Nanofiber Filter Technologies for Filtration of Submicron Aerosols and Nanoaerosols

Nanofiber Filter Technologies for Filtration of Submicron Aerosols and Nanoaerosols

1st Edition - October 30, 2021

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  • Author: Wallace Woon-Fong Leung
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780128244685
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323859851

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Description

Nanofiber Filter Technologies for Filtration of Submicron Aerosols and Nanoaerosols covers the nanoaerosols (less than 100 nanometers) to larger submicron aerosols due mostly to pollution, which are present in high number concentration in our surroundings. People are breathing these nanoaerosols daily without being aware of it. Airborne viruses from flu to coronaviruses are also nanoaerosols. During the COVID-19 pandemic, it took a long time for health authorities and the General Public to recognize the airborne transmission mode of the virus. This leads to inadequate protection and ineffective virus control strategies resulting in high infection and death rates. The book cites evidence and observations pointing to the airborne transmission mode of the coronavirus. It also discusses different filtration technologies using nanofibers to capture these aerosols for short-term filtration, where aerosols are trapped in the filter (depth filtration), and long-term filtration, where aerosols are trapped in the growing filter cake (cake filtration). This book provides a good understanding on how nanofibers, which is of size 1/1000 times that of a normal human hair, can effectively filter these tiny aerosols. NFT, organized in four sections – fundamentals, deep understanding, technologies, and application, covering comprehensively on the subject, is a valuable resource for undergraduates and graduates, engineers, researchers and practitioners in related industries.

Key Features

  • Describes technologies with insight and use basic engineering principles to build-up technologies
  • Includes extensive clear and understandable figures and tables to enhance key concepts
  • Uses examples throughout to explain engineering principles and interdisciplinary concepts
  • The only book in the market focusing on nanofiber filter technologies for filtering submicron aerosols and nanoaerosols

Readership

University 3rd and 4th year student; Graduate student in university and research institutions; Research fellow and scientists. Engineers in filter media and engineering filtration products; HVAC engineers

