High Temperature Oxidation and Corrosion of Metals

High Temperature Oxidation and Corrosion of Metals

1st Edition - August 6, 2008

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  • Authors: David Young, David Young
  • eBook ISBN: 9780080559414

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Description

This book is concerned with providing a fundamental basis for understanding the alloy-gas oxidation and corrosion reactions observed in practice and in the laboratory. Starting with a review of the enabling thermodynamic and kinetic theory, it analyzes reacting systems of increasing complexity. It considers in turn corrosion of a pure metal by a single oxidant and by multi-oxidant gases, followed by corrosion of alloys producing a single oxide then multiple reaction products. The concept of “diffusion paths” is used in describing the distribution of products in reacting systems, and diffusion data is used to predict reaction rates whenever possible.

Key Features

* Provides a logical and expert treatment of the subject for use as a guide for advanced-level academics, researchers and practitioners
* Text is well supported by numerous micrographs, phase diagrams and tabulations of relevant thermodynamic and kinetic data
* Combines physical chemistry and materials science methodologies

Readership

Upper-level undergraduate and graduate students, professionals, researchers and consultants in the field of high temperature corrosion resistance

Table of Contents

  • Preface
    Abbreviations and Acronyms
    Glossary of Symbols

    1. THE NATURE OF HIGH TEMPERATURE OXIDATION
    1.1 Metal Loss due to the Scaling of Steel
    1.2 Heating Elements
    1.3 Protecting Turbine Engine Components
    1.4 Hydrocarbon Cracking Furnaces
    1.5 Prediction and Measurement
    Oxidation Rates
    1.6 Rate Equations
    Linear Kinetics
    Diffusion Controlled Processes and Parabolic Kinetics
    Diffusion and Phase Boundary Processes Combined
    Volatilisation
    Thin Oxide Film Growth
    1.7 Reaction Morphology: Specimen Examination
    1.8 Summary
    References

    2. ENABLING THEORY
    2.1 Chemical Thermodynamics
    Chemical Potential and Composition
    Chemical Equilibrium in Gas Mixtures
    2.2 Chemical Equilibria between Solids and Gases
    Chemical Equilibria Involving Multiple Solids
    Gases Containing Two Reactants
    2.3 Alloys and Solid Solutions
    Dissolution of Gases in Metals
    2.4 Chemical Equilibria Between Alloys and Gases
    Equilibria between Alloys and a Single Oxide
    Equilibria between Alloys and Multiple Oxides
    2.5 Thermodynamics of Diffusion
    Driving Forces
    Point Defects
    2.6 Absolute Rate Theory Applied to Lattice Particle Diffusion
    2.7 Diffusion in Alloys
    Origins of Cross Effects
    Kirkendall Effect
    Diffusion Data for Alloys
    2.8 Diffusion Couples and the Measurement of Diffusion Coefficients
    2.9 Interfacial Processes and Gas Phase Mass Transfer
    Gas Adsorption
    Gas Phase Mass Transfer at Low Pressure
    Mass Transfer in Dilute Gases
    2.10 Mechanical Effects: Stresses in Oxide Scales
    Stresses Developed during Oxidation
    Stresses Developed during Temperature Change
    2.11 Further Reading
    References


    3. OXIDATION OF PURE METALS
    3.1 Experimental Findings
    3.2 Use of Phase Diagrams
    3.3 Point Defects and Nonstoichiometry in Ionic Oxides
    3.4 Lattice Species and Structural Units in Ionic Oxides
    3.5 Gibbs-Duhem Equation for Defective Solid Oxides
    3.6 Lattice Diffusion and Oxide Scaling – Wagner’s Model
    3.7 Validation of Wagner’s Model
    Oxidation of Nickel
    Oxidation of Cobalt
    Oxidation of Iron
    Sulphidation of Iron
    Effects of Oxidant Partial Pressure on the Parabolic Rate Constant
    Effect of Temperature on the Parabolic Rate Constant
    Other Systems
    Utility of Wagner’s Theory
    3.8 Impurity Effects on Lattice Diffusion
    3.9 Microstructural Effects
    Grain Boundary Diffusion
    Multi-Layer Scale Growth
    Development of Macroscopic Defects and Scale Detachment
    3.10 Reactions not Controlled by Solid-State Diffusion
    Oxidation of Iron at low to form Wüstite Only
    Oxidation of Silicon
    References

