Iron Fortification of Foods

Iron Fortification of Foods

1st Edition - July 28, 1985

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  • Editor: Fergus Clydesdale
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323160391

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Iron Fortification of Foods discusses in detail the problems encountered with different iron sources in staple foods, beverages, condiments, and salt, as well as provides a “how to” approach toward solving these problems in both developed and developing countries. Organized into three parts, the book begins with the discussion on the prevalence, causes, and treatment of anemia, as well as the effect of food on the availability of iron fortificants. It then describes the different iron sources, their interaction with food, and their bioavailability. Lastly, it explores the critical area of product application. The book significantly provides needed information for almost anyone, in any country, interested in fortifying food with iron and in treating iron deficiency anemia.

Table of Contents

  • Contributors




    I. Introduction

    1. Iron Deficiency

    I. Definition

    II. Detection

    III. Prevalence

    IV. Causes of Iron Deficiency

    V. Health Significance of Iron Deficiency

    VI. Methods of Preventing Iron Deficiency


    2. Factors Influencing the Efficacy of Iron Fortification and the Selection of Fortification Vehicles

    I. Introduction

    II. Amount of Extra Iron Absorbed by Iron Fortification

    III. Effect on Iron Balance

    IV. Criteria for the Selection of Iron Sources

    V. Criteria for Selecting the Fortification Vehicle

    II . Types of Iron Fortificants

    3. Elemental Sources

    I. Introduction

    II. Reduced

    III. Electrolytic

    IV. Carbonyl

    V. Properties of Iron Powders

    VI. Advantages and Disadvantages


    4. Nonelemental Sources

    I. Introduction

    II. Commercial Sources

    III. Conclusions


    5. Experimental Fortificants

    I. Introduction

    II. Sodium Fe(III)EDTA

    III. Hemoglobin

    IV. Conclusions and Summary


    III. Product Application

    6. Wheat and Blended Cereal Foods

    I. Cereal Fortification

    II. Wheat Consumption

    III. Iron Content of Wheat

    IV. Dietary Iron Contribution of Wheat

    V. Iron Fortification of Whole-Grain Wheat

    VI. Milling

    VII. Iron Content of Wheat Flour and Bread

    VIII. Iron Fortification of Wheat Flour and Bread

    IX. Pasta Products

    X. Cereal Iron Enrichment Programs

    XI. Blended Foods


    7. Breakfast Cereals and Dry Milled Corn Products

    I. Introduction

    II. Ready-to-Eat Cereals: Oxidative Rancidity and Staling

    III. Mechanism of Oxidative Rancidity in Fats of Ready-to-Eat Cereals

    IV. Action of Iron in Oxidative Rancidity of Ready-to-Eat Cereals

    V. Enrichment of Cereal Grain Products with Iron

    VI. Restoration of Ready-to-Eat Cereals with Iron

    VII. Use of Elemental Iron To Fortify Ready-to-Eat Cereals

    VIII. Relative Biological Value of Iron Added to Ready-to-Eat Cereals

    IX. Effects of Insoluble or Complexed Iron in Ready-to-Eat Cereals

    X. Functional Effects versus Relative Biological Value of Iron in Ready-to-Eat Cereals

    XI. Dry Milled Corn Iron Enrichment


    8. Iron Enrichment of Rice

    I. Introduction

    II. United States

    III. International Considerations


    9. Fortification of Infant Formula

    I. Introduction

    II. Bioavailability of Iron in Infant Formulas

    III. Conclusion


    10. Supplementation of Infant Products

    I. Introduction

    II. Recommended Supplementation Methods

    III. Forms of Iron Used in Supplementation

    IV. Recommended Amounts of Iron in Supplemented Foods

    V. Summary and Conclusions


    11. Beverages

    I. Introduction

    II. Milk and Milk-Based Products

    III. Coffee

    IV. Fruit- and Vegetable-Flavored Beverages

    V. Soft Drinks

    VI. Summary


    12. Salt

    I. Salt as a Vehicle for Iron Fortification

    II. Iron Sources for Salt Fortification

    III. Technology of Salt Fortification

    IV. Consumer Acceptability

    V. Impact of Fortified Salt on Improving the Iron Status of the Community

    VI. Other Salt Fortification Trials

    VII. Use of Iron and Iodine in Salt Fortification


    13. Condiments

    I. Introduction

    II. Fish Sauce

    III. Monosodium Glutamate



Product details

  • No. of pages: 194
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 1985
  • Published: July 28, 1985
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323160391

About the Editor

Fergus Clydesdale

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