Chronic Renal Disease - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780124116023, 9780124116160

Chronic Renal Disease

1st Edition

Editors: Paul L. Kimmel Mark Rosenberg
eBook ISBN: 9780124116160
Hardcover ISBN: 9780124116023
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 24th September 2014
Page Count: 930
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Description

Chronic Renal Disease comprehensively investigates the physiology, pathophysiology, treatment, and management of chronic kidney disease (CKD). This translational reference takes an in-depth look at CKD while excluding coverage of dialysis or transplantation, which are both well detailed in other textbooks and references. Chapters in the basic science sections are devoted to the scientific underpinnings of the development and progression of CKD, including consideration of different etiologic factors. Chapters in the treatment and management sections are geared towards the most common problems faced by nephrologists in the management of CKD. Each chapter relates specific illnesses to the CKD framework instead of covering only the specific illness. Readers will learn, for example, how the management of CKD in a patient with diabetic nephropathy differs from that of other CKD patients. Chapters indicate which unique complications the reader needs to be aware of when treating a specific patient or disease.

Chronic Renal Disease includes a companion web-based question and answer supplement to each chapter. This is a valuable resource to reinforce the content of the chapters. The questions are multiple-choice, clinically focused and include referenced discussions of answers. The questions can be used for medical student, resident and fellow teaching, preparation for board or maintenance of certification examinations, and clinician teaching or conference preparation.

Key Features

  • Provides a useful resource to professors who need to create lectures for residents and fellows, and to identify and summarize relevant literature as it relates to various research projects
  • Includes multiple choice questions and answers, which can be used as a teaching tool for conferences and continuing medical education activities
  • Includes coverage of classification and measurement, epidemiology, pathophysiology, complications of CKD, fluid / electrolyte disorders in CKD, CKD and systemic illnesses, clinical considerations, therapeutic considerations, and special considerations

Readership

Residents and fellows in nephrology, practicing clinicians and clinician researchers in nephrology

