Encyclopedia of Endocrine Diseases

Encyclopedia of Endocrine Diseases

2nd Edition - September 12, 2018

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  • Editor-in-Chief: Ilpo Huhtaniemi
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780128121993
  • eBook ISBN: 9780128122006

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Encyclopedia of Endocrine Diseases, Second Edition, Five Volume Set comprehensively reviews the extensive spectrum of diseases and disorders that can occur within the endocrine system. It serves as a useful and comprehensive source of information spanning the many and varied aspects of the endocrine end metabolic system. Students will find a concise description of the physiology and pathophysiology of endocrine and metabolic functions, as well as their diseases. Each article provides a comprehensive overview of the selected topic to inform a broad spectrum of readers, from advanced undergraduate students, to research professionals. Chapters explore the latest advances and hot topics that have emerged in recent years, such as the molecular basis of endocrine and metabolic diseases (mutations, epigenetics, signaling), the pathogenesis and therapy of common endocrine diseases (e.g. diabetes and endocrine malignancies), new technologies in endocrine research, new methods of treatment, and endocrine toxicology/disruptors.

Key Features

  • Covers all aspects of endocrinology and metabolism
  • Incorporates perspectives from experts working within the domains of biomedicine (e.g. physiology, pharmacology and toxicology, immunology, genetics) and clinical sciences to provide readers with reputable, multi-disciplinary content from domain experts
  • Provides a ‘one-stop’ resource for access to information as written by world-leading scholars in the field, with easy cross-referencing of related articles to promote understanding and further research


Students, clinicians, and researchers in the field of endocrinology seeking specific information on topics outside their immediate area of expertise, as well as help with diagnosing and treating endocrine patients. The Encyclopedia will be of interest to laboratories, pharmaceutical companies, and graduate, departmental and medical school libraries

Table of Contents

  • Adrenal Cortex, Development


    Hypertension, Overview


    Hypertension, and Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system

    Normetanephrine and Metanephrine

    Renal Vein Renin Measurement

    Renin and Prorenin

    ACTH, Melanocortin Receptors and Accessory Proteins

    Family of peptides: Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone

    Glucocorticoid Receptor

    Glucocorticoid Resistance Syndromes and States

    Incidentaloma, Adrenal

    Adrenergic Mechanisms

    Novel insights in beta adrenergic receptor signaling

    Hypertension, Endocrine

    Hypertension, Neurogenic

    Hyporeninemic Hypoaldosteronism



    Stroke in metabolic and endocrine diseases

    Tissue ACE-Angiotensin-AT1 Receptor Axis and Repair in the Heart

    Baroreceptor Responses

    Primary Adrenal Hypoplasia and ACTH Resistance Syndromes

    Adrenal Insufficiency: Etiology and Diagnosis

    X-Linked Adrenoleukodystrophy/Adrenomyeloneuropathy

    Aldosterone in Congestive Heart Failure


    Adrenal Surgery

    Adrenocortical carcinoma genetics and molecular markers

    Post-operative evaluation of CD remission/relapse

    Somatic mutations of Gsa in adrenal tumors

    Bilateral Adrenalectomy for Cushing's Disease

    Glucocorticoid metabolism and activation

    Long term complications of hypercortisolism

    Steroid replacement adrenal insufficiency

    Licorice and 11bHSD2

    Somatic mutations B-catenin and WNT signaling in adrenal tumors

    Pituitary surgery for Cushing's disease


    Mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists

    Hypertension,Target Organ Damage

    Effects of glucocorticoids on the brain

    Aldosteronism, primary:epidemiology and screening

    Phaechromocytoma/Paraganglioma: genetic and clinical follow up

    Apparent mineralocorticoid excess (AME)

    Molecular genetics of Cushing's disease

    Adrenal Cortex, Physiology

    Adrenal Venous Sampling For Primary Aldosteronism

    Liddle's syndrome


    Cushing's syndrome unilateral adrenal adenoma

    Regulation of POMC and ACTH secretion

    Adrenocortical carcinoma: diagnosis and therapy

    Aldosterone: synthesis and metabolism

    Bartter's and Gitelman's syndromes

    Impact of glucocorticoid receptor polymorphisms on glucocorticoid action

    Renin-angiotensin system,inhibitors

    Phaechromocytoma/Paraganglioma: diagnosis and treatment

    Mineralocorticoids and Mineralocorticoid Excess Syndromes: Clinical Aspects

    Regulation of Potassium Homeostasis

    Radiotherapy for Cushing's disease


    Hypothalamic Pituitary Adrenal Suppression

    Cushing's Syndrome screening and differential diagnosis

    Angiotensinogen and angiotensins


    Aldosterone: action and function

    CAH 21 hydroxylase deficiency in adults

    Glucocorticoids and Immunity

    Adrenal steroidogenesis

    Bone Structure and Biomechanics


    Kidney Stones

    Bone Mass Measurement

    Bone Remodeling, Dynamics of

    Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide (CGRP)

