Materials Analysis in Forensic Science - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780128005743, 9780128006733

Materials Analysis in Forensic Science

1st Edition

Editors: Max Houck
eBook ISBN: 9780128006733
Hardcover ISBN: 9780128005743
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 16th June 2016
Page Count: 530
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Table of Contents

  • Published and Forthcoming Titles in the Advanced Forensic Science Series
  • Senior Editor: Biography
  • List of Contributors
  • Foreword
  • Preface
  • Section 1. Overview
    • Introduction
    • Principles of Forensic Science
      • What Is Forensic Science?
      • The Trace as the Basic Unit of Forensic Science
      • Two Native Principles
      • Nonnative Principles
      • See also
    • Forensic Classification of Evidence
      • Introduction
      • Methods of Classification
      • Class-Level Information
      • Uniqueness and Individualization
      • Relationships and Context
      • See also
    • Interpretation/The Comparative Method
      • Introduction
      • Analogy and Comparison within a Forensic Process
      • The Comparative Method within Forensic Science
      • See also
    • Trace Evidence Overview
      • Introduction
      • Trace, Physical Evidence, or Trace Evidence?
      • Locard Exchange Principle
      • The Three Rs of Trace Evidence—Recognition, Recording, and Recovery
      • Recovery of Trace Evidence
      • Examination of Trace Evidence
      • Interpretation of Trace Evidence
      • Conclusion
      • See also
    • Microchemistry
      • Introduction
      • Types of Microchemical Reactions
      • Microchemical Analysis
      • See also
    • Materials Analysis and Failure Analysis
      • The Role of Materials Analysis in Determining Causation of Failure
      • Techniques for Determining Morphology
      • Techniques for Determining Composition
      • Selecting the Appropriate Technique
      • See also
    • Chemometrics
      • Introduction
      • Preprocessing Techniques
      • Agglomerative Hierarchical Clustering
      • Principal Component Analysis
      • Discriminant Analysis
      • Conclusions
      • See also
    • Key Terms
    • Review Questions
    • Discussion Questions
  • Section 2. Methods
    • Introduction
    • Capillary Electrophoresis: Basic Principles
      • Glossary
      • Introduction
      • Fundamentals of CE
      • Background Electrolytes
      • Modes of Separation in Electrophoresis
      • Instrumentation and Sample Handling
      • Future Directions
      • See also
    • Capillary Electrophoresis in Forensic Biology
      • Introduction
      • CE Methodology
      • CE Typing Methodologies Used by Forensic Biologists
      • The Future of CE in Forensic Biology
      • Conclusion
      • See also
    • Capillary Electrophoresis in Forensic Chemistry
      • Introduction
      • Applications
      • See also
    • Chromatography: Basic Principles
      • Glossary
      • Introduction
      • Classification of Chromatographic Techniques
      • Chromatographic Distribution Equilibria
      • Band Broadening in Chromatography
      • Additional Comments on Band Broadening
      • Optimization of Chromatographic Performance
      • See also
    • Gas Chromatography
      • Introduction
      • GC Columns
      • Gas Pressure and Flow Control
      • Oven Temperature
      • Sample Introduction
      • Pyrolysis GC
      • Simple Injection—Dual Detection
      • Detectors
      • See also
    • Liquid and Thin-Layer Chromatography
      • Introduction
      • Column (or Liquid–Solid) Chromatography
      • HPLC and Ultrahigh-Performance Liquid Chromatography
      • Thin-Layer Chromatography
      • See also
    • Liquid Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry
      • Introduction
      • Ionization Techniques
      • Sample Preparation and Injection Techniques
      • Matrix Effects
      • Overview of State-of-the-Art LC-MS Instrumentation
      • Application of LC-MS to Forensic Sciences
      • See also
    • Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry
      • Glossary
      • Introduction
      • Multiplied Powers
      • Different Ways of Looking at Data
      • Requirements
      • Instrumentation
      • Forensic Applications
      • See also
    • Mass Spectrometry
      • Introduction
      • Instrumentation
      • Sample Introduction
      • Ion Source