Table of Contents

  • List of Contributors
  • Abbreviations
  • Part I: Introduction
    • Chapter 1. Introduction: Chronic Renal Disease
  • Part II: Classification and Measurement
    • Chapter 2. From Bright’s Disease to Chronic Kidney Disease
      • Bright’s Disease
      • Pathologies
      • Physiologies
      • Treatments and Progression
      • CKD
      • References
    • Chapter 3. Classification of Chronic Kidney Disease – Historic Perspective: From Insufficiency and Failure to Chronic Kidney Disease
      • Introduction
      • Definition and Classification of CKD
      • General Population CKD Screening
      • Targeted Screening
      • Identity of CKD in Primary Care
      • Clinical Research
      • Conclusion
      • Acknowledgment
      • References
    • Chapter 4. Assessing Kidney Function
      • What is Kidney Function?
      • Direct Measurement of GFR
      • Endogenous Filtration Markers
      • Estimation of Measured GFR
      • Conclusions
      • References
    • Chapter 5. Clinical Assessment and Management of Chronic Kidney Disease Across its Stages
      • Introduction
      • Overview of CKD
      • Specific Treatment Recommendations
      • Delivery of CKD Care
      • Conclusion
      • References
  • Part III: Epidemiology
    • Chapter 6. Epidemiology of Chronic Kidney Disease: Scope of the Problem
      • Introduction
      • Background
      • Global Burden of CKD
      • Major Risk Factors for CKD
      • Conclusion: Scope of the Problem of CKD
      • References
    • Chapter 7. Gender Issues in Chronic Kidney Disease
      • Introduction
      • Gender and Non-Diabetic CKD
      • Gender and Diabetic CKD
      • Factors Contributing to Gender Differences in Renal Disease Progression
      • Therapeutic Implications
      • Conclusion and Future Directions
      • Acknowledgments
      • References
  • Part IV: Pathophysiology
    • Chapter 8. The Uremic Syndrome
      • Introduction
      • Signs and Symptoms of Uremia
      • Causes of Persistent Uremia with Current ESRD Therapy
      • Properties of Poorly Dialyzed Solutes
      • Prospects for Advances in Uremia Therapy
      • Conclusions
      • References
    • Chapter 9. The Pathophysiology of Proteinuria
      • Introduction
      • Pathogenesis of Albuminuria
      • Renal Consequences of Albuminuria
      • Conclusion
      • References
    • Chapter 10. Protein Energy Metabolism in Chronic Kidney Disease
      • Scope of the Problem
      • Pathophysiology of PEW
      • Diagnosis of PEW in CKD
      • Treatment of PEW in CKD
      • Recommendations and Guidelines
      • Conclusions
      • References
    • Chapter 11. Aging and the Kidney: Clinical and Pathophysiological Issues
      • Introduction
      • Pathophysiology
      • Pathogenesis
      • Diagnosis
      • Treatment
      • Summary
      • References
    • Chapter 12. Pathophysiology of Progression: Organ and Cellular Considerations
      • Introduction
      • Compartmental Processes
      • Tubular Processes
      • Interstitial Processes
      • Specific Mediators and Inhibitors of Chronic Kidney Disease
      • Conclusions
      • Acknowledgments
      • References
    • Chapter 13. Pathophysiology of Diabetic Nephropathy
      • Introduction
      • Pathology
      • Clinical Course
      • Metabolic Mechanisms of Diabetic Nephropathy
      • Glomerular Hemodynamics and the Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System
      • TGF-β is the Downstream Mediator of ECM Accumulation in DN
      • Genetic Risk Factors
      • Conclusion
      • References
    • Chapter 14. Pathophysiology of Hypertension in Chronic Kidney Disease
      • Scope of the Problem and Public Health Implications
      • Pathophysiology of Hypertension in CKD
      • Sodium Retention and Fluid Retention
      • Raas Hyperactivation
      • Sympathetic Nervous System Hyperactivation
      • Vascular Endothelial Dysfunction
      • Drugs and Other Exposures
      • Conclusion
      • References
    • Chapter 15. Chronic Kidney Disease and Vascular Endothelium
      • Development and Lifespan of Vascular Endothelium
      • Structural Components of Renal Microvasculature
      • Primary Endothelial Dysfunction Leading to Kidney Disease
      • Angiogenic Incompetence in CKD
      • Endothelial Cell Dysfunction in CKD – Genetic Screen
      • Metabolic Abnormalities in Endothelial Cell Dysfunction
      • Premature Endothelial Cell Senescence in CKD
      • Endothelial–Mesenchymal Transition and the Role of TGF-β and Endostatin Signaling
      • Lymphatic Endothelium
      • Microvascular and Tissue Regeneration: Role of Stem and Progenitor Cells
      • Endothelium, First Heal Thyself – Therapeutic Strategies
      • Summary
      • References
    • Chapter 16. Cardiovascular Disease and Chronic Kidney Disease
