Medical Modelling

Medical Modelling

The Application of Advanced Design and Rapid Prototyping Techniques in Medicine

2nd Edition - December 13, 2014

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  • Authors: Richard Bibb, Dominic Eggbeer, Abby Paterson
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9781782423003
  • eBook ISBN: 9781782423133

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Medical modelling and the principles of medical imaging, Computer Aided Design (CAD) and Rapid Prototyping (also known as Additive Manufacturing and 3D Printing) are important techniques relating to various disciplines - from biomaterials engineering to surgery. Building on the success of the first edition, Medical Modelling: The application of Advanced Design and Rapid Prototyping techniques in medicine provides readers with a revised edition of the original text, along with key information on innovative imaging techniques, Rapid Prototyping technologies and case studies.Following an overview of medical imaging for Rapid Prototyping, the book goes on to discuss working with medical scan data and techniques for Rapid Prototyping. In this second edition there is an extensive section of peer-reviewed case studies, describing the practical applications of advanced design technologies in surgical, prosthetic, orthotic, dental and research applications.

Key Features

  • Covers the steps towards rapid prototyping, from conception (modelling) to manufacture (manufacture)
  • Includes a comprehensive case studies section on the practical application of computer-aided design (CAD) and rapid prototyping (RP)
  • Provides an insight into medical imaging for rapid prototyping and working with medical scan data


Designers, engineers, technicians, clinicians, doctors, surgeons and professionals involved in this multi-disciplinary, and highly collaborative field.