      • Mass Analyzer
      • Tandem Mass Spectrometry
      • Ion Detector
      • Data Interpretation
      • Forensic Applications of MS
      • See also
    • Analytical Light Microscopy
      • Introduction
      • Microscopes Used in Analysis in the Forensic Sciences
      • See also
    • Microscopy (Electron)
      • Introduction
      • Additional Instrumentation for Electron Microscope Applications
      • Forensic Applications of SEM
      • See also
    • Presumptive Chemical Tests
      • Introduction
      • Chemical Tests on Drug Evidence
      • Chemical Tests on Explosives Evidence
      • Chemical Tests on Biological Specimens
      • See also
    • Nonchromatographic Separation Techniques
      • Introduction
      • Physical Separations
      • Volatile Materials
      • Chemical Separations
      • See also
    • Spectroscopic Techniques
      • Glossary
      • Introduction
      • Identification of Substances
      • Quantification of Substances
      • Related Techniques
      • See also
    • Spectroscopy: Basic Principles
      • Introduction
      • Electromagnetic Radiation and Light
      • Matter
      • Interaction between Radiation and Matter
      • Instrumentation and Techniques
      • See also
    • Key Terms
    • Review Questions
    • Discussion Questions
  • Section 3. Textiles
    • Introduction
    • Fibers: Overview
      • Introduction
      • Classification of Fibers
      • Fiber Properties and Textile Fabrics
      • Transfer and Persistence
      • Recovery of Fibers
      • Case Management
      • Laboratory Examinations and Analysis
      • Interpretation of Fiber Evidence
      • Conclusion
      • See also
    • Transfer
      • Introduction
      • Transfer
      • Factors Affecting Transfer
      • Differential Shedding
      • Primary and Secondary Transfer
      • Special Cases
      • Mechanism of Fiber Transfer
      • Fiber Transfer: A Dynamic Process
      • Fiber Transfer Modeling
      • Concluding Comments
      • See also
    • Persistence and Recovery
      • Introduction
      • Persistence
      • Factors Affecting Persistence
      • Effect of Fiber Size and Morphology
      • Differential Loss
      • Effect of Garment Cleaning
      • Fiber Binding
      • Fiber Redistribution
      • Methods of Recovery
      • Choice of Recovery Method
      • Documentation and Packaging
      • Contamination Issues
      • Conclusion
      • See also
    • Fiber: Protocols for Examination
      • Introduction
      • Laboratory Protocols for Fiber Examination
      • Microscopic Examination
      • Color Analysis
      • Fiber Identification
      • Comparative Examinations
      • Conclusion
      • See also
    • Identification and Comparison
      • Introduction
      • Identification
      • Microscopy
      • Birefringence
      • Infrared Spectroscopy
      • Pyrolysis
      • Comparison
      • Microscopic Appearance
      • Color Comparison
      • Microspectrophotometry
      • Spectral Comparison
      • Color Matching
      • Dye Comparison
      • Raman Spectroscopy
      • Chemical Composition
      • Chemical/Physical Tests
      • Scheme of Analysis
      • Documentation
      • Resources
      • See also
    • Textile and Fiber Damage
      • Introduction
      • Mechanical Damage
      • Environmental and Laundering Effects
      • The Influence of Heat
      • Microbiological Damage
      • Conclusion
      • See also
    • Fiber Microscopy
      • Introduction
      • Instruments Used for Fiber Microscopy
      • Role of Microscopy in Fiber Examinations
      • Conclusion
      • See also
    • Color Analysis
      • Introduction
      • What is Color?
      • Microspectroscopy Techniques
      • Transmission Microspectroscopy
      • Fluorescence Microspectroscopy
      • Sample Preparation
      • Spectral Analysis
      • Conclusion
      • See also
    • Interpretation of Fiber Evidence
      • Introduction
      • Factors Influencing the Value of Fiber Evidence
      • Information Available to Assist the Interpretation of Fiber Evidence
      • Conclusions
      • See also
    • Key Terms
    • Review Questions
    • Discussion Questions
  • Section 4. Explosives
    • Introduction
    • Explosions
      • Preface
      • Scope
      • Introduction
      • The Initial Response
      • Postexplosion Scene Control
      • Health and Safety
      • Preparation and Planning for Forensic Recovery
