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Handbook of Marine Microalgae - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780128007761, 9780128011249

Handbook of Marine Microalgae

1st Edition

Biotechnology Advances

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Editor: Se-Kwon Kim
Hardcover ISBN: 9780128007761
eBook ISBN: 9780128011249
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 27th May 2015
Page Count: 604
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Handbook of Microalgae: Biotechnology Advances offers complete coverage of marine microalgae, including biology, production techniques, biotechnological applications, economic perspectives of applications, and environmental effects of marine microalgae blooms. With contributions from world experts, Handbook of Microalgae: Biotechnology Advances focuses on microalgae from an organism perspective to offer a complete picture from evolution to biofuel.

Key Features

  • Focuses on a comprehensive approach from an organism point of view
  • Contains full coverage of all aspects of microalgae from biology through biotechnological and biomedical applications
  • Includes biological properties of commercial algal species
  • Provides microalgae screening and identification methods, culturing methods and new aspects of processing


Researchers in biology, marine biology, aquatic biology, aquaculture, biotechnology, food and nutrition, environmental science, and agricultural engineering.

Table of Contents

    <li>Preface</li> <li>Acknowledgments</li> <li>Chapter 1. Marine Microalgae Biotechnology: Present Trends and Future Advances<ul><li>1. Introduction</li><li>2. Isolation and Culture</li><li>3. Applications of Marine Microalgae</li><li>4. Conclusions</li></ul></li> <li>Chapter 2. An Introduction to Microalgae: Diversity and Significance<ul><li>1. Introduction</li><li>2. Microalgae Diversity</li><li>3. Microalgae Cell Structure&#x2014;A Close Look</li><li>4. Microalgae as a Potential Source for Fuels and Chemicals</li><li>5. Products Storage Mechanism and Genetic Modification Potential of Microalgae</li><li>6. Techno-Economic Impact and Commercialization Potential</li><li>7. Conclusions</li></ul></li> <li>Chapter 3. Microalgal Classification: Major Classes and Genera of Commercial Microalgal Species<ul><li>1. Introduction to Microalgal Classification</li><li>2. Origin of Microalgal Diversity</li><li>3. Major Phyla/Class Characteristics of Commercial Microalgal Genera</li><li>4. Biotechnological Applications: Microalgae</li></ul></li> <li>Chapter 4. Microalgae Isolation and Basic Culturing Techniques<ul><li>1. Introduction</li><li>2. Microalgal Isolation and Purification Techniques</li><li>3. Strain Selection and Screening Criteria of Microalgae</li><li>4. Measurement of Algal Growth</li><li>5. Culture Techniques for&#xA0;Microalgae</li><li>6. Advanced Isolation Techniques</li></ul></li> <li>Chapter 5. Mass Production of Microalgae<ul><li>1. Microalgae Screening and Isolation Techniques</li><li>2. Basic Microalgal Culturing Techniques</li><li>3. Mass Production of&#xA0;Microalgae</li><li>4. Conclusions</li></ul></li> <li>Chapter 6. Microalgal Biotechnology: The Way Forward<ul><li>1. Introduction</li><li>2. Development of Microalgae Culture Systems</li><li>3. Photosynthetic Productivity in Microalgal Mass Culture</li><li>4. Overcoming Biological Limitations in Microalgal Culture</li><li>5. Improve Response to Varying Solar Irradiance</li><li>6. Advances in Microalgal Feedstock-Based Biodiesel Production</li><li>7. Conclusions</li></ul></li> <li>Chapter 7. Stability of Valuable Components during Wet and Dry Storage<ul><li>1. Introduction</li><li>2. Stability of Lipids during Storage of Microalgal Biomass and Oil</li><li>3. Antioxidant Protection and Stability during Storage</li><li>4. Conclusions</li></ul></li> <li>Chapter 