Health of HIV Infected People - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780128007693, 9780128011430

Health of HIV Infected People

1st Edition

Food, Nutrition and Lifestyle with Antiretroviral Drugs

Editors: Ronald Watson
eBook ISBN: 9780128011430
Hardcover ISBN: 9780128007693
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 2nd March 2015
Page Count: 632
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Health of HIV Infected People: Food, Nutrition and Lifestyle with Antiretroviral Drugs provides basic and applied knowledge on the supportive roles of bioactive foods, exercise, and dietary supplements on HIV/AIDS patients receiving antiretroviral drugs.

Approaches include the application of traditional herbs and foods aiming to define both the risks and benefits of such practices. Readers will learn how to treat or ameliorate the effects of chronic retroviral disease using readily available, cheap foods, dietary supplements, and lifestyle changes with specific attention to the needs of patients receiving antiretroviral drugs.

This work provides the most current, concise, scientific appraisal of the efficacy (or lack thereof) of key foods, nutrients, dietary plants, and behavioral shifts in preventing and improving the quality of life of HIV infected infants and adults, while also giving the needed attention to these complex and important side effects.

Key Features

  • Covers the role of nutrients in the prevention and treatment of HIV-induced physiological changes in children undergoing HAART, including covers of omega-3 fatty acids, dietary fat intake, metabolic changes, and vitamin D
  • Explores food and the treatment of obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease in HIV infected patients, including fundamental coverage and recommendations for care
  • Provides coverage of fitness and exercise regimens, physical activity, and behavioral and lifestyle changes on HIV infected individuals
  • Gives careful attention to the specific nutritional needs of patients undergoing HAART therapy


graduate students, researchers, nutritionists, and clinicians with a focus on HIV/AIDS, virology and infectious disease