    4. MIXED GAS CORROSION OF PURE METALS
    4.1 Selected Experimental Findings
    4.2 Phase Diagrams and Diffusion Paths
    Scaling of Chromium in Oxidising-Nitriding and Oxidising-Carburising Gases
    Scaling of Chromium in Oxidising-Sulphidising-Carburising Gases
    Scaling of Iron in Oxidising-Sulphidising Gases
    Scaling of Nickel in Oxidising-Sulphidising Gases
    4.3 Scale-Gas Interactions
    Identity of Reactant Species
    Rate Determining Processes in SO2 Reactions
    Production of Metastable Sulphide
    Independent Oxide and Sulphide Growth in SO2
    4.4 Transport Processes in Mixed Scales
    Effect of Pre-oxidation on Reaction with Sulphidising-Oxidising Gases
    Solid-State Diffusion of Sulphur
    Gas Diffusion Through Scales
    Scale Penetration by Multiple Gas Species
    Metal Transport Processes
    4.5 Predicting the Outcome of Mixed Gas Reactions
    References

    5. ALLOY OXIDATION I: SINGLE-PHASE SCALES
    5.1 Introduction
    5.2 Selected Experimental Results
    5.3 Phase Diagrams and Diffusion Paths
    5.4 Selective Oxidation of One Alloy Component
    5.5 Selective Oxidation of One Alloy Component under Non Steady-State Conditions
    5.6 Solid Solution Oxide Scales
    Modelling Diffusion in Solid Solution Scales
    5.7 Transient Oxidation
    Transient Behaviour Associated with Alumina Phase Transformations
    5.8 Microstructural Changes in Subsurface Alloy Regions
    Subsurface Void Formation
    Scale-Alloy Interface Stability
    Phase Dissolution
    New Phase Formation
    Other Transformations
    5.9 Breakdown of Steady-State Scale
    5.10 Other Factors Affecting Scale Growth
    References

    6. ALLOY OXIDATION II: INTERNAL OXIDATION
    6.1 Introduction
    6.2 Selected Experimental Results
    6.3 Internal Oxidation Kinetics in the Absence of External Scaling
    6.4 Experimental Verification of Diffusion Model
    6.5 Surface Diffusion Effects in the Precipitation Zone
    6.6 Internal Precipitates of Low Stability
    6.7 Precipitate Nucleation and Growth
    6.8 Cellular Precipitation Morphologies
    6.9 Multiple Internal Precipitates
    6.10 Solute Interactions in the Precipitation Zone
    6.11 Transition from Internal to External Oxidation
    6.12 Internal Oxidation Beneath a Corroding Alloy Surface
    6.13 Volume Expansion in the Internal Precipitation Zone
    References

    7. ALLOY OXIDATION III: MULTI-PHASE SCALES
    7.1 Introduction
    7.2 Binary Alumina Formers
    The Ni-Al System
    The Fe-Al System
    7.3 Binary Chromia Formers
    The Ni-Cr and Fe-Cr Systems
    Transport Processes in Chromia Scales
    7.4 Ternary Alloy Oxidation
    Fe-Ni-Cr Alloys
    Ni-Pt-Al Alloys
    Ni-Cr-Al Alloys
    Fe-Cr-Al Alloys
    Third Element Effect
    7.5 Scale Spallation
    The Sulphur Effect
    Interfacial Voids and Scale Detachment
    Reactive Element Effects
    7.6 Effects of Minor Alloying Additions
    Silicon Effects
    Manganese Effects
    Titanium Effects
    Other Effects
    7.7 Effects of Secondary Oxidants
    References

    8. CORROSION BY SULPHUR
    8.1 Introduction
    8.2 Sulphidation of Pure Metals
    Sulphidation Kinetics and Rates
    Growth of NiAs-type Sulphide Scales
    Sulphidation of Manganese
    Sulphidation of Refractory Metals Sulphides
    8.3 Alloying for Sulphidation Protection
    Alloying with Chromium
    Alloying with Aluminium
    M-Cr-Al Alloys
    Alloying with Manganese
    Alloying with Molybdenum
    Refractory Metal Alloys
    8.4 Sulphidation in H2/H2S
    8.5 Effects of Temperature and Sulphur Partial Pressure
    8.6 The Role of Oxygen
    8.7 Internal Sulphidation
    8.8 Hot Corrosion
    Phenomenology of Sulphate Induced Hot Corrosion
    Molten Salt Chemistry
    Fluxing Mechanisms
    Type I and Type II Hot Corrosion
    References

