Microbiome, Immunity, Digestive Health and Nutrition

Microbiome, Immunity, Digestive Health and Nutrition

Epidemiology, Pathophysiology, Prevention and Treatment

1st Edition - July 21, 2022

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  • Editors: Debasis Bagchi, Bernard William Downs
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780128222386
  • eBook ISBN: 9780128222393

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Description

Microbiome, Immunity, Digestive Health and Nutrition: Epidemiology, Pathophysiology, Prevention and Treatment addresses a wide range of topics related to the role of nutrition in achieving and maintaining a healthy gut microbiome. Written by leading experts in the field, the book outlines the various foods, minerals, vitamins, dietary fibers, prebiotics, probiotics, nutritional supplements, phytochemicals and drugs that improve gut health. It specifically addresses molecular and cellular mechanisms and pathways by which these nutritional components contribute to the physiology and functionality of a healthy gut microbiome and gut health. Intended for nutrition researchers and practitioners, food experts, gastroenterologists, nurses, general practitioners, public health officials and health professionals, this book is sure to be a welcomed resource.

Key Features

  • Outlines the nutritional guidelines and healthy lifestyle that is important to boost gut health
  • Demonstrates the effects of diverse environmental stressors in the disruption of the gastrointestinal ecology
  • Discusses the molecular and immunological mechanisms associated with healthy gut microbiome functions
  • Addresses how to boost healthy gut microflora and microbiome
  • Suggests areas for future research of microbiome-based nutrition and therapies

Readership

Nutrition researchers and practitioners, food experts, gastroenterologists, nurses and general practitioners, public health officials, health professionals