Table of Contents

  • Preface
  • List of Contributors
  • Acknowledgement
  • Section I: Food and Overview
    • Chapter 1. Exercise and Rehabilitation: Exercise in the Era of HAART in South Africa
      • 1.1 Introduction
      • 1.2 Quality of Life
      • 1.3 Exercise and HAART
      • 1.4 Summary and Clinical Implications
      • References
    • Chapter 2. Metabolic Abnormalities in HIV-Infected Populations without or with Antiretroviral Therapy (ART)
      • 2.1 Introduction
      • 2.2 HIV-Associated Metabolic Abnormalities without ART
      • 2.3 HIV-Associated Metabolic Abnormalities with ART
      • 2.4 Conclusion
      • References
    • Chapter 3. Effects of Dietary Fat Intake on Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome During Antiretroviral Therapy
      • 3.1 Introduction
      • 3.2 Dietary Fat Intake: A Role in HIV/AIDS
      • 3.3 Dietary Fat Intake and HIV/AIDS: Clinical Trials
      • 3.4 Conclusion
      • References
    • Chapter 4. Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection–Associated Cancer and Mycotoxins in Food
      • 4.1 Epidemiology of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection
      • 4.2 Pathophysiology of HIV Infection with Immune Interference
      • 4.3 Development of Cancer in a Patient with HIV
      • 4.4 Patients with HIV and ADCS
      • 4.5 HIV-Infected Patients with NADCS
      • 4.6 Mycotoxins in Patients with HIV
      • References
    • Chapter 5. Effects of Omega-3 Fatty Acids on Body Composition and Health in HIV/AIDS During HAART Therapy
      • 5.1 Introduction
      • 5.2 Signs and Symptoms
      • 5.3 Transmission
      • 5.4 Correlation of Dietary Fats and HIV
      • 5.5 Diagnosis and Treatment
      • 5.6 Antiretroviral Therapy
      • 5.7 Glucose Tolerance Overview
      • 5.8 Saturated Fatty Acids and HIV/AIDS
      • 5.9 Unsaturated Fatty Acids and HIV/AIDS
      • 5.10 Omega-3 Fatty Acids and HIV/AIDS
      • 5.11 HIV/AIDS and Dietary Fat Supplementation
      • References
    • Chapter 6. Diet Modulation of Chronic Inflammation in Individuals with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome
      • 6.1 Introduction
      • 6.2 Inflammation
      • 6.3 AIDS
      • 6.4 Chronic Inflammation
      • 6.5 Nutritional Modulation of Chronic Inflammation
      • 6.6 Summary
      • References
  • Section II: Nutrition and Lifestyle
    • Chapter 7. A Self-Management Framework to Assess the Need for Nutritional Supplementation in People Living with HIV/AIDS
      • 7.1 Introduction
      • 7.2 A Self-Management Framework to Assess the Need for Nutritional Supplementation
      • 7.3 Conclusion
      • References
    • Chapter 8. Influence of Nutrition on Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection
      • 8.1 Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome
      • 8.2 Immune Function and Health
      • 8.3 Nutrition and Health
      • 8.4 Role of Nutrition in HIV/AIDS
      • 8.5 Summary
      • References
    • Chapter 9. Nutritional Care of the Child with Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection in the United States: A Historical and Contemporary Perspective
      • 9.1 Introduction and Epidemiology
      • 9.2 Pediatric HIV-1 Infection: A Clinical Overview
      • 9.3 The Impact of Pediatric HIV Infection on Nutrition
      • 9.4 ART in Pediatric HIV Infection
      • 9.5 Nutritional Interventions and Adjunct Therapies
      • 9.6 Conclusion
      • References
    • Chapter 10. Vitamin D and HIV Infection: Immunomodulatory and Extraskeletal Effects. Prevalence, Risk Factors, and Effects of Antiretroviral Therapy
      • 10.1 Historical Background
      • 10.2 Causes of Vitamin D Deficiency (Figure 10.3)
      • 10.3 Vitamin D Daily Requirement, Measurement, and Level of Recommendations
      • 10.4 Dose and Dosage Form of Vitamin D
      • 10.5 Vitamin D Immunomodulatory Properties and Their Effect on HIV Infection
      • 10.6 Prevalence of Vitamin D Deficiency and Insufficiency in HIV Infection
      • 10.7 Factors Related to Vitamin D Deficiency in Patients with HIV
      • 10.8 Vitamin D Physiology and Metabolism
      • 10.9 Vitamin D Effects on Health
      • 10.10 Influence of Antiretroviral Therapy on Vitamin D Metabolism
      • References
    • Chapter 11. The Role of Vitamin D in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection
      • 11.1 Introduction
      • 11.2 Vitamin D and HIV Infection
      • 11.3 Vitamin D and HAART
      • 11.4 Vitamin D and Infections
      • 11.5 Vitamin D and Cardiovascular Disease
      • 11.6 Vitamin D and Bone Disease
      • 11.7 Vitamin D and Mental Health
      • References
    • Chapter 12. Relationship between Vitamin D Nutritional Status and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection
      • 12.1 Introduction
      • 12.2 Prevalence of Low 25(OH)D
      • 12.3 Pathophysiology of Vitamin D Effects
      • 12.4 Risk Factors for and Associations of Inadequate Vitamin D Nutritional Status in the Population with HIV
      • 12.5 Potential Negative Outcomes Associated with Inadequate Vitamin D Nutritional Status in the Population with HIV
      • 12.6 Methods of Replacement
      • 12.7 Areas for Future Research
      • 12.8 Conclusion
      • References
    • Chapter 13. Food Is Medicine: The Ryan White Food and Nutrition Services Program as a Model for Comprehensive Food and Nutrition Services in the United States
      • 13.1 Introduction
      • 13.2 Ryan White FNS Category: A Brief History
      • 13.3 Case Studies
      • 13.4 Implications for Health Care Policy
      • 13.5 Conclusion
      • References
    • Chapter 14. Nutritional Status and CD4 Cell Counts in Patients with HIV/AIDS Receiving Antiretroviral Therapy
      • 14.1 Nutritional Status in Patients with HIV/AIDS
      • 14.2 Metabolic Consequences of Antiretroviral Therapy
      • 14.3 Dietotherapy for HIV Carriers on Antiretroviral Therapy
      • References
  • Section III: Nutritional Issues in HIV/AIDs Patients: Focus on Antiretroviral Treated Populations
    • Chapter 15. Interactions Between Antiretrovirals and Natural Health Products
      • 15.1 Background
      • 15.2 Mechanisms of Drug Interactions with Antiretrovirals
      • 15.3 Pharmacokinetic Interactions Between Antiretrovirals and NHPs
      • 15.4 Pharmacodynamic Interactions Between Antiretrovirals and NHPs
      • 15.5 Assessment of Potential Interactions
      • 15.6 Conclusions
      • References
    • Chapter 16. Directed Acyclic Graphs to Identify Confounders: A Case Study Exploring the Impact of Hunger on Virologic Suppression Among HIV-Positive Illicit Drug Users Receiving HIV Treatment
