Lung Development Biological and Clinical Perspectives - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780122497018, 9780323150460

Lung Development Biological and Clinical Perspectives

1st Edition

Biochemistry and Physiology

Editors: Philip Farrell
eBook ISBN: 9780323150460
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 1st January 1982
Page Count: 434
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Description

Lung Development: Biological and Clinical Perspectives: Biochemistry and Physiology, Volume I, provides a comprehensive and multidisciplinary treatise with regard to surfactant-related issues in lung maturation. Despite the deliberate emphasis on biochemistry in this volume, the aim is to place this information in the perspective of anatomy, physiology, and clinical perinatology. The book is organized into four parts. Part I offers a brief historical perspective by reviewing the chronology of clinical and basic advances. Part II then establishes a frame of scientific reference by reviewing the morphology and cytology of lung development and the physiology of pulmonary surfactant. Stages of development and variations in the maturation process are emphasized, while cautions to the biochemist are offered with respect to interpretation of experimental data. Part III provides an introduction to lung biochemistry. Part IV deals with the developmental biochemistry of lung phospholipid metabolism; the featured compound is the predominant surfactant component, phosphatidylcholine (PC). A focal point for discussion concerns regulatory mechanisms operating to control the production of saturated PC during late gestational development of the fetal lung.

Table of Contents


Contributors

Foreword

Preface

Terminology

Contents of Volume II

I Introduction to Lung Development and Hyaline Membrane Disease

1 Lung Development and Hyaline Membrane Disease

I. Introduction

II. Historical Perspective

References

II The Study of Lung Development

2 Morphologic Aspects of Lung Maturation

I. Introduction

II. Architecture of the Respiratory System

III. Development and Growth of the Airways, Pulmonary Vasculature, and Acinar Region

IV. Cytodifferentiation of the Respiratory Epithelium

V. Clinical Correlation

VI. Implications of Morphologic Changes in Relationship to Biochemical Investigation of Fetal Lung Development

References

3 The Cytology of the Lung: Ultrastructure of the Respiratory Epithelium and Extracellular Lining Layers

I. Introduction

II. The Bronchi

III. The Bronchioles

IV. Brush Cells and Endocrine Cells

V. Acinar Epithelium

VI. Concluding Remarks

References

4 The Physiologic Assessment of Lung Surfactant

I. Introduction

II. Compliance and Lung Stability

III. Functional Assay

IV. Maintenance Kinetics

V. Fetal Lung Liquid and Lung Weight

VI. Definition of Pulmonary Surfactant

References

5 Tissue Slices in the Study of Lung Metabolism

I. Introduction

II. Preparation and Use of Tissue Slices

III. Conclusions

References

6 The Isolated Perfused Lung as a Model for Studies of Lung Metabolism

I. Introduction

II. The Technique

ΠΙ. Criteria for Viability

IV. Limitations of the Preparation

V. Applications of the Preparation

References

7 Bronchoalveolar Fluid and Subcellular Surfactant Fractions

I. Introduction

II. Preliminary Procedures

III. Surface-Active Fractions

IV. Lamellar Bodies

V. Lysosomes

VI. Microsomes

VII. Perspective

References

8 Isolation of Alveolar Type II Cells

I. Background

II. Methods of Isolation

III. Identification

IV. Viability

V. Limitations

VI. Future Directions

References

9 Lung Cell Culture Systems

I. Introduction

II. Lung Organ Culture Explants, Isolated Perfused Lung, and Lung Slices

III. Lung Cell Monolayers

IV. Mixed Cell Culture, Clonal Systems, and Freshly Isolated Cells

V. Organotypic Culture

References

III Overview of Lung Biochemistry

10 Introduction to Lipid Biochemistry

I. Introduction

II. Biological Asymmetry of Glycerol

III. Nomenclature of Glycerolipids

IV. Structures of Pulmonary Lipids

V. Fatty Acids

References

11 The Chemical Composition of the Lung

I. Introduction

II. Lipid Composition of the Lung

III. Connective Tissue of the Lung

IV. Phospholipid Composition of Subcellular Fractions of the Lung

V. Phospholipid Composition of Type II Cells

References

12 The Composition of Pulmonary Surfactant

I. Introduction

II. Surfactant Isolation

III. Surfactant Proteins

References

13 Major Phospholipids in Pulmonary Surfactant

I. Introduction

II. Lipid Isolation and Separation

III. Phosphatidylcholine

IV. Phosphatidylglycerol

References

IV The Developmental Biochemistry of Lung Phospholipid Metabolism

14 General Features of Phospholipid Metabolism in the Developing Lung

I. Introduction

II. The Biochemistry of Fetal Lung Development

III. Phospholipid Biosynthesis in General

IV. Mechanisms for de Novo Synthesis of Phosphatidylcholine

V. Metabolic Control of Organ Development

VI. Summary

References

15 Cellular and Subcellular Sites of Lung Lipid Metabolism

I. Introduction

II. Cellular Sites of Surfactant Synthesis

III. Intracellular Sites of Lung Phospholipid Metabolism

IV. Summary and Future Directions

References

16 Phosphatidic Acid Production and Utilization

I. Introduction—The Central Role of Phosphatidic Acid

II. Mechanisms of Phosphatide Acid Biosynthesis

III. Phosphatide Acid Phosphohydrolase

IV. Phosphatide Acid Metabolism in Lung Tissue

References

17 The CDPcholine Pathway: Choline Kinase

I. Introduction and Historical Background

II. Methods of Analysis

III. Progress in Purification

IV. Developmental Profile

V. Effects of Hormones on Choline Kinase Activity

VI. Possible Role of Choline Kinase as a Rate-Limiting Step in Phosphatidylcholine Synthesis

VII. Future Directions of Research

References

18 The CDPcholine Pathway: Cholinephosphate Cytidylyltransferase

I. Introduction

II. Assay Methods

III. Purification and Physicochemical Properties

IV. Activity in Developing Lung

V. Possible Role in Regulation of Overall Pathway

VI. Future Directions of Research

References

19 The CDPcholine Pathway: Cholinephosphotransferase

I. Introduction

II. Methods of Analysis

III. Subcellular Localization

IV. Progress in Purification

V. Activity in Developing Lung

VI. Possible Role in Regulation of Overall Pathway

VII. Possible Role in Regulation of the Fatty Acid Composition of Phosphatidylcholine

VIII. Future Directions of Research

References

20 The Phosphatidylcholine -Lysophosphatidylcholine Cycle

I. Introduction

II. Phospholipase A2

III. Lysophosphatidylcholine Acyltransferase

IV. LysophosphatidylcholineiLysophosphatidylcholine Acyltransferase

V. Relative Importance of Lysophosphatidylcholine Acyltransferase and Lysophosphatidylcholine: Lysophosphatidylcholine Acyltransferase for the Remodeling of Phosphatidylcholine

VI. Site of Remodeling

VII. Future Directions of Research

References

21 The Regulation of Saturated Phosphatidylcholine Synthesis in the Developing Lung

I. Summary of Current Concepts

II. Future Directions of Research

References

Index


Details

No. of pages:
434
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 1982
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9780323150460

About the Editor

Philip Farrell