      • Introduction
      • Burden of Disease
      • Pathophysiology
      • Diagnosis
      • Therapy
      • Conclusions
      • References
    • Chapter 17. Inflammation in Chronic Kidney Disease
      • Introduction
      • Scope of the Problem
      • Pathophysiology of Inflammation in CKD
      • Diagnosis of Inflammation
      • Treatment of Inflammation in CKD
      • Conclusion
      • References
    • Chapter 18. Genetics and Chronic Kidney Disease
      • Introduction
      • Non-Diabetic Glomerular Diseases Leading to CKD
      • Diabetes-Associated Chronic Kidney Disease
      • Kidney Disease Genes in Immunoglobulin A Nephropathy and Lupus Nephritis
      • FSGS and Diffuse Mesangial Sclerosis
      • GWAS for Estimated GFR and Albuminuria in General Populations
      • Inherited Interstitial Nephropathies
      • Approach to Diagnosis and Therapy
      • Summary
      • References
  • Part V: Complications of Chronic Kidney Disease
    • Chapter 19. Psychosocial Issues in Chronic Kidney Disease Patients
      • Introduction
      • Psychopathology
      • Quality of Life
      • Adherence
      • Mental Health Disparities
      • Conclusions
      • References
    • Chapter 20. Ophthalmic Issues in Chronic Kidney Disease
      • Introduction
      • Ophthalmic Findings in Hypertensive Nephropathy
      • Ophthalmic Complications in CKD Patients
      • Ophthalmic Findings in Diabetes
      • Oculorenal Systemic Diseases
      • Conclusion
      • References
    • Chapter 21. Neurologic Complications of Chronic Kidney Disease
      • Introduction
      • Cognitive Impairment in CKD
      • The Epidemiology of Stroke in Chronic Kidney Disease
      • Neurological and Muscular Disease
      • Summary
      • References
    • Chapter 22. Hematologic Complications of Chronic Kidney Disease: Erythrocytes and Platelets
      • Anemia of CKD
      • Erythrocytosis in Patients with CKD
      • Disorders of Platelets and Coagulation
      • Conclusions
      • References
    • Chapter 23. Hematologic Complications of Chronic Kidney Disease: Leukocyte and Monocyte Function
      • Introduction
      • The Immune System
      • CKD-Related Immune and Leukocytic Dysfunction
      • Specific Uremic Toxins Related to the Immune Dysfunction
      • Conclusion
      • References
    • Chapter 24. Immune Function in Chronic Kidney Disease
      • Epidemiology and Background
      • Structure and Function of the Immune System
      • CKD-Associated Immune Deficiency
      • CKD-Associated Inflammation
      • Effects of CKD on Components of Innate Immunity
      • Dendritic Cells and Their Abnormalities in CKD
      • Natural Killer Cells and Their Abnormalities in CKD
      • Role of Intestinal Epithelium and Other Non-Immune Cells
      • Components of Adaptive Immunity and Their Abnormalities in CKD
      • Clinical Considerations
      • Role of Iron Deficiency and Iron Overload on CKD-Associated Immunological Disorders
      • Conclusions
      • References
    • Chapter 25. Chronic Kidney Disease and Gastrointestinal Disorders
      • Introduction
      • Gastrointestinal Symptoms in CKD Patients
      • Gastritis, Duodenitis, Upper Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage
      • Diseases of the Colon
      • Gastroparesis
      • Disorders of the Pancreas
      • Disorders of the Gall Bladder
      • Gastrointestinal Tract Disorders Associated with Renal Injury and CKD
      • Summary
      • References
    • Chapter 26. Endocrine Complications of Chronic Kidney Disease
      • Introduction
      • Sexual Function in CKD
      • Growth Hormone in CKD
      • Thyroid Dysfunction in CKD
      • Conclusion
      • References
    • Chapter 27. Disorders of Mineral and Bone Metabolism in Chronic Kidney Disease
      • Introduction
      • Pathobiology
      • Pathogenesis
      • Pathology of Renal Osteodystrophy
      • Associated Features
      • Summary and Conclusion
      • Acknowledgments
      • References
    • Chapter 28. Sleep and Sleep Disorders in Chronic Kidney Disease
      • Introduction
      • Insomnia
      • Sleep Disordered Breathing
      • Restless Legs Syndrome (Willis–Ekbom Disease)
      • Conclusion
      • Acknowledgments
      • References
    • Chapter 29. Sexual Dysfunction in Chronic Kidney Disease
      • Sexual Dysfunction Among Men with CKD
      • Sexual Dysfunction Among Women with CKD
      • Conclusions
      • References
  • Part VI: Fluid/Electrolyte Disorders in Chronic Kidney Disease
    • Chapter 30. Water Metabolism in Chronic Kidney Disease
      • Epidemiology of Impaired Water Homeostasis in CKD
      • Pathophysiology of Impaired Concentrating and Diluting Abilities in CKD
      • Clinical Implications of Impaired Water Homeostasis in CKD Patients