8. Application of Microalgae Protein to Aquafeed<ul><li>1. Introduction</li><li>2. Nutritional Features of&#xA0;Microalgae</li><li>3. Use of Microalgae in Formulated Feed for Aquaculture</li><li>4. Alternatives to Fresh Microalgae</li><li>5. Benefits and Shortcomings</li><li>6. Future Perspectives</li></ul></li> <li>Chapter 9. From the Ancient Tribes to Modern Societies, Microalgae Evolution from a Simple Food to an Alternative Fuel Source<ul><li>1. Introduction</li><li>2. Discoveries in Photosynthesis as a Tool to Understand Microalgal Metabolism for Biofuel Development: A Literature Survey for a Historical Snapshot</li><li>3. Microalgae, a Milestone in Light to Fuel Concept</li><li>4. Genetic Engineering Tools to Design Conceptual Studies: Time Travel for Genetic Evolution of Microalgal Biofuel Research</li><li>5. Global Projects</li><li>6. Introducing a Feasible Approach to Algal Biofuel Economy: Current Status Focusing on Photobioreactors</li><li>7. Conclusions</li></ul></li> <li>Chapter 10. Biofuel Production from Microalgae<ul><li>1. Introduction</li><li>2. Microalgae</li><li>3. Lipid Production</li><li>4. Properties of Microalgae-derived Biodiesel</li><li>5. Summary</li></ul></li> <li>Chapter 11. Biohydrogen from Microalgae, Uniting Energy, Life, and Green Future<ul><li>1. Introduction</li><li>2. A New Partnership That Can Change the Game: Microalgae and Biofuels</li><li>3. Microalgal Biohydrogen Production</li><li>4. Microalgal Culture Systems: Open and Closed</li><li>5. Challenges</li><li>6. Commercialization and&#xA0;Economy</li><li>7. Future</li><li>8. Ethical issues</li><li>9. Conclusions</li></ul></li> <li>Chapter 12. Bioethanol Production from Microalgae<ul><li>1. Introduction</li><li>2. Microalgae Species with High Carbohydrate Content</li><li>3. Carbohydrate Metabolism</li><li>4. Pretreatment and Saccharification of Microalgae Biomass</li><li>5. Fermentation Process</li><li>6. Conclusions</li></ul></li> <li>Chapter 13. Medicinal Effects of Microalgae-Derived Fatty Acids<ul><li>1. Introduction</li><li>2. Microalgae as a Source of&#xA0;PUFA</li><li>3. Microalgal PUFA Production</li><li>4. n-3 PUFA Health Benefits</li><li>5. Microalgae as Functional Foods and Sources of Pharmaceutical Drugs</li></ul></li> <li>Chapter 14. Innovative Microalgae Pigments as Functional Ingredients in Nutrition<ul><li>1. Introduction</li><li>2. Microalgae</li><li>3. Pigments from Microalgae</li><li>4. Biological Activities of Microalgae Pigments and Health Benefit Effects</li><li>5. New Trends in Commercial Applications of Microalgae Pigments</li><li>6. Conclusions</li></ul></li> <li>Chapter 15. Application of Diatom Biosilica in Drug Delivery<ul><li>1. Introduction</li><li>2. Culture and Harvest Methods in Diatom Production</li><li>3. Isolation and Characterization of Diatom Biosilica</li><li>4. Application of Biosilica in Drug-Delivery Vehicles</li><li>5. Future Directions</li><li>6. Conclusions</li></ul></li> <li>Chapter 16. Microalgal Nutraceuticals<ul><li>1. Introduction</li><li>2. Nutraceutical: Defining the Term</li><li>3. Microalgae: The Nutraceutical Benefits</li><li>4. Nutraceuticals and Aquaculture</li><li>5. Conclusions and Research Needs</li></ul></li> <li>Chapter 17. Microalgae as a Novel Source of Antioxidants for Nutritional Applications<ul><li>1. Oxidative Stability of Food Systems</li><li>2. Antioxidant Activity in&#xA0;Microalgae</li><li>3. Potential of Microalgal Antioxidants to Reduce Lipid Oxidation in Foodstuff</li></ul></li> <li>Chapter 18. Production of Biopharmaceuticals in Microalgae<ul><li>1. Introduction</li><li>2. Current Outlook of BFs Produced in Microalgae</li><li>3. Other Microalgae as Platforms to Produce Biopharmaceuticals</li><li>4. Perspectives</li></ul></li> <li>Chapter 19. Nutritional and Pharmaceutical Properties of Microalgal <i>Spirulina</i><ul><li>1. General Characteristics of <i>Spirulina</i></li><li>2. Nutritional Values of <i>Spirulina</i></li><li>3. Pharmaceutical Properties of <i>Spirulina</i></li><li>4. Conclusion</li></ul></li> <li>Chapter 20. Applications of Microalgae-Derived Active Ingredients as Cosmeceuticals<ul><li>1. Introduction</li><li>2. Cosmeceutical Value of&#xA0;Microalgae</li><li>3. Conclusion</li></ul></li> <li>Chapter 21. Supercritical Fluid Extraction of Microalgae (<i>Chlorella vulagaris</i>) Biomass<ul><li>1. Introduction</li><li>2. Theoretical Models for Supercritical Fluid Extraction</li><li>3. Results and Discussion</li><li>4. Conclusions</li></ul></li> <li>Chapter 22. Exploiting the Molecular Genetics of Microalgae: From Strain Development Pipelines to the Uncharted Waters of Mass Production<ul><li>1. Introduction</li><li>2. Advances in Molecular Tools for Chloroplast and Nuclear Gene Expression</li><li>3. Application of Metabolic Engineering for Biosynthesis and Synthetic Biology</li><li>4. Implications for Regulatory Control over GM&#xA0;Algae</li><li>5. Conclusions and Perspectives</li></ul></li> <li>Chapter 23. Microalgal Systems Biology Through Genome-Scale Metabolic Reconstructions for Industrial Applications<ul><li>1. Introduction</li><li>2. Biological Features: Photosynthesis and Lipid Metabolism</li><li>3. Systems Biology Resources for Microalgae: Multi-OMICs Data</li><li>4. In Silico Analyses: Genome-scale Metabolic Reconstruction and Simulation</li><li>5. Industrial Applications of Systems Biology: Engineering Metabolic Networks</li><li>6. Summary</li></ul></li> <li>Chapter 24. Genetic Engineering of Marine Microalgae to Optimize Bioenergy Production<ul><li>1. Introduction</li><li>2. Tools and Techniques for Genetic Engineering in Microalgae</li><li>3. Integrated &#x201C;Omics&#x201D; - Solutions for Pathway Engineering</li><li>4. Metabolic Engineering to Optimize Bioenergy Production</li><li>5. Concluding Remarks</li></ul></li> <li>Chapter 25. Genetic Optimization of Microalgae for Biohydrogen Production<ul><li>1. Introduction</li><li>2. State of the Art: Photobiohydrogen Production by Microalgae</li><li>3. Hydrogen-Catalyzing Enzymes in Microalgal Metabolism</li><li>4. Photosynthesis and Biophotolysis</li><li>5. Metabolic Pathway Engineering as a Tool to Develop Hydrogen-Producing Cell Factories: Improvement of H<sub>2</sub> Production by Genetic Optimization of Microalgae</li><li>6. Conclusions</li></ul></li> <li>Chapter 26. Genetic Engineering of Microalgae for Production of Value-added Ingredients<ul><li>1. Introduction</li><li>2. High Value-added Biomolecules in Microalgae</li><li>3. Pathway Engineering of Microalgae for Enhanced High Value-added Biomolecules</li><li>4. Industrial/Commercial Relevance</li><li>5. Conclusions</li></ul></li> <li>Chapter 27. Genetic Engineering of Microalgae for Production of Therapeutic Proteins<ul><li>1. Introduction</li><li>2. Advantages of Therapeutic Protein Production in Microalgae</li><li>3. Developments in Microalgal Transformation Technology</li><li>4. Methods Used in Microalgal Transformation</li><li>5. Current Status of Algal Expression System</li><li>6. Conclusions</li></ul></li> <li>Chapter 28. An Expressed Sequence Tag Database Analysis of Fatty Acid Genes in <i>Stichococcus bacillaris</i> Strain Siva2011<ul><li>1. Introduction</li><li>2. Fatty Acid, Tag, and Hydrocarbon Biosynthesis</li><li>3. Establishment of cDNA Library</li><li>4. ESTs Analysis of Fatty Acid Pathway Genes in <i>S. bacillaris</i> Strain Siva2011</li><li>5. Conclusions</li></ul></li> <li>Chapter 29. Microalgae-based Wastewater Treatment<ul><li>1. Introduction</li><li>2. Mechanisms of Pollutant Removal</li><li>3. Energy Recovery and Carbon Sequestration</li><li>4. Process Design and Operation</li><li>5. Microalgae Harvesting</li><li>6. Environmental Impact of Microalgae-Based