      • 16.1 Introduction
      • 16.2 Methods
      • 16.3 Results
      • 16.4 Conclusion
      • Acknowledgments
      • References
    • Chapter 17. Nutritional Treatment Approach for Children with HIV Receiving ART
      • 17.1 Introduction
      • 17.2 Dietary Intake and Nutritional Status
      • 17.3 Complementary Feeding, Formulas, and Malnutrition
      • 17.4 Vitamins and Minerals
      • 17.5 Metabolic Abnormalities
      • 17.6 Conclusions
      • References
    • Chapter 18. Nutrition Therapy for Adults with HIV on ART
      • 18.1 Introduction
      • 18.2 Dyslipidemia and Insulin Resistance
      • 18.3 Body Weight, Body Composition, and Lipodystrophy
      • 18.4 Diarrhea and Gastrointestinal Disorders
      • 18.5 Immunologic Function
      • 18.6 Vitamin D Deficiency and Bone Health
      • 18.7 Conclusions
      • References
    • Chapter 19. Breastfeeding and HIV-1 Infection: Science and Future Policy
      • 19.1 Factors Associated with Transmission of HIV-1 to the Infant Through Breastfeeding
      • 19.2 Recent Research on Prevention of Breastfeeding Transmission of HIV-1
      • References
    • Chapter 20. Drivers and Consequences of Food Insecurity Among Illicit Drug Users
      • 20.1 Introduction
      • 20.2 Prevalence of Food Insecurity Among Drug Users
      • 20.3 Overview of Conceptual Framework
      • 20.4 Bi-directional Relationship Between Drug Use and Food Insecurity
      • 20.5 Pathways Linking Food Insecurity and Poor Health Among Drug Users
      • 20.6 Public Health and Policy Implications
      • Acknowledgments
      • References
  • Section IV: Foods in the Prevention and Treatment of Obesity, Diabetes and their Cardiovascular Disease as Modified by HIV/AIDs During Antiretroviral Therapy
    • Chapter 21. Dietary Interventions in People with HIV and Diabetes
      • 21.1 Introduction
      • 21.2 Special Considerations for People with HIV and Diabetes
      • 21.3 Clinical Considerations
      • 21.4 Diet
      • 21.5 Conclusions
      • 21.6 Future Research Needed
      • References
    • Chapter 22. Heterogeneity in Nutritional and Lipid Profiles in Children and Adolescents with Human Immunodeficiency Virus Treated with Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy
      • 22.1 Impact of Antiretroviral on Nutrition and Clinical Status
      • 22.2 Assessment of Nutritional and Metabolic Abnormalities
      • 22.3 The Pathogenesis of ART-Associated LA and LH
      • 22.4 What Is the Adequate Intervention on the Scope of Subject Heterogeneity?
      • 22.5 Impact of Genetic Polymorphisms on the Risk of LD
      • 22.6 A Systems Approach to Investigate LD Syndrome
      • 22.7 Conclusions
      • References
    • Chapter 23. Dietary Intervention for Dyslipidemia in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection
      • 23.1 Prevalence and Definition
      • 23.2 Dietary Intake of Patients with HIV on HAART with Dyslipidemia
      • 23.3 Nutritional Intervention for the Prevention of Dyslipidemia in HIV Infection
      • 23.4 Effect of Interventions in Dietary Pattern on HIV-Related Dyslipidemia: NCEP, Mediterranean, and Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH)
      • 23.5 Nutritional Intervention on HIV-Related Dyslipidemia: Dietary Portfolio and Multiple-Component Intervention
      • 23.6 Nutritional Supplements for HIV-Related Dyslipidemia
      • 23.7 Adherence to Nutritional Intervention
      • 23.8 Nutritional Counseling
      • 23.9 Practical Guidance for the Management of Dyslipidemia
      • 23.10 Final Considerations
      • References
    • Chapter 24. Diabetes and Dyslipidemia in Treated Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection and Approaches for Cardiometabolic Care
      • 24.1 Introduction
      • 24.2 Diabetes Mellitus
      • 24.3 Lipid Disorder in HIV Infection
      • 24.4 HIV Infection and Cardiovascular Disease
      • 24.5 Risk Evaluation and Screening in the Patients with HIV
      • 24.6 Management Strategies
      • 24.7 Pharmacologic Interventions
      • 24.8 Considerations for Resource-Poor Settings
      • 24.9 Conclusion
      • References
    • Chapter 25. Energy Expenditure and Substrate Oxidation in Subjects with Human Immunodeficiency Virus Treated with Antiretroviral Drugs
      • 25.1 Introduction
      • 25.2 Energy Expenditure
      • 25.3 Substrate Oxidation
      • 25.4 Conclusions
      • References
    • Chapter 26. Nutritional Interventions in Reducing Morbidity and Mortality in People with Human Immunodeficiency Virus
      • 26.1 Introduction
      • 26.2 Nutrition and the Immune System
      • 26.3 Micronutrients That Support the Immune System
      • 26.4 Macronutrients That Support the Immune System
      • 26.5 Phytonutrients as Immune Stimulants
      • 26.6 Nutritional Interventions to Reduce Morbidity and Mortality in People Living with HIV
      • 26.7 Conclusion
      • References
  • Section V: Exercise and Behavioral Lifestyle Changes in the Prevention and Treatment of HIV/AIDs Nutritional Changes During Antiretroviral Therapy
    • Chapter 27. HIV/AIDS: Psychological Variables and Adherence to Physical Activity Programs
      • 27.1 Introduction
      • 27.2 SRPE and Affectivity in Different Practices of Aerobic Physical Activities
      • 27.3 Final Considerations
      • References
    • Chapter 28. HIV/AIDS and Physical Exercises: Intervention, Adherence to HAART, and Health
      • 28.1 Introduction
      • 28.2 The Lived Experience
      • 28.3 Final Considerations
      • References
    • Chapter 29. Physical Activity and Exercise for People with Human Immunodeficiency Virus
      • 29.1 Data and Conceptualization of PLWH
      • 29.2 Benefits of Physical Activity and Exercise for PLWH
      • 29.3 Recommendations for Exercise and Physical Activity Programs for PLWH
      • References
  • Section VI: Psychological Interventions in AIDs During Antiretroviral Therapy
    • Chapter 30. Psychological Responses in People with HIV Infection: Considering the Challenges in the Fourth Decade of the Epidemic
      • 30.1 Introduction
      • 30.2 HIV and Stigmatization
      • 30.3 HIV and Mental Health
      • 30.4 Coping with HIV over the Lifespan
      • 30.5 Concluding Comments
      • References
    • Chapter 31. Religiosity for HIV Prevention in Africa: Experience from Ugandan Muslims and Christians
      • 31.1 Introduction
      • 31.2 Theoretical Framework
      • 31.3 Methods
      • 31.4 Results
      • 31.5 Discussion
      • References
  • Index


