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Iron Fortification of Foods - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780121770600, 9780323160391

Iron Fortification of Foods

1st Edition

Editor: Fergus Clydesdale
eBook ISBN: 9780323160391
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 28th July 1985
Page Count: 194
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Iron Fortification of Foods discusses in detail the problems encountered with different iron sources in staple foods, beverages, condiments, and salt, as well as provides a “how to” approach toward solving these problems in both developed and developing countries. Organized into three parts, the book begins with the discussion on the prevalence, causes, and treatment of anemia, as well as the effect of food on the availability of iron fortificants. It then describes the different iron sources, their interaction with food, and their bioavailability. Lastly, it explores the critical area of product application. The book significantly provides needed information for almost anyone, in any country, interested in fortifying food with iron and in treating iron deficiency anemia.

Table of Contents





I. Introduction

1. Iron Deficiency

I. Definition

II. Detection

III. Prevalence

IV. Causes of Iron Deficiency

V. Health Significance of Iron Deficiency

VI. Methods of Preventing Iron Deficiency


2. Factors Influencing the Efficacy of Iron Fortification and the Selection of Fortification Vehicles

I. Introduction

II. Amount of Extra Iron Absorbed by Iron Fortification

III. Effect on Iron Balance

IV. Criteria for the Selection of Iron Sources

V. Criteria for Selecting the Fortification Vehicle

II . Types of Iron Fortificants

3. Elemental Sources

I. Introduction

II. Reduced

III. Electrolytic

IV. Carbonyl

V. Properties of Iron Powders

VI. Advantages and Disadvantages


4. Nonelemental Sources

I. Introduction

II. Commercial Sources

III. Conclusions


5. Experimental Fortificants

I. Introduction

II. Sodium Fe(III)EDTA

III. Hemoglobin

IV. Conclusions and Summary


III. Product Application

6. Wheat and Blended Cereal Foods

I. Cereal Fortification

II. Wheat Consumption

III. Iron Content of Wheat

IV. Dietary Iron Contribution of Wheat

V. Iron Fortification of Whole-Grain Wheat

VI. Milling

VII. Iron Content of Wheat Flour and Bread

VIII. Iron Fortification of Wheat Flour and Bread

IX. Pasta Products

X. Cereal Iron Enrichment Programs

XI. Blended Foods


7. Breakfast Cereals and Dry Milled Corn Products

I. Introduction

II. Ready-to-Eat Cereals: Oxidative Rancidity and Staling

III. Mechanism of Oxidative Rancidity in Fats of Ready-to-Eat Cereals

IV. Action of Iron in Oxidative Rancidity of Ready-to-Eat Cereals

V. Enrichment of Cereal Grain Products with Iron

VI. Restoration of Ready-to-Eat Cereals with Iron

VII. Use of Elemental Iron To Fortify Ready-to-Eat Cereals

VIII. Relative Biological Value of Iron Added to Ready-to-Eat Cereals

IX. Effects of Insoluble or Complexed Iron in Ready-to-Eat Cereals

X. Functional Effects versus Relative Biological Value of Iron in Ready-to-Eat Cereals

XI. Dry Milled Corn Iron Enrichment


8. Iron Enrichment of Rice

I. Introduction

II. United States

III. International Considerations


9. Fortification of Infant Formula

I. Introduction

II. Bioavailability of Iron in Infant Formulas

III. Conclusion


10. Supplementation of Infant Products

I. Introduction

II. Recommended Supplementation Methods

III. Forms of Iron Used in Supplementation

IV. Recommended Amounts of Iron in Supplemented Foods

V. Summary and Conclusions


11. Beverages

I. Introduction

II. Milk and Milk-Based Products

III. Coffee

IV. Fruit- and Vegetable-Flavored Beverages

V. Soft Drinks

VI. Summary


12. Salt

I. Salt as a Vehicle for Iron Fortification

II. Iron Sources for Salt Fortification

III. Technology of Salt Fortification

IV. Consumer Acceptability

V. Impact of Fortified Salt on Improving the Iron Status of the Community

VI. Other Salt Fortification Trials

VII. Use of Iron and Iodine in Salt Fortification


13. Condiments

I. Introduction

II. Fish Sauce

III. Monosodium Glutamate




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© Academic Press 1985
28th July 1985
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:

About the Editor

Fergus Clydesdale

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