WWT</li><li>7. Implementation</li></ul></li> <li>Chapter 30. Bioremediation of Heavy Metals by Microalgae<ul><li>1. Introduction</li><li>2. Microalgae Characteristics</li><li>3. Mechanisms of Heavy&#xA0;Metal&#xA0;Uptake by&#xA0;Algae</li><li>4. Factors Influencing the&#xA0;Heavy&#xA0;Metals Biosorption&#xA0;on&#xA0;Microalgae</li><li>5. Equilibrium Isotherm Models and Evaluation of Biosorptive Performance</li><li>6. Kinetics Modeling of&#xA0;Heavy&#xA0;Metals Biosorption&#xA0;on&#xA0;Microalgae</li><li>7. Conclusions</li></ul></li> <li>Chapter 31. Bioremediation with Microalgae: Toward Sustainable Production of Biofuels<ul><li>1. Introduction</li><li>2. Bioremediation and Removal of Nutrient Ions with Microalgae</li><li>3. Microalgae and Biofuels Production</li><li>4. Bioremediation: Trophic Pathway toward Sustainable Biofuels</li><li>5. Advances in Genetic and Metabolic Engineering of Microalgae Biofuels</li><li>6. Coupling Bioremediation and Microalgal Biofuel: Sustainable Approaches</li></ul></li> <li>Chapter 32. Phycoremediation-Coupled Biomethanation of Microalgal Biomass<ul><li>1. Introduction</li><li>2. Wastewater As a Potential Nutrient Source for Microalgae Cultivation</li><li>3. Coupling CO<sub>2</sub> Sequestration with Microalgae Cultivation in&#xA0;Wastewater</li><li>4. Biomethane Potential of&#xA0;Wastewater-Grown Microalgal Biomass</li><li>5. The Closed-Loop Process</li><li>6. Conclusion and Perspectives</li></ul></li> <li>Chapter 33. N<sub>2</sub>-Fixing Cyanobacteria: Ecology and Biotechnological Applications<ul><li>1. Physiology and Genetics of&#xA0;Nitrogen Fixation</li><li>2. N<sub>2</sub>-fixing Cyanobacteria in&#xA0;the Environment</li><li>3. Biotechnological Applications of N<sub>2</sub>-Fixing Cyanobacteria</li></ul></li> <li>Chapter 34. An Overview of Harmful Algal Blooms on Marine Organisms<ul><li>1. Introduction</li><li>2. Marine Algae</li><li>3. Harmful Algal Blooms</li><li>4. Harmful Cyanobacteria Blooms</li><li>5. The Harmful Properties of&#xA0;HABs</li><li>6. Harmful Algae Bloom Formation</li><li>7. Algal Toxins</li><li>8. Impacts of Algal Toxins</li><li>9. Possible Solutions to Controlling HABs</li><li>10. Climate Change</li><li>11. Conclusion</li></ul></li> <li>Chapter 35. Microalgae-Derived Toxic Compounds<ul><li>1. Introduction</li><li>2. Toxic Compounds from Marine Microalgae and Their Applications</li><li>3. Conclusions</li></ul></li> <li>Chapter 36. Toxicity Bioassays on Benthic Diatoms<ul><li>1. Introduction</li><li>2. Toxicity Bioassays on Microalgae</li><li>3. Sediment Toxicity Testing on Microalgae: Rationale, Previous Attempts, and Potential Problems</li><li>4. Sediment Toxicity Bioassay on Benthic Diatoms: A&#xA0;Guideline</li><li>5. New Perspectives in Benthic Diatom Bioassays: In&#xA0;Situ Bioassays and Avoidance Bioassays</li></ul></li> <li>Chapter 37. Ciguatera: Tropical Reef Fish Poisoning<ul><li>1. Introduction</li><li>2. Microalgae Causing Ciguatera</li><li>3. Ciguatoxins</li><li>4. Bioconversion of Toxins and Toxin Accumulation</li><li>5. Ciguatera Symptomology</li><li>6. Geographic Range of Ciguatera</li></ul></li> <li>Chapter 38. <i>Dunaliella</i> Identification Using DNA Fingerprinting Intron-Sizing Method and Species-Specific Oligonucleotides: New Insights on <i>Dunaliella</i> Molecular Identification<ul><li>1. Introduction</li><li>2. General Characteristics of the Genus <i>Dunaliella</i></li><li>3. Commercially Important Compounds Produced by <i>Dunaliella</i></li><li>4. The <i>18S rDNA</i> Gene as a Molecular Marker of <i>Dunaliella</i> Species Identification</li><li>5. <i>Dunaliella</i> MA1-MA2 Conserved and DSs-, DBs-, DPs-specific Oligonucleotides</li><li>6. Identification of <i>Dunaliella</i> Species from Certified Culture Collections and Environmental Samples</li><li>7. Concluding Remarks</li></ul></li> <li>Index</li>