Table of Contents

  • Cover image
  • Title page
  • Table of Contents
  • Copyright
  • In God, I trust
  • Preface
  • Chapter one. Introduction to submicron aerosols and nanoaerosols
  • Abstract
  • 1.1 Aerosols
  • 1.2 Classification
  • 1.3 Indoor aerosols
  • 1.4 Outdoor aerosols
  • 1.5 Health implication of nanoaerosols
  • 1.6 Airborne viruses
  • 1.7 Respiratory droplet and airborne virus transmission
  • 1.8 Experiment on SARS-CoV-2 virus spread by air transmission
  • 1.9 Approach to filter submicron aerosols and nanoaerosols
  • 1.10 Summary
  • 1.11 Problems
  • References
  • Chapter two. Fundamentals of gas filtration of submicron aerosols and nanoaerosols
  • Abstract
  • 2.1 Introduction
  • 2.2 Filter and single-fiber efficiency
  • 2.3 Mechanical capture
  • 2.4 Example of mechanical capture
  • 2.5 Typical behavior of mechanical capture
  • 2.6 Electrostatic effect
  • 2.7 Pressure drop
  • 2.8 Summary
  • 2.9 Problems
  • References
  • Chapter three. Nanofiber production
  • Abstract
  • 3.1 Electrospinning using needle-less electrospinning with a solvent-based approach
  • 3.2 Production using needle electrospinning with a solvent-based approach
  • 3.3 Electrospinning of molten state using needle electrospinning
  • 3.4 Centrifugal electrospinning with a high production rate
  • 3.5 Forcespinning
  • 3.6 The production of nanofibers using island-in-sea technology
  • 3.7 Examples of the production of different polymeric nanofibers
  • 3.8 Summary
  • 3.9 Problems
  • References
  • Chapter four. Filter testing, filter test standards, and filter ratings
  • Abstract
  • 4.1 Introduction
  • 4.2 Sodium chloride test aerosol (monodisperse)
  • 4.3 Dioctyl phthalate test aerosols
  • 4.4 Commercial filter tester
  • 4.5 Scanning mobility particle sizer
  • 4.6 Silver nanoparticles
  • 4.7 Polystyrene latex test aerosols
  • 4.8 Comparing filtration efficiencies of a clean filter with different test aerosols
  • 4.9 ISO test dust
  • 4.10 Filter loading acceleration test
  • 4.11 Face mask
  • 4.12 Respirator test
  • 4.13 MERV ratings and heating, ventilation, and air conditioning test
  • 4.14 Summary
  • 4.15 Problems
  • References
  • Chapter five. Filtration characteristics of nanofiber filter and multilayer nanofiber filter for depth filtration
  • Abstract
  • 5.1 Introduction
  • 5.2 Single-layer polymeric nanofiber filter
  • 5.3 Fiber packing density and filter thickness
  • 5.4 PEO nanofiber filter
  • 5.5 Pressure drop versus fiber basis weight for a single-layer nanofiber filter
  • 5.6 Filter thickness and fiber packing density versus fiber basis weight
  • 5.7 Grade filtration efficiency, prediction versus measurements
  • 5.8 Most penetrating particle size (MPPS)
  • 5.9 Multilayer nanofiber filter
  • 5.10 Summary
  • 5.11 Problems
  • References
  • Chapter six. Transition from depth-to-surface filtration for a nanofiber filter
  • Abstract
  • 6.1 Depth filtration and skin layer
  • 6.2 Transition from depth-to-cake filtration
  • 6.3 Transition—capillary filling model
  • 6.4 Transition—bridging model
  • 6.5 Cake formation model
  • 6.6 High-skin filter case studies
  • 6.7 Permeability of skin layer
  • 6.8 Remarks on high-skin effect study
  • 6.9 Low-skin filter
  • 6.10 Cake thickness
  • 6.11 Low-skin case studies
  • 6.12 Remarks on low-skin studies
  • 6.13 Summary
  • 6.14 Problems
  • References
  • Chapter seven. Cake filtration with a composite micro–nanofiber filter
  • Abstract
  • 7.1 Introduction
  • 7.2 Combining composite filters with different properties
  • 7.3 Cake filtration theory
  • 7.4 Tests on different composite filters
  • 7.5 Aerosol loading test results on single and composite filters
  • 7.6 Dimensionless cake deposition–resistance ratio, β
  • 7.7 Cake deposition pattern
  • 7.8 Summary
  • 7.9 Problems
  • References
  • Chapter eight. Electret filter for depth and cake filtration
  • Abstract
  • 8.1 Introduction to electrostatic effects
  • 8.2 Determining dielectrophoretic single-fiber efficiency
  • 8.3 Single fiber efficiency for charged microfiber versus nanofiber
  • 8.4 Effect of face velocity
  • 8.5 Single versus multiple modules for unloaded filter
  • 8.6 Aerosol loading in filters
  • 8.7 Loading behavior of single-module uncharged (SU) PVDF filter
  • 8.8 Loading behavior of multimodule uncharged (MU) filter
  • 8.9 Loading behaviors of single-module charged (SC) filter
  • 8.10 Loading behavior of multimodule charged (MC) filter
  • 8.11 Analyses of filter efficiency, capacity, and pressure drop
  • 8.12 Summary
  • 8.13 Problems
  • References
  • Chapter nine. Numerical modeling of aerosol filtration using a nanofiber filter
  • Abstract
  • 9.1 What numerical modeling can contribute?
  • 9.2 Theoretical model
  • 9.3 Aerosol deposition model
  • 9.4 Deposition of polydispersed nanoaerosols
  • 9.5 Concluding remarks on 2D model with a single-layer nanofiber filter
  • 9.6 Composite filter, including nanofiber layer
  • 9.7 Clean filter simulation—random 3D mesh generation
  • 9.8 Clean filter simulation—Image-based simulation model
  • 9.9 Clean filter simulation–added electrostatic force
  • 9.10 Clean filter simulation—lattice Boltzmann method with added electrostatic and van der Waals forces
  • 9.11 Summary
  • 9.12 Problems
  • References
  • Chapter ten. Cleaning of nanofiber filter
  • Abstract
  • 10.1 Introduction
  • 10.2 Test filter
  • 10.3 Aerosol distribution in a loaded filter
  • 10.4 Filter cleaning
  • 10.5 Cleaning behavior of nanofiber filter
  • 10.6 Cleaning model
  • 10.7 Comparing model predictions with test results on filter cleaning
  • 10.8 Summary
  • 10.9 Problems
  • References
  • Chapter eleven. Nanofiber filter reuse—repeated loading–cleaning cycles
  • Abstract
  • 11.1 Introduction
  • 11.2 Tests on cyclic loading/cleaning
  • 11.3 Aerosol loading models
  • 11.4 Pressure excursion over loading followed by cleaning
  • 11.5 Summary
  • 11.6 Problems
  • References
  • Chapter twelve. Filtration of ambient aerosols
  • Abstract
  • 12.1 Filter tests with real aerosols
  • 12.2 Theoretical consideration
  • 12.3 Tests with real aerosols
  • 12.4 Test results of traffic and ambient aerosols
  • 12.5 Polyvinylidene difluoride multimodule filter
  • 12.6 Ambient aerosols as a simulation of SARS-CoV-2 virus carrier
  • 12.7 Single-fiber efficiency for charged nanofiber filter
  • 12.8 Charged multilayer/multimodule nanofiber filter for filtering ambient aerosol
  • 12.9 Achieving high efficiency with higher nanofiber basis weight by multilayering
  • 12.10 Comparing ambient aerosol with sodium chloride aerosol in filter test
  • 12.11 Summary
  • 12.12 Problems
  • References
  • Chapter thirteen. Applications of nanofiber filters
  • Abstract
  • 13.1 Introduction
  • 13.2 Pleated cabin air filter
  • 13.3 High-efficiency particulate air and ultralow particulate air filters
  • 13.4 Surgical face mask
  • 13.5 Respirators
  • 13.6 Heating ventilation and air conditioning with cake formation
  • 13.7 Air filter for engine of off-road vehicles
  • 13.8 Disinfection filter
  • 13.9 Breakdown of harmful gaseous compounds and disinfection
  • 13.10 Summary
  • 13.11 Problems
  • References
  • Chapter fourteen. Outlook
  • Abstract
  • 14.1 Submicron aerosols and nanoaerosols
  • 14.2 Interpretation and prediction of nanofiber filter performance
  • 14.3 Iso-quality factor
  • 14.4 Polymer and additional functions other than gas filtration
  • 14.5 Large-scale production
  • 14.6 Pressure-drop reduction strategies
  • 14.7 Electrostatic charged nanofibers
  • 14.8 Cleaning of preloaded nanofiber filters for reuse
  • 14.9 Summary
  • References
  • Appendix A. Answer to problems of chapters
  • Chapter one
  • Chapter two
  • Chapter four
  • Chapter five
  • Chapter six
  • Chapter seven
  • Chapter eight
  • Chapter nine
  • Chapter ten
  • Chapter eleven
  • Chapter twelve
  • Chapter thirteen
  • Appendix B. Size distribution in dN/d(log(Dp))
  • Appendix C. Permeability and capillary radius of the skin layer
  • Appendix D. Cake deposition-resistance ratio, β
  • Appendix E. Specific filter resistance, γ
  • Nomenclature
  • Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 570
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Elsevier 2021
  • Published: October 30, 2021
  • Imprint: Elsevier
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780128244685
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323859851