Table of Contents

  • Cover image
  • Title page
  • Table of Contents
  • Copyright
  • Dedication
  • List of contributors
  • Preface
  • Section I: Microbiome and human health: an introduction
  • Chapter 1. Oral microbiome: a gateway to your health
  • Abstract
  • 1.1 Introduction
  • 1.2 Oral microbiome and oral disease
  • 1.3 Oral microbiome and systemic disease
  • 1.4 Concluding remarks
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • Chapter 2. Influence of microbiome in shaping the newborn immune system: an overview
  • Abstract
  • 2.1 Introduction
  • 2.2 How the microbiota shapes the development of immunity in early life
  • 2.3 Influence of the microbiota on the development and function of specific immune cell subsets in early life
  • 2.4 Conclusion
  • Author disclosure statement
  • References
  • Chapter 3. Impact of the gut microbiome on human health and diseases
  • Abstract
  • 3.1 Introduction
  • 3.2 The gut as the most significant niche of the human microbiome
  • 3.3 Physiological roles of the gut microbiome
  • 3.4 Dysbiosis of normal flora: implications in human diseases and intervention strategies
  • 3.5 Concluding remarks
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • Chapter 4. The gut microbiome, human nutrition, and immunity: visualizing the future
  • Abstract
  • 4.1 Introduction
  • 4.2 Studying the gut microbiome and its importance
  • 4.3 The role of the microbiome in nutrition
  • 4.4 The role of the microbiome in immune system development
  • 4.5 Various ways to improve our gut microbiome
  • 4.6 Future areas of research
  • 4.7 Conclusion
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • Chapter 5. Individual microbiota correction and human health: programming and reprogramming of systemic and local immune response
  • Abstract
  • 5.1 Introduction
  • 5.2 Brief methodology overview
  • 5.3 Biomarker validation: metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular diseases
  • 5.4 Results and discussion
  • 5.5 Conclusion
  • References
  • Section II: Microbiome and digestive health
  • Chapter 6. The etiology of gut dysbiosis and its role in chronic disease
  • Abstract
  • 6.1 Introduction
  • 6.2 First things first
  • 6.3 Diet and the gut
  • 6.4 Short-chain fatty acids
  • 6.5 Fasting and the gut
  • 6.6 The effect of unhealthy diets on the gut
  • 6.7 The benefit of healthy diets for the gut
  • 6.8 Inflammation
  • 6.9 Gluten
  • 6.10 Gliadin
  • 6.11 Leaky gut
  • 6.12 Other irritants to the gut
  • 6.13 A closer look into the inner tube of the gut
  • 6.14 Chronic inflammatory and autoimmune diseases
  • 6.15 Unraveling the mystery of treatment
  • 6.16 Concluding remarks
  • References
  • Chapter 7. Role of the microbiome in the function and diseases of the digestive system
  • Abstract
  • 7.1 Introduction
  • 7.2 Microbes in gastrointestinal tract
  • 7.3 Development of the gut flora
  • 7.4 Physiological functions of gut microbes
  • 7.5 Contribution of human intestinal microbes in causing diseases
  • 7.6 Microorganism that can prevent human disease
  • 7.7 Dietary modulation of the gut microbiota
  • 7.8 Conclusion
  • References
  • Section III: Microbiome and metabolic syndrome
  • Chapter 8. The beneficial role of healthy microbiome in metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular health
  • Abstract
  • 8.1 Introduction
  • 8.2 Gut microbiota and metabolic syndrome
  • 8.3 Mechanism at the molecular level
  • 8.4 Metabolic syndrome therapy by managing gut microbiota
  • 8.5 Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter 9. The role of the intestinal microbiota in weight loss in overweight and obese humans
  • Abstract
  • 9.1 Causes of overweight and obesity
  • 9.2 The microbiota and obesity
  • 9.3 The bacterial composition of the microbiota according to weight status
  • 9.4 Effect of dietary interventions on the microbiota
  • 9.5 Conclusions
  • References
  • Chapter 10. Role of microbial metabolites in cardiovascular and human health
  • Abstract
  • Graphical abstract
  • Abbreviations
  • 10.1 Introduction
  • 10.2 Gut microbial metabolites and cardiovascular disease
  • 10.3 Conclusions
  • References
  • Chapter 11. Beneficial role of gut microbiome in metabolic syndrome, obesity, and cardiovascular diseases
  • Abstract
  • 11.1 Introduction
  • 11.2 Metabolic syndrome
  • 11.3 Composition of a healthy gut microbiome
  • 11.4 Beneficial role of a healthy microbiome in preventing metabolic syndrome
  • 11.5 Influence of dietary components in boosting a healthy microbiome and reducing the risk of metabolic syndrome
  • 11.6 Conclusion
  • References
  • Further reading
  • Chapter 12. Restoring gut biome balance for weight loss: clinical applications
  • Abstract
  • 12.1 Introduction
  • 12.2 Gut microbiome resiliency
  • 12.3 Obesogenic features of the gut microbiome
  • 12.4 Dysbiosis as obesogenic signature
  • 12.5 Obesogenic metabolic endotoxemia and insulin resistance
  • 12.6 Effect of dietary components on metabolic endotoxemia
  • 12.7 Microbial regulation of host energy balance
  • 12.8 Western lifestyle as a menace to the gut biome
  • 12.9 Pragmatic mitigation of western lifestyle effects on the gut biome
  • 12.10 Eating and fasting
  • 12.11 Physical activity versus physical inactivity
  • 12.12 Wake-sleep circadian rhythm
  • 12.13 Conclusion
  • References
  • Further reading
  • Chapter 13. Harnessing gut friendly microbiomes to combat metabolic syndrome
  • Abstract