      • Treatment of Dysnatremias in Patients with CKD
      • Summary
      • References
    • Chapter 31. Sodium Metabolism in Chronic Kidney Disease
      • Sodium Homeostasis and Sodium Metabolism
      • Alterations and Adaptations in CKD
      • Control Systems
      • Clinical Implications
      • Progression of CKD
      • Clinical Guidelines
      • Summary
      • References
    • Chapter 32. Potassium Metabolism in Chronic Kidney Disease
      • Introduction
      • Scope of the Problem
      • Normal Potassium Homeostasis
      • Normal Renal Potassium Handling
      • Potassium Homeostasis in Acute Kidney Injury
      • Potassium Homeostasis in CKD
      • Extrarenal K+ Homeostasis in CKD
      • Gastrointestinal Excretion of K+ in CKD
      • Approach to the Hyperkalemic Patient with CKD
      • Distal Tubular Defects
      • Treatment of Hyperkalemia in the CKD Patient
      • Conclusion
      • References
    • Chapter 33. Pathophysiology of Calcium, Phosphorus, and Magnesium in Chronic Kidney Disease
      • Calcium
      • Phosphorus
      • Magnesium
      • Summary
      • References
    • Chapter 34. Acid–Base Metabolism in Chronic Kidney Disease
      • Classes of Biologically Important Acids
      • Metabolic Acidosis Due to Metabolizable Acids
      • Metabolic Acidosis Due to Non-Volatile Inorganic Acids and/or Non-Metabolizable, or Poorly Metabolizable, Organic Acids
      • Normal Renal Acid Excretion
      • Bicarbonate Reclamation (Reabsorption)
      • HCO3 Regeneration and Generation/NH4 and Titratable Acid Excretion
      • Chronic Kidney Dysfunction and Metabolic Acidosis
      • Renal Acidosis – Hyperchloremic vs. Anion Gap
      • Effect of Generalized Renal Dysfunction on Renal Tubule Proton Secretion
      • Acid Balance in Chronic Renal Disease States
      • Harmful Effects of Chronic Metabolic Acidosis
      • Treatment of Metabolic Acidosis of Chronic Renal Dysfunction
      • Conclusion
      • References
    • Chapter 35. Uric Acid Metabolism and the Kidney
      • Introduction
      • Uric Acid Metabolism
      • Causes of Hyperuricemia and Hypouricemia
      • Uric Acid and Renal Disease
      • Conclusions
      • References
    • Chapter 36. Trace Elements in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease
      • Introduction
      • Trace Metals and CKD
      • Renal Transport of Cationic Metals
      • Renal Toxicity of Cationic Metals
      • Individual Trace Metals and CKD
      • Toxicity Due to Metals in Patients With CKD
      • Metalloids in Chronic Kidney Disease
      • Summary
      • References
  • Part VII: Chronic Kidney Disease and Systemic Illnesses – Clinical Considerations
    • Chapter 37. Approach to the Patient with Chronic Glomerular Disease
      • Introduction
      • Nephrotic Syndromes and Chronic Kidney Disease
      • Nephritic Syndrome and Chronic Kidney Disease
      • Other Glomerular Diseases
      • Conclusion
      • References
    • Chapter 38. Approach to the Patient with Hypertensive Nephrosclerosis
      • Introduction
      • Pathophysiology
      • Diagnosis
      • Treatment
      • Summary
      • References
    • Chapter 39. Approach to the Patient with Chronic Kidney Disease and Renovascular Disease
      • Scope of the Problem
      • Definition and Prevalence
      • Pathophysiology of CKD with Renovascular Disease
      • Mechanisms of Kidney Injury Beyond Arterial Occlusive Disease
      • Clinical Syndromes With RVD and CKD
      • Diagnostic Considerations in CKD Associated with RVD
      • Treatment of Ckd Associated with RVD
      • Conclusion
      • References
    • Chapter 40. Polycystic Kidney Disease
      • Scope of the Problem
      • Pathophysiology
      • Diagnosis
      • Management and Treatment
      • Slowing Disease Progression
      • Conclusions
      • Acknowledgments
      • References
    • Chapter 41. Lupus Nephritis
      • Introduction
      • Pathogenesis of Kidney Injury in Lupus Nephritis
      • Clinical Manifestations of Lupus Nephritis
      • Treatment
      • Conclusions
      • References
    • Chapter 42. Chronic Kidney Disease and Sickle Cell Disease
      • Introduction
      • Renal Syndromes Associated With Sickle Cell Disease
      • Renal Anatomic and Pathologic Findings Associated With Sickle Cell Disease
      • Renal Pathophysiologic Mechanisms
      • Genetic Factors
      • Treatment
      • Summary
      • References
    • Chapter 43. Approach to Chronic Kidney Disease in the Diabetic Patient
      • Introduction
      • Natural History and Diagnosis of Diabetic Nephropathy
      • Management of Diabetic Nephropathy
      • Diabetes in ESRD
      • Summary
      • References
    • Chapter 44. Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection and Chronic Kidney Disease
      • Introduction
      • History