About the Author

Wallace Woon-Fong Leung

Dr. Wallace Woon-Fong Leung is a Distinguished Research Professor from Hong Kong Polytechnic University. He was formerly Chair Professor of Innovative Products and Technologies (2005-2020) and founder and Director of Research Institute of Innovative Products and Technologies (2005-2011) in the same University. He has worked in filtration and separation for 45 years both in industry in the US and academia in Hong Kong from membrane filtration, sedimentation, vacuum filter, centrifugation, air filtration, and photocatalytic oxidation. He has 52 US patents, single-authored 3 books, several handbook chapters, and over 80 SCI papers. He has trained many engineers and graduated 9 PhD students. He is a fellow respectively of AICHE, ASME, AFS, HKIE, and Hong Kong Academy of Engineering Sciences. He is the Chairman of International Delegation on Filtration, 2016 – 2022, with 13 member countries worldwide and Chairman of the 9th and 13th World Filtration Congress in 2004 and 2022, respectively. He received his BSc from Cornell, and both SMME and ScD from MIT. In 2015, he has received the Frank Tiller Award for his lifetime contribution in engineering and education on filtration and separation technologies by the American Filtration and Separations Society. Dr. Leung is also a multidisciplinary engineer, scientist, and educator with international academic and industrial experiences. During the COVID-19 pandemic, he has deployed his invented nanofiber technologies in mass production of highly protective, highly breathable facemasks for the public railroad.

Affiliations and Expertise

Distinguished Research Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong

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