      • Contamination Control, Continuity, and Evidence Integrity
      • What Might Be Recovered?
      • Types of Explosives
      • Recovery of Chemical and Physical Evidence
      • Evidence from Bodies
      • Incident Reconstruction
      • Interpretation
      • Political Considerations
      • Summary
      • See also
    • Explosions
      • Explosives Effects
      • Types of Explosions
      • Primary Effects of an Explosion
      • Results of Explosions
      • See also
    • Improvised Explosives
      • Introduction
      • History
      • Classifications
      • Mixtures
      • Synthetics
      • See also
    • Improvised Explosive Devices
      • Introduction
      • Elements of IEDs
      • Effects of IEDs
      • Detection and Countermeasures to IEDs
      • Forensic Science and IEDs
      • The Courts
      • See also
    • Explosives: Analysis
      • Introduction
      • Methods and Procedures
      • Postexplosion and Trace Analysis of Explosives
      • Criteria of Identification
      • Interpretation
      • See also
    • Commercial
      • Introduction
      • Performance Parameters
      • NG-Containing Explosives
      • AN-Based Explosives
      • Detonating Cords
      • Boosters (Primers)
      • Detonators
      • See also
    • Military
      • Introduction
      • High Explosives
      • Propellants
      • See also
    • Key Terms
    • Review Questions
    • Discussion Questions
  • Section 5. Glass
    • Introduction
    • Overview (Glass)
      • Collection and Packaging of Glass Exhibits
      • Types of Glass
      • Glass Manufacture
      • The Transfer and Persistence of Breaking Glass
      • Background Glass in the Population
      • Glass Analysis
      • Assessing the Evidential Value
      • See also
    • Glass Analysis
      • Introduction
      • Physical Examination
      • Elemental Analysis
      • Conclusion
      • See also
    • Interpretation of Glass Evidence
      • Glossary
      • Transfer of Glass Fragments
      • Persistence of Glass Fragments on Clothing
      • Presence of Background Glass
      • Interpretation of Analytical Results
      • Evaluating the Evidential Value of the Results
      • Summary
      • See also
    • Key Terms
    • Review Questions
    • Discussion Questions
  • Section 6. Coatings
    • Introduction
    • Overview
      • Paint as Protection
      • Paint as Decoration
      • See also
    • Architectural Paint
      • Substrates and Their Appropriate Primer and Coating
      • Solvents
      • Resin or Binder: The Film-Forming Portion of the Paint
      • Pigments
      • Coatings Application and Film Formation
      • Additives
      • See also
    • Automotive Paint
      • The Binder or Resin
      • Pigments
      • Solvents
      • Order of Deposition and Identification of Paint Layers
      • Application Techniques
      • See also
    • Forensic Paint Analysis
      • Forensic Considerations about Paint Evidence
      • Evidence Collection
      • Optical Examination
      • IR Spectroscopy
      • Raman Spectroscopy
      • Pyrolysis–Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry
      • Elemental Analysis (Scanning Electron Microscopy/Energy-Dispersive X-ray Analysis, Micro X-ray Fluorescence)
      • Microspectrophotometry
      • Other Analytical Techniques
      • Illustration of Different Techniques
      • See also
    • Interpretation of Paint Evidence
      • Evaluation of the Paint Samples for Analysis
      • Variations in the Samples
      • Interpretation of Data from Instruments Commonly Used in Paint Analysis
      • Determination of the Significance of an Association
      • Example of Levels of Association
      • See also
    • Key Terms
    • Review Questions
    • Discussion Questions
  • Section 7. Geo- and Biomaterials
    • Introduction
    • Crime Scene Considerations
      • Introduction
      • A Team Approach to Crime Scenes
      • Crime Scene Reminders
      • Soil Forensic Crime Scene Specifics
      • Conclusion
      • See also
    • Soils
      • Introduction
      • Classification of Soils
      • Why is Soil Evidence So Good?
      • Historical Perspective
      • Basic Principles Used in Forensic Soil Criminal Investigations
      • Soil Evidence Collection and Characterization
      • Example Case Studies
      • Conclusions
      • See also
    • Forensic Geoscience
      • Introduction
      • From the Macro to the Microscale