    Physiology of Calcitonin and Its Therapeutic Uses

    Paget's Disease of Bone

    Skeletal Development during Childhood and Adolescence, Peak bone mass

    Bone as an endocrine organ

    Hypercalcemia, other causes than primary hyperparathyroidism

    Bone Cells: Osteoblast / Osteoclast / Osteocyte

    Pathogenesis of Osteoporosis

    Bone Metastases, clinical aspects

    The Epidemiology of Fractures

    Vitamin D


    Bone Turnover Markers

    Nutrition and bone

    Bone Metastases, medical treatment

    Hyperparathyroidism, primary

    Regulation of Calcium

    Osteoporosis, Treatment: anabolics (teriparatide,romosozumab, aboloparatide)

    Osteoporosis, Prevention/Treatment: Ca - Vitamin D

    Myeloma bone disease

    Diabetes and bone

    Osteoporosis / bone loss: role of sex steroids

    X-ray based Imaging Methods to Assess Bone Quality

    Osteoporosis in premenopausal women

    Osteoporosis, secondary causes (including GIOP)

    Calcium-sensing receptor

    Bone Muscle Interactions and Exercise

    Hypoparathyroidism and other causes of hypocalcemia

    Phosphate metabolism, HypoP and HyperP

    Osteoporosis, Treatment: sequential and combination therapy

    Ossification, calcifications, heterotopic

    Bone and bone marrow, interactions

    Osteoporosis: Treatment gaps and health economics

    Glucose metabolism and hormonal regulation

    Diabetes, Type 1

    Glucose Physiology, Normal

    Glycation- and/or Polyol Pathway-Inducing Complications


    Cardiovascular Disease in Diabetes

    Diabetes, Type 2

    Ocular Manifestations Associated With Diabetes

    Hypertension and Diabetes

    Hypoglycemic State, Non-Diabetic

    Insulin Action, Post-Receptor Mechanisms

    Kidney Disease in Diabetes

    Insulin Secretion: Functional and Biochemical Aspects

    Neurological Disease and Diabetes, Autonomic

    Carbohydrate Metabolism: Diabetes Mellitus, Genomic Aberrations

    Pregnancy and diabetes

    Treatment: Alpha glucosidase inhibitors

    Insulin pumps and artificial pancreas

    Classification and diagnosis of diabetes mellitus

    Transplantation: pancreatic and islet cells

    Pancreas/beta cells

    Male reproductive system


    Adipose tissue/obesity

    Neuroendocrine disruption

    Animal Models for Aging

    Aging, Immunology and

    Lipid Disorders in the Elderly

    Body Weight, Body Composition, and Aging

    Premature Aging Syndromes

    Ageing and the Thyroid Gland

    Oxidative Stress and Aging

    Sexual function in aging men

    Osteoporosis in the oldest old

    Hormonal circadian rhythms and sleep in aging

    Abnormalities in water homeostasis in the elderly

    Somatotropic axis in human aging

    Hypogonadism and testosterone therapy in elderly men

    Memory and Epigenetics: Role of Estrogen

    Placental Epigenetics and Outcomes in Children

    Epigenetics of Endometriosis

    Parental Diet/Obesity, Epigenetics and Offspring Metabolism

    Epigenetics, the Vascular Wall and Atherosclerosis

    Endocrine Epigenetics, Epigenetic Profiling and Biomarkers


    Ovarian Androgen-Producing Tumors

    Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS)


    Ovarian Failure Treatment Strategies: Egg Donation

    Ovarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome

    Ovarian Stimulation: Clomiphene Citrate

    Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: Implications for Cardiovascular, Endometrial, and Breast Disease

    Premature ovarian insufficiency

    Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS)

    Fertility preservation

    Hormonal treatment of breast cancer

    Adult care of Turner syndrome

    Menopause diagnosis


    Menopausal treatment

    AMH in the adults

    Environmental factors and female reproduction

    Uterine fibroids and infertility

    SPRM : definition and uses (female contraception, fibromas and interruption of pregnancies)

    Sport and menses


    Initial evaluation of an infertile couple

    Ovulation induction with gonadotropins

    Fertility and pregnancy in patients with 21 hydroxylase deficiency

    Female Hormonal Contraception

    Hormonal treatment of transgender male to female

    Obesity and reproduction

    Glucagon and Glucagon-like Peptides


    GI Hormones Outside the Gut: Central and Peripheral Nervous Systems

    GI Tract, General Pathology of Endocrine Growths

    Pancreatic Polypeptide (PP)