      • Renal Syndromes that Cause CKD in HIV Patients
      • Epidemiology of CKD in Patients with HIV Infection
      • Screening for CKD in HIV Patients
      • Treatment of Chronic Kidney Disease in HIV-Infected Patients
      • Kidney Transplantation for HIV Patients
      • Conclusion
      • Acknowledgments
      • References
    • Chapter 45. Chronic Kidney Disease and Liver Disease
      • Kidney Disease Associated with Liver Disease
      • Kidney Disease Associated with Cirrhosis
      • Treatment
      • Conclusion
      • References
    • Chapter 46. Chronic Kidney Disease and Heart Failure – A Nephrologic Approach
      • Background
      • Epidemiology
      • Pathophysiology of Heart Failure in CKD
      • Prevention and Treatment of Heart Failure in CKD
      • Summary
      • References
    • Chapter 47. Cancer and Chronic Kidney Disease
      • Introduction
      • Lymphomatous Infiltration of the Kidney and CKD
      • Chemotherapy-Induced CKD
      • Paraneoplastic Glomerular Diseases and CKD
      • CKD Associated with Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation
      • CKD Associated with Renal Cell Carcinoma
      • Kidney Disease Associated with Plasma Cell Dyscrasias and Paraproteins
      • Management of Anemia in the Patient with CKD and Cancer
      • Chemotherapy Dosing in CKD
      • Conclusion
      • References
  • Part VIII: Therapeutic Considerations
    • Chapter 48. The Interdisciplinary Chronic Kidney Disease Clinic
      • Scope of the Problem
      • Definition of CKD Clinic: Models of Interdisciplinary Care
      • Who Will Benefit from INTERdisciplinary Care
      • Goals of Treatment for a CKD Clinic
      • CKD Clinics Improve Outcomes
      • Economics of CKD Clinics
      • Conclusion
      • Acknowledgments
      • References
    • Chapter 49. Slowing Progression of Chronic Kidney Disease
      • Introduction
      • Epidemiologic Issues
      • Pathophysiologic Mechanisms of Progression
      • Therapy to Slow Progression of CKD
      • Conclusion
      • Acknowledgments
      • References
    • Chapter 50. Nutritional Management of Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease
      • Introduction
      • Dietary Factors and CKD-Induced Metabolic Abnormalities
      • Nutritional Considerations for Inorganic Ions in CKD
      • Requirements for Dietary Constituents in CKD
      • Mechanisms that Regulate Body Protein Stores
      • Assessment of Dietary Compliance
      • Nutritional Safety of Low-Protein Diets for Patients with CKD
      • Conclusions
      • References
    • Chapter 51. Management of Anemia in Chronic Kidney Disease
      • Introduction
      • Diagnosis and Evaluation of Anemia in CKD Patients
      • General Approach to Treatment of CKD Anemia
      • Types of ESA Therapy
      • Iron Supplementation to Treat CKD Anemia
      • Adjuvant Therapies for CKD Anemia
      • Conclusion
      • References
    • Chapter 52. Management of Hypertension in Chronic Kidney Disease
      • Introduction
      • Causes and Pathophysiology of Hypertension in CKD
      • Antihypertensive Therapy
      • Non-Pharmcologic Therapy
      • Pharmacologic Therapy
      • Conclusion
      • References
    • Chapter 53. Management of Mineral and Bone Disorders in Chronic Kidney Disease Patients
      • Scope of the Problem and Public Health Implications
      • Pathophysiology
      • Diagnosis
      • Treatment
      • Conclusion
      • References
    • Chapter 54. Albuminuria: A Target for Treatment in Diabetic and Non-Diabetic Nephropathy
      • Introduction
      • Criteria for Acceptance of Albuminuria as a Target for Renal Protection Treatment
      • Is Albuminuria an Independent Target?
      • Conclusions
      • Note
      • References
    • Chapter 55. Drug Metabolism and Chronic Kidney Disease
      • Introduction
      • Drug Absorption
      • Drug Distribution
      • Drug Elimination
      • Mechanisms of Drug Transport and Metabolism
      • In Vitro and Animal Studies of Metabolism
      • Endogenous Metabolism
      • Clinical Studies
      • Conclusion
      • References
    • Chapter 56. Use of Diuretics in Chronic Kidney Disease Patients
      • Introduction
      • Site and Mechanism of Action of Diuretics
      • Pharmacokinetics
      • Pharmacodynamics
      • Diuretic Braking, Tolerance, and Resistance
      • Use of Agents Other Than Loop Diuretics in CKD
      • Diuretics for Treatment of Hypertension in CKD
      • Diuretic Complications
      • References
    • Chapter 57. Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs and Chronic Kidney Disease
      • Introduction
      • Pharmacology of NSAIDs
      • Prostaglandins and the Kidney: An Overview
      • NSAIDs as a Cause of CKD
      • Adverse Consequences of NSAID Therapy in Patients with CKD