    9. CORROSION BY CARBON
    9.1 Introduction
    9.2 Gaseous carbon activities
    9.3 Carburisation
    9.4 Internal Carburisation of Model Alloys
    Reaction Morphologies and Thermodynamics
    Carburisation Kinetics
    Carbide Microstructures and Distributions
    9.5 Internal Carburisation of Heat Resisting Alloys
    Effect of Carbon
    Effect of Molybdenum
    Effect of Silicon
    Effect of Niobium and Reactive Elements
    Effect of Aluminium
    Alloying for Carburisation Protection
    9.6 Metal Dusting of Iron and Ferritic Alloys
    Metal Dusting of Iron
    Iron Dusting in the Absence of Cementite
    Effects of Temperature and gas Composition on Iron Dusting
    Dusting of Low Alloy Steels
    Dusting of fFerritic Chromium Ssteels
    Dusting of FeAl and FeCrAl Alloys
    9.7 Dusting of Nickel and Austenitic Alloys
    Metal Dusting of Nickel
    Dusting of Nickel Alloys in the Absence of Oxide Scales
    Effects of Temperature and Gas Composition on Nickel Dusting
    Dusting of Aaustenitic Alloys
    9.8 Protection by Oxide Scaling
    Protection by Coatings
    Protection by Adsorbed Sulphur
    References

    10. EFFECTS OF WATER VAPOUR ON OXIDATION
    10.1 Introduction
    10.2 Volatile Metal Hydroxide Formation
    Chromia Volatilisation
    Chromia Volatilisation in Steam
    Effects of Chromia Volatilisation
    Silica Volatilisation
    Other Oxides
    10.3 Scale-Gas Interfacial Processes
    10.4 Scale Transport Properties
    Gas Transport
    Molecular Transport
    Molecular Transport in Chromia Scales
    Ionic Transport
    10.5 Water Vapour Effects on Alumina Formation
    10.6 Void Development in Growing Scales
    References

    11. CYCLIC OXIDATION
    11.1 Introduction
    11.2 Alloy Depletion and Scale Rehealing
    11.3 Spallation Models
    11.4 Combination of Spalling and Depletion Models
    11.5 Effects of Experimental Variables
    Temperature Cycle Parameters
    Continuous Thermogravimetric Analysis
    Compositions of Alloys and Environments
    References

    12. ALLOY DESIGN
    12.1 Introduction
    12.2 Alloy Design for Resistance to Oxygen
    12.3 Design Against Oxide Scale Spallation
    12.4 Design for Resistance to Other Corrodents and Mixed Gases
    12.5 Future Research
    Electric Power Generation
    Petrochemical and Chemical Process Industries
    Greenhouse Gas Emission Control
    12.6 Fundamental Research
    Grain Boundaries in Oxide Scales
    Water Vapour Effects
    Nucleation and Growth Phenomena
    12.7 Conclusion
    References

    Appendix A
    Appendix B
    Appendix C
    Appendix D
    Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 592
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Elsevier Science 2008
  • Published: August 6, 2008
  • Imprint: Elsevier Science
  • eBook ISBN: 9780080559414

About the Authors

David Young

David Young was educated at the University of Melbourne then worked in Canada for 9 years (University of Toronto, McMaster University, National Research Council of Canada) on high temperature metal-gas reactions. Returning to Australia, he worked for BHP Steel Research then joined the University of New South Wales. There he led the School of Materials Science & Engineering for 15 years, and has carried out extensive work on high temperature corrosion in mixed gas atmospheres.

His work has led to over 350 publications, including the books Diffusion in the Condensed State (with J.S. Kirkaldy), Institute of Metals (1988) and High Temperature Oxidation and Corrosion of Metals, 1st ed., Elsevier (2008). It has been recognized by his election to the Australian Academy of Technological Sciences and Engineering, the U. R. Evans Award, Institute of Corrosion Science & Technology, UK, the High Temperature Materials Outstanding Achievement Award, Electrochemical Society, USA and election as Fellow, Electrochemical Society.

Affiliations and Expertise

David John Young School of Materials Science and Engineering University of New South Wales New South Wales, Australia

David Young

David Young was educated at the University of Melbourne then worked in Canada for 9 years (University of Toronto, McMaster University, National Research Council of Canada) on high temperature metal-gas reactions. Returning to Australia, he worked for BHP Steel Research then joined the University of New South Wales. There he led the School of Materials Science & Engineering for 15 years, and has carried out extensive work on high temperature corrosion in mixed gas atmospheres.

His work has led to over 350 publications, including the books Diffusion in the Condensed State (with J.S. Kirkaldy), Institute of Metals (1988) and High Temperature Oxidation and Corrosion of Metals, 1st ed., Elsevier (2008). It has been recognized by his election to the Australian Academy of Technological Sciences and Engineering, the U. R. Evans Award, Institute of Corrosion Science & Technology, UK, the High Temperature Materials Outstanding Achievement Award, Electrochemical Society, USA and election as Fellow, Electrochemical Society.

Affiliations and Expertise

David John Young School of Materials Science and Engineering University of New South Wales New South Wales, Australia

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