2. Temperament and Character: The Biosocial Theory of Personality
      • 3. Anxiety and Harm Avoidance
      • 4. Neuroimaging of Temperament Traits
      • 5. Review of Empirical Studies
    • Chapter 6. Impulsiveness and Inhibitory Mechanisms
      • 1. Impulsive Traits and Personality
      • 2. Neural Basis of Impulsivity
      • 3. Inhibitory Deficits, Neuropathology, and Neurodevelopment
      • 4. Concluding Remarks
  • Section III. Brain Imaging Perspectives on Understanding the Self and Others: From Perception to Social Cognition
    • Chapter 7. The Neuroscience of Social Vision
      • 1. Social (Visual) Perception
      • 2. Social Influences on Visual Perception
      • 3. Mechanisms of Social Vision
      • 4. An Integrative Framework
      • 5. The Origins and Function of Social Vision
      • 6. Conclusion
    • Chapter 8. Social Vision: At the Intersection of Vision and Person Perception
      • 1. Why is the Face Considered Special?
      • 2. Social Face Perception
      • 3. The Neuroanatomy of Social Vision
      • 4. Social Vision and Compound Cue Integration
      • 5. Conclusion
    • Chapter 9. Neuroimaging Investigations of Social Status and Social Hierarchies
      • 1. Introduction
      • 2. Social Status and Brain Structure: Status as an Environmental Factor
      • 3. How the Social Status of Conspecifics Shapes Person Perception and Person Evaluation
      • 4. Towards an Integration of Brain Imaging Investigations of Social Status
    • Chapter 10. Cognitive Neuroscience of Self-Reflection
      • 1. What Is the Self?
      • 2. Cognitive Neuroscience of the Self
      • 3. The Brain Network for Self-Reflection Overlaps Strongly with the Brain Network Observed in the Resting Brain
      • 4. This Overlap Implies that a Large Portion of Our Brain’s Metabolic Budget during Rest Is Given Over to Consideration of Ourselves and Others
      • 5. Lesions to the Brain Network Associated with Self-Reflection Cause Difficulties in Understanding Ourselves
      • 6. Future Directions
      • 7. Conclusions
  • Section IV. Brain Imaging Perspectives On Affect And Emotion Regulation
    • Chapter 11. The Neural Basis of Frustration State
      • 1. From Motivation to Frustration to Aggression
      • 2. The Seeking, Aversion, and Rage Circuits
      • 3. Reward Blockage Induces Frustration
      • 4. The Neural Basis of the Frustration State
      • 5. Future Directions
      • 6. Conclusions
    • Chapter 12. Emotional Learning and Regulation in Social Situations
      • 1. Introduction
      • 2. Emotional Learning and Regulation through Firsthand Experiences
      • 3. Social Learning and Regulation of Fear
      • 4. Processing Social Information: Empathy and Mental State Attributions
      • 5. Linking Observational Fear Learning and the Processing of Social Information in the Brain
      • 6. Basic Social Regulation: Observational Extinction of Learned Fear
      • 7. A Neural Model of Emotional Learning and Regulation
      • 8. Future Challenges for the Study of Social Learning and Regulation
    • Chapter 13. Emotion and Aging: The Impact of Emotion on Attention, Memory, and Face Recognition in Late Adulthood
      • 1. Cognitive Aging
      • 2. Emotion and Aging
      • 3. Emotion and Attention in Aging
      • 4. Emotional Memory and Aging
      • 5. Emotion Recognition and Aging
      • 6. Closing Remarks
  • Section V. Brain Imaging Perspectives On The Basis Of Prosociability
    • Chapter 14. Cultural Neuroscience of Moral Reasoning and Decision-Making
      • 1. Introduction
      • 2. Concluding Remarks
    • Chapter 15. Empathy
      • 1. Introduction
      • 2. What Is Empathy and How Can It Be Studied?
      • 3. What Is Shared and How Does This Happen?
      • 4. Summary
    • Chapter 16. Honesty
      • 1. Introduction
      • 2. What Does Lying Involve? How Does Cognitive Neuroscience Contribute to Lying?
      • 3. The Ability to Tell a Lie: A Developmental Perspective
      • 4. Neuroimaging Studies of Deception
      • 5. Brain Stimulation Studies of Deception
      • 6. Pathological Lying and the Underlying Neural Mechanisms: A Psychiatric and Neurological Perspective
      • 7. Neuroscience of Honesty and Moral Judgment
      • 8. Conclusion
  • Section VI. Brain Imaging and Society
    • Chapter 17. The Henchman’s Brain: Neuropsychological Implications of Authoritarianism and Prejudice
      • 1. Introduction
      • 2. The Authoritarian Profile
      • 3. Authoritarianism Traits in Patients with Ventromedial Prefrontal Cortex Damage
      • 4. Mechanisms of Belief and Doubt: The False Tagging Theory
      • 5. Authoritarianism Attitudes in Patients with vmPFC Damage
      • 6. Neural Correlates of Prejudice
      • 7. Conclusion
    • Chapter 18. The Neural Mechanisms of Prejudice Intervention
      • 1. How Is Prejudice Defined and Measured?
      • 2. Does a Network of Brain Areas Exist that Is Reliably Associated with Prejudice Exhibition?
      • 3. Race Perception and Prejudice
      • 4. Race Perception and Evaluation Beyond the Amygdala
      • 5. Self-Regulation and Prejudice
      • 6. Are Neural Responses during Prejudice Expression Malleable?
      • 7. Conclusions and Considerations
    • Chapter 19. Political Neuroscience
      • 1. Political Neuroscience
      • 2. A Brief Overview of Neuroimaging Methods
      • 3. Important Questions in Political Neuroscience
      • 4. Political Attitudes and Evaluation
      • 5. Social Cognition and Politics
      • 6. Emotion and Politics
      • 7. Individual Differences in Political Behavior
      • 8. Directions for Future Research
      • 9. Conclusion
    • Chapter 20. Science in Society: Neuroscience and Lay Understandings of Self and Identity
      • 1. Introduction
      • 2. The Neurologization of Folk Psychology: Why Does It Matter?
      • 3. Neuroscience in the Media
      • 4. Neuroscience in Personal Lives
      • 5. A New Source of Evidence: Interviews with the British Public
      • 6. How Should Neuroscientists Respond?
      • 7. Conclusion
    • Chapter 21. Toward a Neuroscience of Wisdom
      • 1. Toward a Neuroscience of Wisdom
  • Index


