Lung Development Biological and Clinical Perspectives

Lung Development Biological and Clinical Perspectives

Biochemistry and Physiology

1st Edition - January 1, 1982

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  • Editor: Philip Farrell
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323150460

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Lung Development: Biological and Clinical Perspectives: Biochemistry and Physiology, Volume I, provides a comprehensive and multidisciplinary treatise with regard to surfactant-related issues in lung maturation. Despite the deliberate emphasis on biochemistry in this volume, the aim is to place this information in the perspective of anatomy, physiology, and clinical perinatology. The book is organized into four parts. Part I offers a brief historical perspective by reviewing the chronology of clinical and basic advances. Part II then establishes a frame of scientific reference by reviewing the morphology and cytology of lung development and the physiology of pulmonary surfactant. Stages of development and variations in the maturation process are emphasized, while cautions to the biochemist are offered with respect to interpretation of experimental data. Part III provides an introduction to lung biochemistry. Part IV deals with the developmental biochemistry of lung phospholipid metabolism; the featured compound is the predominant surfactant component, phosphatidylcholine (PC). A focal point for discussion concerns regulatory mechanisms operating to control the production of saturated PC during late gestational development of the fetal lung.

Table of Contents

  • Contributors




    Contents of Volume II

    I Introduction to Lung Development and Hyaline Membrane Disease

    1 Lung Development and Hyaline Membrane Disease

    I. Introduction

    II. Historical Perspective


    II The Study of Lung Development

    2 Morphologic Aspects of Lung Maturation

    I. Introduction

    II. Architecture of the Respiratory System

    III. Development and Growth of the Airways, Pulmonary Vasculature, and Acinar Region

    IV. Cytodifferentiation of the Respiratory Epithelium

    V. Clinical Correlation

    VI. Implications of Morphologic Changes in Relationship to Biochemical Investigation of Fetal Lung Development


    3 The Cytology of the Lung: Ultrastructure of the Respiratory Epithelium and Extracellular Lining Layers

    I. Introduction

    II. The Bronchi

    III. The Bronchioles

    IV. Brush Cells and Endocrine Cells

    V. Acinar Epithelium

    VI. Concluding Remarks


    4 The Physiologic Assessment of Lung Surfactant

    I. Introduction

    II. Compliance and Lung Stability

    III. Functional Assay

    IV. Maintenance Kinetics

    V. Fetal Lung Liquid and Lung Weight

    VI. Definition of Pulmonary Surfactant


    5 Tissue Slices in the Study of Lung Metabolism

    I. Introduction

    II. Preparation and Use of Tissue Slices

    III. Conclusions


    6 The Isolated Perfused Lung as a Model for Studies of Lung Metabolism

    I. Introduction

    II. The Technique

    ΠΙ. Criteria for Viability

    IV. Limitations of the Preparation

    V. Applications of the Preparation


    7 Bronchoalveolar Fluid and Subcellular Surfactant Fractions

    I. Introduction

    II. Preliminary Procedures

    III. Surface-Active Fractions

    IV. Lamellar Bodies

    V. Lysosomes

    VI. Microsomes

    VII. Perspective


    8 Isolation of Alveolar Type II Cells

    I. Background

    II. Methods of Isolation

    III. Identification

    IV. Viability

    V. Limitations

    VI. Future Directions


    9 Lung Cell Culture Systems

    I. Introduction

    II. Lung Organ Culture Explants, Isolated Perfused Lung, and Lung Slices

    III. Lung Cell Monolayers

    IV. Mixed Cell Culture, Clonal Systems, and Freshly Isolated Cells

    V. Organotypic Culture


    III Overview of Lung Biochemistry

    10 Introduction to Lipid Biochemistry

    I. Introduction

    II. Biological Asymmetry of Glycerol

    III. Nomenclature of Glycerolipids

    IV. Structures of Pulmonary Lipids

    V. Fatty Acids


    11 The Chemical Composition of the Lung

    I. Introduction

    II. Lipid Composition of the Lung

    III. Connective Tissue of the Lung

    IV. Phospholipid Composition of Subcellular Fractions of the Lung

    V. Phospholipid Composition of Type II Cells


    12 The Composition of Pulmonary Surfactant

    I. Introduction

    II. Surfactant Isolation

    III. Surfactant Proteins


    13 Major Phospholipids in Pulmonary Surfactant

    I. Introduction

    II. Lipid Isolation and Separation

    III. Phosphatidylcholine

    IV. Phosphatidylglycerol


    IV The Developmental Biochemistry of Lung Phospholipid Metabolism

    14 General Features of Phospholipid Metabolism in the Developing Lung

    I. Introduction

    II. The Biochemistry of Fetal Lung Development

    III. Phospholipid Biosynthesis in General

    IV. Mechanisms for de Novo Synthesis of Phosphatidylcholine

    V. Metabolic Control of Organ Development

    VI. Summary


    15 Cellular and Subcellular Sites of Lung Lipid Metabolism

    I. Introduction

    II. Cellular Sites of Surfactant Synthesis

    III. Intracellular Sites of Lung Phospholipid Metabolism

    IV. Summary and Future Directions


    16 Phosphatidic Acid Production and Utilization

    I. Introduction—The Central Role of Phosphatidic Acid

    II. Mechanisms of Phosphatide Acid Biosynthesis

    III. Phosphatide Acid Phosphohydrolase

    IV. Phosphatide Acid Metabolism in Lung Tissue


    17 The CDPcholine Pathway: Choline Kinase

    I. Introduction and Historical Background

    II. Methods of Analysis

    III. Progress in Purification

    IV. Developmental Profile

    V. Effects of Hormones on Choline Kinase Activity

    VI. Possible Role of Choline Kinase as a Rate-Limiting Step in Phosphatidylcholine Synthesis

    VII. Future Directions of Research


    18 The CDPcholine Pathway: Cholinephosphate Cytidylyltransferase

    I. Introduction

    II. Assay Methods

    III. Purification and Physicochemical Properties

    IV. Activity in Developing Lung

    V. Possible Role in Regulation of Overall Pathway

    VI. Future Directions of Research


    19 The CDPcholine Pathway: Cholinephosphotransferase

    I. Introduction

    II. Methods of Analysis

    III. Subcellular Localization

    IV. Progress in Purification

    V. Activity in Developing Lung

    VI. Possible Role in Regulation of Overall Pathway

    VII. Possible Role in Regulation of the Fatty Acid Composition of Phosphatidylcholine

    VIII. Future Directions of Research


    20 The Phosphatidylcholine -Lysophosphatidylcholine Cycle

    I. Introduction

    II. Phospholipase A2

    III. Lysophosphatidylcholine Acyltransferase

    IV. LysophosphatidylcholineiLysophosphatidylcholine Acyltransferase

    V. Relative Importance of Lysophosphatidylcholine Acyltransferase and Lysophosphatidylcholine: Lysophosphatidylcholine Acyltransferase for the Remodeling of Phosphatidylcholine

    VI. Site of Remodeling

    VII. Future Directions of Research


    21 The Regulation of Saturated Phosphatidylcholine Synthesis in the Developing Lung

    I. Summary of Current Concepts

    II. Future Directions of Research



Product details

  • No. of pages: 434
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 1982
  • Published: January 1, 1982
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323150460

About the Editor

Philip Farrell

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