  • 13.1 Introduction
  • 13.2 Gut microbiome
  • 13.3 Gut microbiota and metabolic disorders: mechanisms
  • 13.4 Dysbiosis
  • 13.5 Gut microbiome and inflammation
  • 13.6 Future: harnessing the gut microbiota to treat metabolic disorders
  • 13.7 Intestinal transplantation
  • 13.8 Oral butyrate
  • 13.9 Heat-killed probiotics
  • 13.10 Prebiotics
  • 13.11 Synbiotics
  • 13.12 Postbiotics
  • 13.13 Summary and concluding remarks
  • References
  • Chapter 14. The effect of resveratrol-mediated gut microbiota remodeling on metabolic disorders
  • Abstract
  • 14.1 Introduction
  • 14.2 Gut microbiota and obesity
  • 14.3 Gut microbiota and type 2 diabetes mellitus
  • Acknowledgments
  • References
  • Section IV: Microbiome and immune health
  • Chapter 15. The microbiome, immunity, anaerobism, and inflammatory conditions: a multifaceted systems biology intervention
  • Abstract
  • 15.1 Introduction
  • 15.2 Restoring the ideal biological environment and optimal homeostatic equilibrium
  • 15.3 Digestion: the first step in metabolism
  • 15.4 Antioxidant therapy: firing at the wrong target
  • 15.5 Role of the microbiome
  • 15.6 Epigenetic influences
  • 15.7 Microbiome functional competence
  • 15.8 Inflammatory events
  • 15.9 Multifaceted systems biology intervention: conceptual overview
  • 15.10 Microbial dysbiosis
  • 15.11 Functions of microbial strains
  • 15.12 Microbial restoration
  • 15.13 Butyric acid
  • 15.14 Conclusion
  • References
  • Further reading
  • Chapter 16. Preclinical data support the strong specificity and advertising ability to control the immune reactions at mucosal sites
  • Abstract
  • 16.1 Introduction
  • 16.2 Microbiota detection tools
  • 16.3 Conclusion
  • References
  • Section V: Microbiome and cognitive health
  • Chapter 17. Achieving dopamine homeostasis to combat brain-gut functional impairment: behavioral and neurogenetic correlates of reward deficiency syndrome
  • Abstract
  • 17.1 Introduction
  • 17.2 Understanding endorphin deficiency syndrome and opioid deficiency syndrome
  • 17.3 Understanding obesity as a hypodopaminergia
  • 17.4 Gut-hypothalamic homeostatic energy regulation
  • 17.5 Summary
  • 17.6 Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter 18. Influence of gut microbial flora in body’s serotonin turnover and associated diseases
  • Abstract
  • List of abbreviation
  • 18.1 Introduction
  • 18.2 The gut microbiota
  • 18.3 Role of the gut microbiota in maintaining the body’s normal physiological homeostasis
  • 18.4 Influence of neurotransmitters on the gut microbiome population through the gut-brain axis
  • 18.5 Association between the microbiome-gut-brain axis and serotonin turnover
  • 18.6 Dysregulation in the occurrence of gut microbiota and its implications in diverse pathological conditions
  • 18.7 Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter 19. The connection between diet, gut microbes, and cognitive decline
  • Abstract
  • 19.1 Introduction
  • 19.2 Microbiome composition and evolution
  • 19.3 Microbiota and brain functioning
  • 19.4 Microbiome-gut-brain axis
  • 19.5 Microbiome and cognitive decline
  • 19.6 Diet and cognition
  • 19.7 Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter 20. Role of the gut microbiome in Rett syndrome
  • Abstract
  • 20.1 Introduction to the gut microbiome
  • 20.2 Diseases of the gut
  • 20.3 The gut microbiome and Rett syndrome
  • 20.4 Relationship between gut microbiome and Rett syndrome
  • 20.5 Summary
  • References
  • Section VI: Microbiome, dermal health and wound healing
  • Chapter 21. Skin microbiota and its role in health and disease with an emphasis on wound healing and chronic wound development
  • Abstract
  • 21.1 Introduction
  • 21.2 Skin structure and function
  • 21.3 Skin microbiome diversity in different parts of the body
  • 21.4 Microbial dysbiosis in skin-related diseases
  • 21.5 The microbiome and cutaneous wound healing
  • 21.6 Common techniques for surveying the skin microbiota
  • 21.7 Manipulation of the skin microbiota to prevent or treat skin-associated ailments
  • 21.8 Perspectives
  • References
  • Section VII: Microbiome and cancer
  • Chapter 22. Healthy gut microbiome in the prevention of colorectal cancer
  • Abstract
  • 22.1 Introduction
  • 22.2 The gut microbiome in the progression of colorectal cancer
  • 22.3 Factors affecting the gut microbiome
  • 22.4 The gut microbiome in the protection against colorectal cancer
  • 22.5 Prevention of colorectal cancer by enhancing healthy gut flora
  • 22.6 Conclusion and future perspectives
  • Conflict of interest
  • References
  • Section VIII: Microbiome, arthritis and multiple sclerosis
  • Chapter 23. Regulatory roles of the microbiome in arthritis, fibromyalgia, and multiple sclerosis
  • Abstract
  • 23.1 Introduction
  • 23.2 Rheumatoid arthritis
  • 23.3 Fibromyalgia
  • 23.4 Multiple sclerosis
  • 23.5 Discussion
  • 23.6 Conclusion
  • References
  • Section IX: Environmental pollutants and gut microbiome
  • Chapter 24. Microplastic toxicity and the gut microbiome
  • Abstract
  • 24.1 Introduction
  • 24.2 History of microplastics
  • 24.3 Microplastics pollution and the threat to habitats
  • 24.4 Gut microbiome
  • 24.5 Toxic effects of microplastics on human systems
  • 24.6 Plastisphere: biofilm on microplastics
  • 24.7 Microplastics as pathogen carriers
  • 24.8 Conclusion and perspectives
  • References
  • Section X: Molecular and immunological mechanisms associated with healthy gut microbiome functions
