Food Industry Wastes

Food Industry Wastes

Assessment and Recuperation of Commodities

1st Edition - January 31, 2013

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  • Editors: Maria Kosseva, Colin Webb
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780123919212
  • eBook ISBN: 9780123919281

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Food Industry Wastes: Assessment and Recuperation of Commodities presents emerging techniques and opportunities for the treatment of food wastes, the reduction of water footprint, and creating sustainable food systems. Written by a team of experts from around the world, this book provides a guide for implementing bioprocessing techniques. It also helps researchers develop new options for the recuperation of these wastes for community benefit. More than 34 million tons of food waste was generated in the United States in 2009, at a cost of approximately $43 billion. And while less than three percent of that waste was recovered and recycled, there is growing interest and development in recovering and recycling food waste. These processes have the potential not only to reduce greenhouse gases, but to provide energy and resources for other purposes. This book examines these topics in detail, starting with sources, characterization and composition of food wastes, and development of green production strategies. The book then turns to treatment techniques such as solid-state fermentation and anaerobic digestion of solid food waste for biogas and fertilizer. A deep section on innovative biocatalysts and bioreactors follows, encompassing hydrogen generation and thermophilic aerobic bioprocessing technologies. Rounding out the volume are extensive sections on water footprints, including electricity generation from microbial fuel cells (MFCs), and life cycle assessments.

Key Features

  • Food waste is an area of focus for a wide range of related industries from food science to energy and engineering
  • Outlines the development of green product strategies
  • International authoring team represents the leading edge in research and development
  • Highlights leading trends of current research as well as future opportunities for reusing food waste


Professionals, researchers, advanced students in food engineering and environmental science.

Table of Contents

  • Dedication



    Introduction: Causes and Challenges of Food Wastage

    1 Sustainability of the Food Supply Chain

    2 Quantity of Food Wastes

    3 Water Waste

    4 Environmental Effect of Food Waste

    5 Conclusions

    Abbreviations and Glossary

    Part I: Food Industry Wastes: Problems and Opportunities

    Chapter 1. Recent European Legislation on Management of Wastes in the Food Industry

    1 Introduction

    2 Various Legal Aspects of Food Waste

    3 Effectiveness of Waste Management Policies in the European Union

    4 Biowaste Management Policy Updates

    5 Policy Recommendations Identified for their Prevention Potential

    6 Environmental Management Standards and their Application in the Food Industry

    7 Conclusions


    Chapter 2. Development of Green Production Strategies

    1 Introduction

    2 Engineering Design Principles for Industrial Ecology

    3 Barriers to Adoption of Industrial Ecology and Drivers of Change

    4 Educating Industrial Ecologists

    5 Green Production

    6 Sustainability in the Global Food and Drink Industry

    7 Holistic Approach in Food Production

    8 The Green Biorefinery Concept

    9 Anaerobic Digestion and Biogas Production Technology

    10 Energy Generated by Food and Farm Co-Digestion

    11 Conclusions


    Chapter 3. Sources, Characterization, and Composition of Food Industry Wastes

    1 Introduction

    2 Characterization and Composition of Food Wastes

    3 Biochemical/Chemical Analytical Methods

    4 Conclusions


    Part II: Treatment of Solid Food Wastes

    Chapter 4. Use of Waste Bread to Produce Fermentation Products

    1 Introduction

    2 Bread as a Major Dietary Staple

    3 The Size of the Bread Waste Problem

    4 Utilization of Bread and Bakery Wastes

    5 Solid-State Fermentation of Bread Waste

    6 Process Development Opportunities

    7 Conclusions


    Chapter 5. Recovery of Commodities from Food Wastes Using Solid-State Fermentation

    1 Introduction

    2 Selection of Bioreactor Design for SSF

    3 Mass and Heat Transfer Phenomena in SSF

    4 Applications of SSF

    5 Conclusions


    Chapter 6. Functional Food and Nutraceuticals Derived from Food Industry Wastes

    1 Introduction

    2 Phenolic Compounds Derived from Fruit-and-Vegetable Processing Wastes

    3 Vegetable Flavonoids

    4 Coloring Agents and Antioxidants

    5 Dietary Fibers

    6 Sulfur-Containing Bioactive Compounds

    7 Extraction Processes from Food-and-Vegetable Waste

    8 Whey as a Source of Bioactive Peptides

    9 Product Development, Marketing, and Consumer Acceptance of Functional Foods

    10 Conclusions


    Chapter 7. Manufacture of Biogas and Fertilizer from Solid Food Wastes by Means of Anaerobic Digestion

    1 Introduction

    2 Basic Principles of Anaerobic Digestion

    3 Process Development for Anaerobic Digestion of Organic Wastes

    4 Fertilization of Residues After Anaerobic Digestion

    5 Conclusion


    Part III: Improved Biocatalysts and Innovative Bioreactors for Enhanced Bioprocessing of Liquid Food Wastes