Table of Contents

    • Related titles
    • Woodhead Publishing Series in Biomaterials
    • Preface
    • Acknowledgements
    • 1. Introduction
      • 1.1. Background
      • 1.2. The human form
      • 1.3. Basic anatomical terminology
      • 1.4. Technical terminology
    • 2. Medical imaging
      • 2.1. Introduction to medical imaging
      • 2.2. Computed tomography (CT)
      • 2.3. Cone beam CT (CBCT)
      • 2.4. Magnetic resonance (MR)
      • 2.5. Noncontact surface scanning
      • 2.6. Medical scan data
      • 2.7. Point cloud data
      • 2.8. Media
    • 3. Working with medical scan data
      • 3.1. Pixel data operations
      • 3.2. Using CT data: a worked example
      • 3.3. Point cloud data operations
      • 3.4. Two-dimensional formats
      • 3.5. Pseudo 3D formats
      • 3.6. True 3D formats
      • 3.7. File management and exchange
    • 4. Physical reproduction
      • 4.1. Background to rapid prototyping
      • 4.2. Stereolithography
      • 4.3. Digital light processing
      • 4.4. Fused deposition modelling
      • 4.5. Laser sintering
      • 4.6. Powder bed 3D printing
      • 4.7. Material jetting technology
      • 4.8. Laminated object manufacture
      • 4.9. Computer numerical controlled machining
      • 4.10. Cleaning and sterilising medical models
    • 5. Case Studies
      • Implementation
      • 5.2. Implementation case study 2: the development of a collaborative medical modelling service – organisational and technical considerations
      • 5.3. Implementation case study 3: medical rapid prototyping technologies – state of the art and current limitations for application in oral and maxillofacial surgery
      • Surgical applications
      • 5.5. Surgical applications case study 2: rapid manufacture of custom-fit surgical guides
      • 5.6. Surgical applications case study 3: use of a reconstructed three-dimensional solid model from computed tomography to aid in the surgical management of a total knee arthroplasty
      • 5.7. Surgical applications case study 4: custom-made titanium orbital floor prosthesis in reconstruction for orbital floor fractures
      • 5.8. Surgical applications case study 5: use of three-dimensional technology in the multidisciplinary management of facial disproportion
      • 5.9. Surgical applications case study 6: appropriate approach to computer-aided design and manufacture of reconstructive implants
      • 5.10. Surgical applications case study 7: computer-aided planning and additive manufacture for complex, mid-face osteotomies
      • Maxillofacial rehabilitation
      • 5.12. Maxillofacial rehabilitation case study 2: producing burns therapy conformers using noncontact scanning and rapid prototyping
      • 5.13. Maxillofacial rehabilitation case study 3: an appropriate approach to computer-aided design and manufacture of cranioplasty plates
      • 5.14. Maxillofacial rehabilitation case study 4: evaluation of advanced technologies in the design and manufacture of an implant retained facial prosthesis
      • 5.15. Maxillofacial rehabilitation case study 5: rapid prototyping technologies in soft-tissue facial prosthetics – current state of the art
      • 5.16. Maxillofacial rehabilitation case study 6: evaluation of direct and indirect additive manufacture of maxillofacial prostheses using 3D printing technologies
      • 5.17. Maxillofacial rehabilitation case study 7: computer-aided methods in bespoke breast prosthesis design and fabrication
      • Orthotic rehabilitation applications
      • 5.19. Orthotic rehabilitation applications case study 2: comparison of additive manufacturing systems for the design and fabrication of customised wrist splints
      • 5.20. Orthotic rehabilitation applications case study 3: evaluation of a digitised splinting approach with multiple-material functionality using additive manufacturing technologies
      • 5.21. Orthotic rehabilitation applications case study 4: digitisation of the splinting process – development of a CAD strategy for splint design and fabrication
      • 5.22. Orthotic rehabilitation applications case study 5: evaluation of a refined 3D CAD workflow for upper extremity splint design to support AM
      • Dental applications
      • 5.24. Dental applications case study 2: trial fitting of an RDP framework made using CAD and RP techniques
      • 5.25. Dental applications case study 3: direct additive manufacture of RPD frameworks
      • 5.26. Dental applications case study 4: a comparison of plaster, digital and reconstructed study model accuracy
      • 5.27. Dental applications case study 5: design and fabrication of a sleep apnoea device using CAD/AM technologies
      • 5.28. Dental applications case study 6: computer-aided design, CAM and AM applications in the manufacture of dental appliances
      • Research applications
      • 5.30. Research applications case study 2: recreating skin texture relief using computer-aided design and rapid prototyping
      • 5.31. Research applications case study 3: comparison of additive manufacturing materials and human tissues in computed tomography scanning
      • 5.32. Research applications case study 4: producing physical models from computed tomography scans of ancient Egyptian mummies
      • 5.33. Research applications case study 5: trauma simulation of massive lower limb/pelvic injury
      • 5.34. Research applications case study 6: three-dimensional bone surrogates for assessing cement injection behaviour in cancellous bone
    • 6. Future developments
      • 6.1. Background
      • 6.2. Scanning techniques
      • 6.3. Data fusion
      • 6.4. Rapid prototyping
      • 6.5. Tissue engineering
    • Glossary and explanatory notes
    • Bibliography
    • Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 516
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Woodhead Publishing 2015
  • Published: December 13, 2014
  • Imprint: Woodhead Publishing
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9781782423003
  • eBook ISBN: 9781782423133

About the Authors

Richard Bibb

Richard Bibb BSc (Hons), PhD is Reader and Head of Medical Applications at The National Centre for Product Design & Development Research (PDR), University of Wales Institute, Cardiff (UWIC), UK. He has been conducting research into the medical applications of advanced design and development technologies since 1998, with his work presented and published internationally. He also established one of Europe’s most successful medical modelling services, which has supplied over 600 models to hospitals, universities, museums and companies worldwide.

Affiliations and Expertise

Reader in Medical Applications of Design at the Loughborough University Design School, UK

Dominic Eggbeer

Affiliations and Expertise

Research Officer and Head of Medical Applications at Cardiff Metropolitan University, UK

Abby Paterson

Affiliations and Expertise

Lecturer in Industrial Design and Technology at Loughborough University, UK

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