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About the Editor

Ronald Watson

Ronald Ross Watson PhD is a professor of Health Promotion Sciences in the University of Arizona Mel and Enid Zuckerman College of Public Health. He was one of the founding members of this school serving the mountain west of the USA. He is a professor of Family and Community Medicine in the School of Medicine at the University of Arizona. He began his research in public health at the Harvard School of Public Health as a fellow in 1971 doing field work on vaccines in Saudi Arabia. He has done clinical studies in Colombia, Iran, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, and USA which provides a broad international view of public health. He has served in the military reserve hospital for 17 years with extensive training in medical responses to disasters as the chief biochemistry officer of a general hospital, retiring at a Lt. Colonel. He published 450 papers, and presently directs or has directed several NIH funded biomedical grants relating to alcohol and disease particularly immune function and cardiovascular effects including studying complementary and alternative medicines. Professor Ronald Ross Watson was Director of a National Institutes of Health funded Alcohol Research Center for 5 years. The main goal of the Center was to understand the role of ethanol-induced immunosuppression on immune function and disease resistance in animals. He is an internationally recognized alcohol-researcher, nutritionist and immunologist. He also initiated and directed other NIH-associated work at The University of Arizona, College of Medicine. Dr. Watson has funding from companies and non-profit foundations to study bioactive foods’ components in health promotion. Professor Watson attended the University of Idaho, but graduated from Brigham Young University in Provo, Utah, with a degree in Chemistry in 1966. He completed his Ph.D. degree in 1971 in Biochemistry from Michigan State University. His postdoctoral schooling was completed at the Harvard School of Public Health in Nutrition and Microbiology, including a two-year postdoctoral research experience in immunology. Professor Watson is a distinguished member of several national and international nutrition, immunology, and cancer societies. Overall his career has involved studying many foods for their uses in health promotion. He has edited 120 biomedical reference books, particularly in health and 450 papers and chapters. His teaching and research in foods, nutrition and bacterial disease also prepare him to edit this book. He has 4 edited works on nutrition in aging. He has extensive experience working with natural products, alcohol, exercise, functional foods and dietary extracts for health benefits and safety issues, including getting 12 patents. Dr. Watson has done laboratory studies in mice on immune functions that decline with aging and the role of supplements in delaying this process as modified by alcohol and drugs of abuse.

Affiliations and Expertise

Mel and Enid Zuckerman College of Public Health and School of Medicine, Arizona Health Sciences Center, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, USA

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