      • See also
    • Botany
      • Introduction and Scope
      • Forensic Botany Starts at the Crime Scene
      • Typical Sample Types Encountered in Forensic Botany
      • Plant Fibers Used in Paper and Textiles
      • Plant DNA Analysis
      • Summary and Conclusion
      • See also
    • Key Terms
    • Review Questions
    • Discussion Questions
  • Section 8. Marks and Impressions
    • Introduction
    • Vehicle Tire Marks and Tire Track Measurement
      • Introduction
      • Sidewall Information
      • Tire Construction
      • Tire Designs and Databases
      • Original Equipment Tires versus Replacement Tires
      • Noise Treatment
      • Tread-Wear Indicators
      • Known Standards of Tires
      • Examination of Tire Impressions
      • Vehicle Dimensions and Turning
      • Recovery Methods Specific to Tires
      • Retreaded Tires
      • See also
    • Plastic Bag Striations
      • Introduction
      • Background
      • Physical Features
      • Methods for Visualization of Physical Features
      • Chemical Methods
      • Protocol for Forensic Examination of Plastic Bags and Films
      • Value of Plastic Bag Evidence
      • See also
    • Footwear Marks
      • Introduction
      • Types of Footwear Marks
      • Recovery of Impressions
      • Examination Process
      • The Footwear Expert
      • See also
    • Physical Match
      • Introduction: What is a “Physical Match”
      • The Uniqueness of a Fracture Line
      • Obstacles to Performing a Physical Match
      • Mathematical and Statistical Evaluation
      • On “Identification” and “Degree of Certainty”
      • Summary
      • See also
    • Key Terms
    • Review Questions
    • Discussion Questions
  • Section 9. Other Materials
    • Introduction
    • Overview, Analysis, and Interpretation
      • Introduction
      • The Ammunition for Firearms from the Chemical Point of View
      • Looking for FDR on Surfaces
      • See also
    • Adhesive Tapes
      • Duct Tape
      • Packaging Tape
      • Electrical Tape
      • Forensic Analysis of Tape Components
      • Interpretation
      • See also
    • Ink Analysis
      • Introduction
      • Composition of Major Types of Writing Inks
      • Ink Comparisons and Identifications
      • Dating of Inks
      • Accelerated Aging
      • See also
    • Paper Analysis
      • Paper Manufacturing Process
      • Forensic Examination of Paper
      • Dating
      • Miscellaneous
      • See also
    • Counterfeit Goods
      • Introduction
      • Counterfeits as an Insight to Classification
      • See also
    • Counterfeit Currency
      • Genuine Currency
      • Applied Security Features
      • Currency Authentication
      • Counterfeit Examinations
      • Chemical and Instrumental Examinations
      • Summary
      • See also
    • Stomach Contents Analysis
      • Procedures for the Examination of Gastric Contents and Vomit Stains
      • Microscopic Examinations
      • Gastric Enzyme Screening Test
      • Case Studies
      • See also
    • Key Terms
    • Review Questions
    • Discussion Questions
  • Section 10. Professional Issues
    • Introduction
    • Crime Scene to Court
      • Introduction
      • Task
      • Models
      • Forensic Strategies
      • Integrated Case Management
      • Summary
      • See also
    • Forensic Laboratory Reports
      • Contents of a Report—A “Science” Standard
      • Contents of Report: Legal Standards
      • Reports: Stand-Alone Evidence or Support for a Testifying Expert
      • Ethical Considerations and Forensic Reports
      • Conclusion
      • See also
    • Health and Safety
      • Occupational Health and Safety Policy
      • Specific Laboratory Hazards
      • Hazards in the Field
      • See also
    • Field-Deployable Devices
      • Introduction
      • Hazardous Material Identification
      • Explosives Detection and Identification
      • Clandestine Laboratories
      • The Challenge of “In-Field” Monitoring, Detection, and Identification
      • Principles of Operation of Field-Deployable Devices
      • Spectroscopic Techniques
      • Flame Ionization Techniques
      • Photoionization Detection
      • Ion Mobility Spectroscopy
      • MS and Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS)
      • Other Detection Technologies
      • Discussion
      • See also
    • Key Terms
    • Review Questions
    • Discussion Questions
  • Index

Description

Materials Analysis in Forensic Science will serve as a graduate level text for those studying and teaching materials analysis in forensic science. In addition, it will prove an excellent library reference for forensic practitioners to use in their casework. Coverage includes methods, textiles, explosives, glass, coatings, geo-and bio-materials, and marks and impressions, as well as information on various other materials and professional issues the reader may encounter. Edited by a world-renowned leading forensic expert, the book is a long overdue solution for the forensic science community.

Key Features

  • Provides basic principles of forensic science and an overview of materials analysis
  • Contains information on a wide variety of trace evidence
  • Covers methods, textiles, explosives, glass, coatings, geo-and bio-materials, and marks and impressions, as well as various other materials
  • Includes a section on professional issues, such as discussions of the crime scene to court process, lab reports, health and safety, and field deployable devices
  • Incorporates effective pedagogy, key terms, review questions, discussion questions, and additional reading suggestions

Readership

Graduate level forensic science students and educators, as well as entry level forensic professionals


Details

No. of pages:
530
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 2016
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9780128006733
Hardcover ISBN:
9780128005743

Ratings and Reviews


About the Editors

Max Houck Editor

Dr. Max M. Houck is an international forensic expert with over 25 years of experience. Houck has experience in the private sector, academia, local government, and worked at the Federal Bureau of Investigation Laboratory Division. He has worked as a forensic anthropologist, a trace evidence analyst, a researcher, and has managed millions of dollars in grants and awards. Most recently, he was the inaugural Director of the Department of Forensic Sciences in Washington, D.C., overseeing 150 employees and managing the forensic science laboratory, the public health laboratory, and crime scene sciences for the nation’s capital. Houck has worked on a number of mass casualty scenes, including the Branch Davidian Investigation and the September 11, 2001 attack on the Pentagon. Widely published, Houck has dozens of peer-reviewed journal articles and is the author and editor of numerous books. He is co-author of the best-selling Fundamentals of Forensic Science, Science of Crime Scenes, and Success with Expert Testimony, among others. He is the editor of the Advanced Forensic Science series of books. Houck is also founding co-editor of Forensic Science Policy and Management (the official journal of ASCLD), the only journal that addresses the management, policy, and administration of forensic science. Houck has served on numerous committees, including for the National Academies of Science, NIST, Interpol, The Royal Society, the Director of the FBI, and the White House. He is a popular public speaker and has given presentations at NASA, the Max Planck Institute, an Oxford Roundtable, as well as keynote talks at numerous international conferences. Houck has taught at several universities, including West Virginia University and University of Tampa. His research topics include management, leadership, and policy implications for forensic organizations. Houck has a Bachelors and Masters degree in anthropology from Michigan State University. He received his Ph.D. in Applied Chemistry Summa Cum Laude from Curtin University in Perth, Australia. He is a Fellow of the Royal Society of Chemistry.

Affiliations and Expertise

Vice President, Forensic and Intelligence Services, LLC, Virginia, USA