  • Chapter 25. Role of the gut microbiome and probiotics for prevention and management of tuberculosis
  • Abstract
  • 25.1 Introduction
  • 25.2 Gut-lung axis
  • 25.3 Gut-liver axis
  • 25.4 Gut–immune system axis
  • 25.5 Role of the human gut microbiome in tuberculosis
  • 25.6 Role of probiotics in tuberculosis
  • 25.7 Role of probiotics in preventing anti-TB drug-induced adverse effects
  • 25.8 Probiotics in the improvement of nutritional status in tuberculosis
  • 25.9 Dose and dosage of probiotic formulations for dietary supplements
  • 25.10 Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter 26. Lactic acid bacteria–based beverages in the promotion of gastrointestinal tract health
  • Abstract
  • 26.1 Introduction
  • 26.2 Lactic Acid Bacteria
  • 26.3 LAB-derived bioactive compounds
  • 26.4 The LAB fermentation process
  • 26.5 Organoleptic characteristics of LAB-fermented foods
  • 26.6 Commercial products from LAB fermented foods
  • 26.7 Application of LAB-fermented beverages in gastrointestinal tract–related diseases
  • 26.8 Final considerations
  • References
  • Chapter 27. Prospective role of prebiotics and probiotics in gut immunity
  • Abstract
  • 27.1 Introduction
  • 27.2 The gut microbiota and its beneficial effects
  • 27.3 Impacts of dysbiosis
  • 27.4 Prebiotics
  • 27.5 Probiotics
  • 27.6 Role of prebiotics and probiotics in immunomodulation
  • 27.7 Additional benefits of probiotics
  • 27.8 Concluding remarks
  • References
  • Chapter 28. Gut–brain communication: a novel application of probiotics
  • Abstract
  • 28.1 Introduction
  • 28.2 The gut-brain axis: a concept
  • 28.3 Factors regulating the microbiota-gut-brain axis
  • 28.4 Interactions within the gut-brain axis
  • 28.5 Function of the microbiota in the gut-brain-axis
  • 28.6 The gut-brain axis in the regulation of food intake
  • 28.7 Behavior and the microbiota gut-brain axis
  • 28.8 Conclusions and future perspectives
  • References
  • Chapter 29. Flaxseed has a pronounced effect on gut microbiota
  • Abstract
  • 29.1 Introduction
  • 29.2 Flaxseed oil prevents alcoholic liver disease by modulating the gut microbiota through its antiinflammatory property
  • 29.3 Flaxseed oil reduces the severity of type 2 diabetes mellitus by modulating the gut microbiota via its antiinflammation effect
  • 29.4 By altering the composition of the gut microbiota, flaxseed oil has beneficial immunological and metabolic effects
  • 29.5 Flaxseed polysaccharide modulates the composition and structure of the gut microbiota by altering the firmicutes-bacteroidetes ratio
  • 29.6 Flaxseed oil ameliorated polycystic ovary syndrome through the sex steroid hormone–microbiota-inflammation axis
  • References
  • Chapter 30. Role of mushroom polysaccharides in improving gut health and associated diseases
  • Abstract
  • 30.1 Introduction
  • 30.2 The gut microbiome
  • 30.3 Mushroom polysaccharides
  • 30.4 Proteoglycan
  • 30.5 Prebiotic efficiency of mushroom polysaccharides
  • 30.6 Hydrolysis of mushroom polysaccharides by intestinal bacterial enzymes
  • 30.7 Impact of mushroom polysaccharides on the gut microbiome
  • 30.8 Prevention of various diseases by prebiotic mushroom polysaccharides through modulation of the gut microbiota
  • 30.9 Conclusion and future perspectives
  • References
  • Section XI: Microbiome and immunomodulatory peptides
  • Chapter 31. The role of the microbiome in sports nutrition
  • Abstract
  • 31.1 Introduction
  • 31.2 The microbiome and sport
  • 31.3 Research related to the microbiome and athletic performance
  • 31.4 Conclusion
  • References
  • Section XII: Study design and statistical interpretation
  • Chapter 32. Food-derived immunomodulatory peptides: science to applications
  • Abstract
  • 32.1 Introduction
  • 32.2 Immunomodulation and immunomodulatory peptides
  • 32.3 Mechanism of immunomodulatory peptide
  • 32.4 Sources of some immunomodulatory peptides
  • 32.5 Bioavailability of bioactive peptides in foods
  • 32.6 Methods used to assay immunomodulatory activity
  • 32.7 Clinical studies
  • 32.8 Applications
  • 32.9 Conclusion
  • References
  • Chapter 33. Clinical intervention, study design, and statistical methodology: statistical approaches for pre-post studies
  • Abstract
  • 33.1 Introduction
  • 33.2 Pre-post design
  • 33.3 Outcome measure
  • 33.4 Sample data: hydroxycitric acid study
  • 33.5 Method for analyzing the intervention effect without adjusting for the pre-value effect
  • 33.6 Method for analyzing an intervention effect, adjusting for the effect of the pre-value: analysis of covariance
  • 33.7 Change point regression model
  • References
  • Commentary from the Editor’s Desk
  • Commentary from the Editor’s Desk. A treatise on a healthy microbiome: contribution to human health and disease prevention
  • A.1 Microbiome terminology: the origin
  • A.2 Microbiota, microorganisms, and microbiome
  • A.3 Microbiome: human health and disease pathology
  • A.4 Microbiome and metabolic syndrome
  • A.5 Microbiome and obesity
  • A.6 Microbiome and diabetes
  • A.7 Microbiome and cancer
  • A.8 Microbiome, brain health, and advancing age
  • A.9 Summary and conclusions
  • Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 538
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 2022
  • Published: July 21, 2022
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780128222386
  • eBook ISBN: 9780128222393