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© Academic Press 2016
Academic Press
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About the Editor

John Absher

Dr. John Absher is the President of Absher Neurology, P.A. and Alliance for Neuro Research, LLC. Dr. Absher obtained his medical degree from the Medical College of Virginia/Virginia Commonwealth University. After internal medicine internship at the University of Maryland Medical Systems in Baltimore, he completed neurology residency at the University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, and Behavioral Neurology/Neuropsychiatry fellowship at the University of California, Los Angeles. He served for seven years as Assistant Professor of Neurology at Wake Forest University Baptist Medical Center and maintains an adjunct faculty position in the Department of Neuropsychiatry and Biobehavioral Sciences at the University of South Carolina. Dr. Absher is board certified by the American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology in Adult Neurology, has subspecialty certification in Behavioral Neurology by the United Council of Neurological Subspecialties, and additional certifications in neuroimaging (MRI and CT) and neurosonology through the American Society of Neuroimaging. Dr. Absher has been engaged in neuroimaging research and educational activities for 25 years, including structural and functional neuroimaging research related to neuropsychiatric and cognitive neurosciences.

Affiliations and Expertise

University of South Carolina School of Medicine Greenville, Greenville, SC, USA; Absher Neurology, P.A. and Alliance for Neuro Research, LLC, Greenville, SC, USA

Jasmin Cloutier

Affiliations and Expertise

Department of Psychology, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA