Machine Dreaming and Consciousness

Machine Dreaming and Consciousness

1st Edition - April 13, 2017

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  • Authors: J. Pagel, Philip Kirshtein
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780128037201
  • eBook ISBN: 9780128037423

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Machine Dreaming and Consciousness is the first book to discuss the questions raised by the advent of machine dreaming. Artificial intelligence (AI) systems meeting criteria of primary and self-reflexive consciousness are often utilized to extend the human interface, creating waking experiences that resemble the human dream. Surprisingly, AI systems also easily meet all human-based operational criteria for dreaming. These “dreams” are far different from anthropomorphic dreaming, including such processes as fuzzy logic, liquid illogic, and integration instability, all processes that may be necessary in both biologic and artificial systems to extend creative capacity. Today, multi-linear AI systems are being built to resemble the structural framework of the human central nervous system. The creation of the biologic framework of dreaming (emotions, associative memories, and visual imagery) is well within our technical capacity. AI dreams potentially portend the further development of consciousness in these systems. This focus on AI dreaming raises even larger questions. In many ways, dreaming defines our humanity. What is humanly special about the states of dreaming? And what are we losing when we limit our focus to its technical and biologic structure, and extend the capacity for dreaming into our artificial creations? Machine Dreaming and Consciousness provides thorough discussion of these issues for neuroscientists and other researchers investigating consciousness and cognition.

Key Features

  • Addresses the function and role of dream-like processing in AI systems
  • Describes the functions of dreaming in the creative process of both humans and machines
  • Presents an alternative approach to the philosophy of machine consciousness
  • Provides thorough discussion of machine dreaming and consciousness for neuroscientists and other researchers investigating consciousness and cognition


Neuroscientists and cognitive scientists researching sleep, dreaming, learning/memory, consciousness, cognition, computational cognition, and neural networks of cognition; researchers in neuroscience, psychology, and cognitive science interested in the philosophy of the mind; computer scientists interested in artificial intelligence and artificial consciousness

Table of Contents

  • Section I: Machine Dreaming and Consciousness—The Human Perspective

    Chapter One. Dreaming: The Human Perspective

    • Abstract
    • Dream Definition # 1—Messages from God
    • Dream Definition # 2—Bizarre or Hallucinatory Mentation
    • Dream Definition # 3—Reports of Mental Activity Occurring During Sleep
    • Dream Definition # 4—Dreaming is REM Sleep
    • Dream Definition # 5—A Dream is Taking Place When a Lucid Dreamer Pushes a Button
    • Dream Definition # 6—The Fulfillment of a Wish
    • The Problems of Definition
    • The Phenomenology of Dreams
    • Partial Metaphors
    • The Dreams of Machines?

    Chapter Two. The Mechanics of Human Consciousness

    • Abstract
    • Human Consciousness
    • The Neurobiology of Human Consciousness
    • Neuroanatomy
    • Neurochemistry
    • Electrophysiology
    • Human Consciousness—An Overview of the Processing System
    • Constructing Machine Consciousness

    Chapter Three. Animal Dreaming—Animal Consciousness

    • Abstract
    • Animal Dreaming
    • Periodic Limb Movements of Sleep
    • REM Sleep Behavior Disorder
    • Proving that Dogs Dream
    • The Functions of Dreaming
    • Comparing Animal Dreams to Human Dreams
    • Animal Consciousness—Primary and Secondary
    • Tertiary Aspects of Animal Consciousness
    • Attention
    • Intention
    • Self-Awareness and Reflexive Consciousness (Demasio’s Dog)
    • Animal Consciousness—Lions and Bats

    Chapter Four. Testing for Machine Consciousness

    • Abstract
    • Applied Tests
    • Intelligence
    • Attention
    • Intentionality
    • Volition
    • Self-Awareness
    • Autonomous Entities (Strong AI)
    • Dreaming as Consciousness

    Section II: Machine Dream Equivalents

    Chapter Five. Sleep Modes

    • Abstract
    • Sleep in Finite State Machines
    • Screensavers
    • Expanding Sleep Mode
    • Network Sleep
    • Bottleneck Routers
    • Flow Congestion Avoidance
    • Machine Sleep—Summary

    Chapter Six. Neural Networks: The Hard and Software Logic

    • Abstract
    • Fuzzy Logic
    • Artificial Neural Networks
    • Dream-Like Neural Network Processing

    Chapter Seven. Filmmaking: Creating Artificial Dreams at the Interface

    • Abstract
    • The Visual Imagery of Dream
    • The Sensor
    • The Neurological Processing of Imagery
    • Representational Images
    • Dream Memories
    • Dream Emotions
    • Creating the Artificial Dream—Narrative and Direction
    • AI-Created Dreams

    Chapter Eight. The Cyborg at the Dream Interface

    • Abstract
    • Keyboard-Based Machine Interface Systems
    • Reaching Beyond the Keyboard
    • The Neuroelectric Interface
    • The Dream Interface

    Chapter Nine. Interpreting the AI Dream

    • Abstract
    • Dream Interpretation
    • Machine Data Presentation
    • Machine Data Interpretation

    Chapter Ten. Creating the Perfect Zombie

    • Abstract
    • Neural Nets
    • Creating the Perfect Zombie
    • Neuroanatomic Zombies
    • Limitations in Creating the Neuroanatomic Zombie: CNS Complexity
    • Perfect Zombies

    Section III: The Philosophy of Machine Dreaming

    Chapter Eleven. Anthropomorphism: Philosophies of AI Dreaming and Consciousness

    • Abstract
    • Anthropomorphism
    • Anthropomorphic Fears
    • Anthropomorphic Machines
    • Antropomorphism as a Marker for Consciousness
    • Anthropomorphic Dreams

    Chapter Twelve. Searching for Dreams in Other (Stranger) Places

    • Abstract
    • The Cave Art of Southwest Europe
    • Dreams in Art
    • Petroglyphs
    • Searching for Dream Images
    • Other Places for Dream Phenomenology—Machines

    Chapter Thirteen. Machine Consciousness

    • Abstract
    • The Consciousness of Finite State Machines
    • Self-Learning AI
    • Internet Consciousness
    • Internet Capacity for Aspects of Consciousness
    • Interface Consciousness
    • Summary: Aspects of Machine Consciousness

    Chapter Fourteen. Forms of Machine Dreaming

    • Abstract
    • Machine Dream Equivalents
    • Machine Dreams—Messages from God
    • Machine Dreams—Sleep-Associated Mentation
    • Machine Dreams—Metaphor
    • Machine Dreams—Bizarre & Alternative Outcomes
    • Machine Dreams—The Phenomenology
    • Artifically Created REM Sleep
    • Machine-Created Dreams
    • Machine Dreams at the Human Interface
    • Machine Dreaming—System Summary and Comparison

    Chapter Fifteen. The Antropomorphic Dream Machine

    • Abstract
    • Human Dreams
    • Human Interest in Dreaming
    • Cyborg Dreaming
    • These are not Dreams
    • Dreaming as a Marker for Humanity: The Argument for Human Dreaming

Product details

  • No. of pages: 230
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 2017
  • Published: April 13, 2017
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • Paperback ISBN: 9780128037201
  • eBook ISBN: 9780128037423

About the Authors

J. Pagel

JF Pagel has authored more than 170 publications. His basic research addressed the electrophysiology of consciousness, the neurochemistry of sleep and dream, and the role of REM sleep in learning and memory. His clinical work includes proofs for non-dreaming and the requirement of sleep for dream and nightmare, the diagnostic code for nightmare disorder, a definition protocol for dream, and demonstrations that REM sleep and dreaming are doubly dissociable. He has developed approaches to treating insomnia, sleep & altitude, narcolepsy, pediatric parasomnias, and waking somnolence, as well as addressing dream and nightmare use in trauma, art, creativity and filmmaking. He is co-editor of one of the major sleep-medicine texts: Primary Care Sleep Disorders (2007/ 2014). His books include: The Limits of Dream – A Scientific Exploration of the Mind /Brain Interface (2007), Dreaming and Nightmares (ed.) (2010), and Dream Science – Exploring the Forms of Consciousness (2014).

Affiliations and Expertise

University of Colorado, School of Medicine, USA

Philip Kirshtein

Affiliations and Expertise

New Market Designs

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