    Pancreatic Islet Cell Tumors


    GI Hormones in Cancer

    GI Tract, General Anatomy (Cells)

    Glucagon-like Peptide 2 (GLP-2)

    Substance P

    GI Hormone Development (Families and Phylogeny)

    Peptide Neurotransmitters and Smooth Muscle in the Gut

    Peptide YY (PYY)

    ECL Cells

    Roles of plasma binding proteins in modulation of hormone action and metabolism

    Evolution of hormonal mechanisms

    Endocrine rhythms

    Protein and peptide hormone synthesis

    Protein and peptide hormone action

    Primary Bilateral Macronodular Adrenal Hyperplasia

    History of Endocrinology


    Low HDL/High HDL Syndromes

    Life style and nutrition

    Binge-eating, bulimia and other disorders

    The adipose tissue as endocrine organ

    Treatment-bariatric surgery


    Body composition

    CNS and hypothalamic control of food intake and energy homeostasis

    Primary mixed dyslipidemias


    Obesity and Food Addiction

    Classification of hyperlipemias, dislipidemias

    Bariatric surgery

    Gastro-intestinal hormones and regulation

    Hypertriglyceridemias and treatment

    Regulation of food intake

    Androgen Biosynthesis and Gene Defects

    Defective Spermatogenesis and Male Infertility

    Germ Cell Differentiation Signaling Events, Male


    Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone (GnRH) Actions

    Genes and Gene Defects Affecting Gonadal Development and Sex Determination

    Prostate Cancer

    Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Receptor Gene, Mutation of

    Testes Embryology of: Cellular Molecular Changes

    Spermatogenesis, Endocrine Control of

    Androgens and Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

    Estrogen and the Male

    Testicular Tumors

    Male Germ Cell and germ cell transplantation

    Male sexual dysfunction


    Infertility Male: Genetics

    Oncoinfertility, Male




    Pineal Tumors

    Brain, Effects of Steroid Hormones

    Neurotransmitters, Overview

    Somatostatin receptor expression in gastrointestinal tumors

    VIPoma, Glucagonoma and Somatostatinoma



    Carcinoid syndrome

    Delayed Puberty and Hypogonadism, Female

    Anorexia Nervosa

    Gender Assignment and Psychosocial Care

    Abnormal growth: GH insensitivity

    McCune–Albright Syndrome

    Hyperthyroidism, Childhood and Adolescence

    Turner Syndrome

    Delayed Puberty, Male

    Gonadotrophin-Dependent Precocious Puberty

    Body Proportions

    Androgen insensitivity: Complete AIS

    P450-Oxidoreductase deficiency

    Congenital hyperinsulinism

    Growth and Chronic Disease

    Androgen biosynthetic defects: 17beta-HSD and 5alpha-RD deficiencies

    Genetic control of fetal sex development

    21-hydroxylase deficiency: clinical and biochemical aspects


    Prenatal diagnosis and treatment

    AMH deficiency and resistance

    Generic and epigenetic control of puberty

    Organ-specific paediatric endocrine disorders, Pituitary: Craniopharyngioma


    Hypercalcaemia in Childhood

    Abnormal growth: Excess GH and other causes of tall stature

    Cushing’s syndrome management

    Undescended Testes

    Endocrine Late Effects in Childhood Cancer Survivors

    Normal puberty: Hormonal control

    The hypospadiac genital tubercle (GT)

    Small for gestational age

    Hormonal control of fetal sex development

    Diabetes Insipidus in Children

    Calcium physiology in fetus and infant

    Rickets and Osteomalacia

    45,X/46,XY gonadal dysgenesis, 46,XX/46,XY chimerism (and variants) and 46,XX testicular and ovotesticular DSD

    11b-Hydroxylase deficiency

    Growth hormone deficiency in children

    Noonan Syndrome

    Skeletal Dysplasias

    Diabetes Insipidus

    Pituitary Tumors, ACTH-Secreting

    Acromegaly, Clinical Features of

    Acromegaly, Diagnosis of

    Hypothalamic Disease

    Natural and Synthetic Growth Hormone Secretagogues

    Pituitary Tumors, Surgery

    Growth Hormone (GH)

    Prolactin: Regulation of secretion and Action

    Pituitary Tumors, Molecular Pathogenesis

    Therapy for Acromegaly

    Genetic causes of familial pituitary tumors

    Traumatic Brain Injury


    Classifications of Pituitary neuroendocrine tumors (PitNet)

    Non-functioning tumors of pituitary, clinical features, diagnosis and management

    Hypopituitarism, causes, diagnosis, management and mortality

    LH (Luteinizing Hormone)

    FSH (Follicle-Stimulating Hormone)