    Chapter 8. Use of Immobilized Biocatalyst for Valorization of Whey Lactose

    1 Introduction

    2 Methods of Immobilization

    3 Immobilized Enzymes

    4 Immobilized Cell Systems

    5 Bioreactor Systems With Immobilized Biocatalyst

    6 Kinetic Performance of the Immobilized Cells (IMCs)

    7 Mathematical Modeling of Immobilized Cell System

    8 Industrial Applications

    9 Conclusions


    Chapter 9. Hydrogen Generation from Food Industry and Biodiesel Wastes

    1 Introduction

    2 Basic Principle of Dark Hydrogen Fermentation

    3 Effect of Intracellular and Extracellular Redox States on Hydrogen Production

    4 Bioreactor System for High-Rate Hydrogen Production

    5 Hydrogen Production from Industrial Organic Wastes

    6 Treatment of Effluent After Dark Hydrogen Fermentation

    7 Concluding Remarks


    Chapter 10. Thermophilic Aerobic Bioprocessing Technologies for Food Industry Wastes and Wastewater

    1 Introduction

    2 Thermophilic Aerobic Digestion

    3 Thermophilic Microorganisms

    4 Bioremediation and Bio-Augmentation Strategies

    5 A New Bioreactor Designed for Thermophilic Digestion

    6 Feed Production from Food Industry Wastes

    7 Conclusions


    Chapter 11. Modeling, Monitoring, and Process Control for Intelligent Bioprocessing of Food Industry Wastes and Wastewater

    1 Introduction

    2 Mathematical Models of Bioreactors and Biodegradation Processes

    3 Process Analytical Technology

    4 Control Strategy Development

    5 Conclusions



    Part IV: Assessment of Water and Carbon Footprints and Rehabilitation of Food Industry Wastewater

    Chapter 12. Accounting for the Impact of Food Waste on Water Resources and Climate Change

    1 Background

    2 Defining Water Footprints

    3 Accounting Carbon Footprint

    4 Data

    5 Results of Water Footprint Accounting

    6 Results of Carbon Footprint Accounting

    7 Case Studies

    8 Discussion and Conclusion



    Chapter 13. Electrical Energy from Wineries—A New Approach Using Microbial Fuel Cells

    1 Introduction

    2 Winery WasteWater to Electricity—Conceptual Approach

    3 Microbial Fuel Cells

    4 Microbial Fuel Cells and Wineries—A Case Study

    5 Conclusions


    Chapter 14. Electricity Generation from Food Industry Wastewater Using Microbial Fuel Cell Technology

    1 Introduction

    2 Current Status of Electricity Generation from Food Industry Wastewaters

    3 Factors Affecting Anodic Performance

    4 Electricity Generation from a Scalable MFC—a Case Study

    5 Conclusion


    Part V: Assessment of Environmental Impact of Food Production and Consumption

    Chapter 15. Life Cycle Assessment Focusing on Food Industry Wastes

    1 Introduction

    2 Methodology in Life Cycle Assessment

    3 Utility of LCT/LCA to Promote Lower-Impact Habits in Consumers

    4 Valorization of Wastes by Bioprocessing, from an LCA Perspective

    5 Valorization of Wastes by NonBiological Processing or Disposal, from an LCA Perspective

    6 Conclusions

    7 Case Study: LCA of Waste Management in Cider Making


    Chapter 16. Food System Sustainability and the Consumer

    1 Introduction

    2 Food Supply Chain and Waste

    3 Consumer Behavior and Behavioral Change

    4 New Product Development and Innovation

    5 Conclusions


    Concluding Remarks and Future Prospects

    1 Prevention of Food Losses and Waste

    2 Challenges for the Processing Industry

    3 Valorization of Food Industry Waste

    4 Conclusions

    Food Science and Technology International Series


Product details

  • No. of pages: 338
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 2013
  • Published: January 31, 2013
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780123919212
  • eBook ISBN: 9780123919281

About the Editors

Maria Kosseva

Dr. Kosseva’s expertise is in the fields of chemical/bioprocess engineering, waste management, and environmental biotechnology. Starting in the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, her research and teaching skills were further developed at the University of Birmingham, United Kingdom, Catholic University of Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium, the University of Cape Town, South Africa, and Hiroshima University, Japan. At the University College Dublin, Ireland, she set up and led a new research laboratory. At the University of Nottingham Ningbo China, she established a modern teaching laboratory and taught Biochemical Engineering and Materials Engineering modules.

Affiliations and Expertise

Scientific Expert for European Commission Research Executive Agency

Colin Webb

Affiliations and Expertise

University of Manchester, United Kingdom

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