About the Editors

Debasis Bagchi

Debasis Bagchi
Debasis Bagchi, PhD, MACN, CNS, MAIChE, received his Ph.D. in Medicinal Chemistry in 1982. He is a Professor in the Department of Pharmacological and Pharmaceutical Sciences at the University of Houston College of Pharmacy, Houston, TX, and Chief Scientific Officer at Cepham Research Center, Piscataway, NJ, Adjunct Faculty in Texas Southern University, Houston, TX. He served as the Senior Vice President of Research & Development of InterHealth Nutraceuticals Inc, Benicia, CA, from 1998 until Feb 2011, and then as Director of Innovation and Clinical Affairs, of Iovate Health Sciences, Oakville, ON, until June 2013. Dr. Bagchi received the Master of American College of Nutrition Award in October 2010. He is the Past Chairman of International Society of Nutraceuticals and Functional Foods (ISNFF), Past President of American College of Nutrition, Clearwater, FL, and Past Chair of the Nutraceuticals and Functional Foods Division of Institute of Food Technologists (IFT), Chicago, IL. He is serving as a Distinguished Advisor on the Japanese Institute for Health Food Standards (JIHFS), Tokyo, Japan. Dr. Bagchi is a Member of the Study Section and Peer Review Committee of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), Bethesda, MD. He has published 321 papers in peer reviewed journals, 30 books, and 18 patents. Dr. Bagchi is also a Member of the Society of Toxicology, Member of the New York Academy of Sciences, Fellow of the Nutrition Research Academy, and Member of the TCE stakeholder Committee of the Wright Patterson Air Force Base, OH. He is also Associate Editor for the Journal of Functional Foods, Journal of the American College of Nutrition, and the Archives of Medical and Biomedical Research, and is also serving as Editorial Board Member of numerous peer reviewed journals, including Antioxidants & Redox Signaling, Cancer Letters, Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods, and The Original Internist, among others.

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor, Department of Pharmacological and Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of Houston, USA; Chief Scientific Officer, Cepham Research Center, Piscataway, New Jersey; Adjunct Faculty, Texas Southern University, Houston, Texas, USA

Bernard William Downs

Bernard William (Bill) Downs received his Bachelor of Science degree in 1975 from Pennsylvania State University. Downs simultaneously pursued his master’s degree and Ph.D. in Nutrition and Biochemistry at Immaculata University in Immaculata, PA; advanced degree not completed. He became Director of Therapeutic Nutrition for Morrison Family and Sports Medicine, Huntingdon Valley, PA from 1990 till 1996. Downs served as the Director of Technical Sales for InterHealth Nutraceuticals Inc., Benicia, CA from 1990 till 2003. He was the Director of Research and Development for Allied Nutraceutical Research, Blue Bell, PA, from 2003 till 2008. Downs served as the CEO of LifeGen Research from 2009 till 2013, Lederach, PA. Downs is Founder and CEO of Victory Nutrition International, Inc., a Research & Development Biotech Company, Lederach, PA. Downs is a member of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, the American College of Nutrition, and past member of the NY Academy of Sciences. He is on the editorial review board of the Journal of Reward Deficiency Syndrome. Downs has authored or co-authored 105 papers published in peer-reviewed journals, numerous chapters in texts and handbooks for clinicians and researchers, with patents-pending in nutraceutical biotechnology. Research publications have been on issues ranging from immunity, anemia and metabolic disorders to addictions, obsessions, compulsions, and personality disorders, among other Reward Deficiency Syndrome conditions.

Affiliations and Expertise

Founder, Victory Nutrition International, Inc., Lederach, Pennsylvania; CEO,Victory Nutrition International, Inc., Lederach, Pennsylvania, USA

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