    Diagnosis and Clinical Management of Aggressive Pituitary Tumors

    Pituitary radiotherapy


    Prolactinoma, Clinical Manifestations and Therapy

    Diagnosis of Prolactinoma and Causes of Hyperprolactinaemia

    Pituitary Radiology

    Statistics in endocrinology: meta-analysis advantages and pitfalls

    Surgical Treatment of Non-Functioning Pituitary Tumors

    Parathyroid Cancer

    TSH Function and Secretion

    Antithyroid Drugs

    Myxedema Coma

    Thyroid Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology

    Thyrotoxic Storm

    TSH (Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone; Thyrotropin)

    Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma

    Parathyroid Surgery

    Pseudohypoparathyroid States

    Thyroid Disorders in the Elderly

    Thyroid Disease and Pregnancy

    Amiodarone and Thyroid

    Thyroid Function and Depression

    Drug Effects and Thyroid Function

    Hypothyroidism, Causes of

    Hypothyroidism, Diagnosis of

    Iodine, Radioactive

    Irradiation, Thyroid and

    Nontoxic Goiter

    Resistance to Thyroid Hormone (RTH)

    Smoking and the Thyroid

    Sodium Iodide Symporter


    Thyroid Disease, Epidemiology of

    Thyroid Disease, Genetic Factors in

    Thyroid Gland, Anatomy and Physiology

    Thyroid Gland Development, Molecular Biology

    Thyroid Hormone Action

    Thyroid Hormone-Binding Proteins

    Thyroid Hormone Receptors

    Thyroiditis, Infectious and Subacute

    Thyroid Nodule

    Thyroid Peroxidase

    Thyrotoxicosis: Diagnosis

    Thyrotoxicosis, Overview of Causes

    Thyrotoxicosis, Systemic Manifestations

    Thyrotoxicosis, Treatment

    Toxic Adenoma

    Toxic Multinodular Goiter

    TSH Receptor (Thyrotropin Receptor)

    Graves' Disease

    Graves' Disease, Hyperthyroidism in

    Graves' Ophthalmopathy


    Central Hypothyroidism

    Thyroid Function Tests

    Postpartum Thyroid Dysfunction

    TSH-Producing Adenomas and Resistance to Thyroid Hormones

    Systemic Manifestations of Hypothyroidism

    Hypothyroidism, Subclinical

    QoL in thyroid disease

    Thyroid and infertility

    Thyroid imaging

    Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Thyroid Axis

    Graves' Dermopathy

    Thyroid and bones

Product details

  • No. of pages: 4252
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 2018
  • Published: September 12, 2018
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • Hardcover ISBN: 9780128121993
  • eBook ISBN: 9780128122006

About the Editor in Chief

Ilpo Huhtaniemi

Dr Ilpo Huhtaniemi is an Emeritus Professor of Reproductive Endocrinology in the Institute of Reproductive and Developmental Biology, Imperial College London (London, UK) and Emeritus Professor of Physiology at Department of Physiology, University of Turku (Turku, Finland). His clinical specialty is in chemical pathology. He is an author of about seven hundred peer-reviewed publications as well as several book chapters on basic and clinical reproductive endocrinology and laboratory diagnosis of endocrine diseases. He currently serves as an editorial board member for several academic journals, including as editor-in-chief of Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology (Elsevier). Dr. Huhtaniemi has also edited several books in the field of reproductive endocrinology and physiology. He has received many honours for his research activities, such as the NIH International Postdoctoral Research Fellow (Fogarty Foundation), Senior Fellowship of The Academy of Finland, Young Investigator Award of The American Society of Andrology, Matti Äyräpää Award of the Finnish Medical Society DUODECIM, Honorary Membership of The Romanian Academy of Medical Sciences, Doctor h.c. of Medical University of Lodz, Poland and Doctor h.c. of Albert Szent-György Medical University, Szeged, Hungary, The Egon Diczfalusy Foundation Lifetime Achievement Award, Iain McIntyre Medal (Queen Mary University, London), and Society for Endocrinology (UK), The European Medal. Named lectures: German Endocrine Society, The Berthold Medal and Prize Lecture; Australian Society for Reproductive Biology (The Goding Lecture); Nordic Association for Andrology (The Erik Blom Lecture); The American Society of Andrology (EAA Exchange Lecture). Dr. Huhtaniemi has been elected to The Finnish Academy of Science and Letters, The Academy of Medical Sciences, UK, and he is Knight, First Class, of the Order of the White Rose of Finland.

Affiliations and Expertise

Department of Metabolism, Digestion and Reproduction Institute of Reproductive and Developmental Biology Imperial College London Hammersmith Hospital Campus Du Cane Road, London W12 0NN, UK

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