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© Academic Press 2015
27th May 2015
Academic Press
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About the Editor

Se-Kwon Kim

Se-Kwon Kim

Professor Se-Kwon Kim, PhD, currently serves as a senior professor in the Department of Chemistry and the director of the Marine Bioprocess Research Center (MBPRC) at Pukyong National University in the Republic of Korea. He received his BSc, MSc, and PhD from the Pukyong National University and joined as a faculty member. He has previously served as a scientist in the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, Illinois (1988-1989), and was a visiting scientist at the Memorial University of Newfoundland, Canada (1999-2000).

Professor Se-Kwon Kim was the first president of the Korean Society of Chitin and Chitosan (1986-1990) and the Korean Society of Marine Biotechnology (2006-2007). He was also the chairman for the 7th Asia-Pacific Chitin and Chitosan Symposium, which was held in South Korea in 2006. He is one of the board members of the International Society of Marine Biotechnology and the International Society for Nutraceuticals and Functional Foods. Moreover, he was the editor in chief of the Korean Journal of Life Sciences (1995-1997), the Korean Journal of Fisheries Science and Technology (2006-2007), and the Korean Journal of Marine Bioscience and Biotechnology (2006-present). His research has been credited with the best paper award from the American Oil Chemist’s Society (AOCS) and the Korean Society of Fisheries Science and Technology in 2002.

Professor Se-Kwon Kim’s major research interests are investigation and development of bioactive substances derived from marine organisms and their application in oriental medicine, nutraceuticals, and cosmeceuticals via marine bioprocessing and mass- production technologies. He has also conducted research on the development of bioactive materials from marine organisms for applications in oriental medicine, cosmeceuticals, and nutraceuticals. To date, he has authored over 600 research papers and holds 152 patents. In addition, he has written or edited more than 60 books.

Affiliations and Expertise

Department of Chemistry and Marine Bioprocess Research Center, Pukyong National University, Busan, South Korea


"...concerned with diverse aspects of microalgae, their production and applications. The title implies an exclusive focus on marine microalgae, but the treatment is broader." --Biotechnology Advances

"Every chapter includes a wealth of valuable citations, and the book serves as an authoritative reference that will be of use to anyone working with microalgae." --Aquaculture Magazine

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