      • Exacerbation of Hypertension
      • Non-Renal Side-Effects of NSAID use in Patients with CKD
      • Conclusions
      • References
    • Chapter 58. Dyslipidemia and Chronic Kidney Disease: Trials and Guidelines
      • The Typical Lipid Profile in CKD Patients
      • Pathophysiology of Dyslipidemia in CKD and End-Stage Renal Disease
      • Impact of Proteinuria on Dyslipidemia
      • Impact of Dialysis on Dyslipidemia
      • Why Should Patients With CKD Stages 3–5 Be Treated With a Statin?
      • Why Not Perform Frequent Follow-Up Measurements of Serum Lipids?
      • KDIGO Does Not Recommend Initiation of Statin Treatment in Dialysis Patients
      • The 4D Study (Die Deutsche Diabetes Dialyse Studie)
      • Aurora Study
      • Sharp (Study of Heart and Renal Protection)
      • Results from Trials in the General Population
      • Conclusion
      • References
    • Chapter 59. Nephrolithiasis and Chronic Kidney Disease
      • Introduction
      • Types of Stones
      • Clinical Presentation
      • Differential Diagnosis
      • Diagnosis
      • Nephrolithiasis and CKD
      • Management
      • General Measures to Prevent Stone Recurrence
      • Treatment of Specific Stone Types
      • Conclusion
      • References
    • Chapter 60. Treatment of Psychiatric Disorders in Chronic Kidney Disease Patients
      • Scope of the Problem
      • Diagnosis
      • Treatment
      • Prescribing Medications to the Elderly
      • Prescribing Medications to Adults
      • Prescribing Medications to Children with CKD
      • Summary
      • Acknowledgments
      • References
    • Chapter 61. Evaluation of Patients’ Chronic Kidney Disease for Kidney Transplantation
      • Introduction
      • Cardiovascular Disease
      • Malignancy
      • Infections
      • Recurrent Kidney Disease
      • Renal-Limited Disease Recurrence
      • Systemic Disease Recurrences
      • Primary Oxalosis
      • Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome/Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura
      • Genitourinary Disease
      • Gastrointestinal Disease
      • Pulmonary Disease
      • Psychosocial Evaluation
      • Immunological Evaluation
      • Obesity
      • Conclusion
      • References
    • Chapter 62. Planning for Hemodialysis
      • Patient Education
      • Cardiovascular Risk Factor Management
      • Anemia Management
      • Vascular Access Management
      • Timing of the Initiation of Hemodialysis
      • Conclusion
      • References
    • Chapter 63. Preparing for Peritoneal Dialysis
      • Introduction
      • Characteristics of Dialysis Program
      • Characteristics of the Dialysis Patient
      • Timing of Catheter Placement and Patient Follow-Up
      • Conclusion
      • References
    • Chapter 64. Emerging Therapies for Chronic Kidney Disease
      • Scope of the Problem
      • Preventing the Progression of CKD
      • Prolyl Hydroxylase Domain Inhibitors as Oral Erythropoiesis-Stimulating Agents and Potential Inhibitors of Renal Fibrosis
      • Vascular Calcification in CKD
      • Renal Denervation Therapies for Hypertension
      • Novel Paradigms for Dialysis Vascular Access
      • Combining Biology, Technology and Process of Care
      • Acknowledgments
      • Disclosures
      • References
  • Part IX: Special Considerations
    • Chapter 65. Prenatal Origins of Chronic Kidney Disease
      • Introduction
      • Developmental Origins of Health and Disease: General Overview
      • Maternal–Fetal Undernutrition and Risk of CKD
      • Maternal–Fetal Energy Excess and Risk of CKD
      • Maternal–Fetal Psychosocial Stress and risk of CKD
      • The Kidney as Secondary Downstream Target of Concurrently Programmed Cardiometabolic Diseases
      • Clinical Implications, Challenges, and Opportunities for Nephrologists
      • Conclusions
      • References
    • Chapter 66. Pregnancy and Chronic Kidney Disease
      • Physiologic Changes of Pregnancy
      • Renal and Pregnancy Outcomes in CKD
      • Evaluation of Renal Function and Proteinuria in Pregnancy
      • Management of CKD Complications in Pregnancy
      • Superimposed Pre-Eclampsia
      • Specific Renal Diseases
      • Conclusion
      • References
    • Chapter 67. Chronic Kidney Disease in Children
      • CKD in Children
      • History of CKD in Children
      • Epidemiology of CKD in Children
      • Diagnosis of CKD in Children
      • Progression of pediatric CKD and Treatment Strategies to Slow Progression
      • Treatment of CKD Co-Morbidities
      • Timing and Indications for Renal Replacement Therapy
      • Conclusion
      • References
    • Chapter 68. Reflux Nephropathy
      • Introduction
      • Incidence and Prevalence
      • Pathogenesis
      • Risk Factors for Reflux Nephropathy
      • Complications
      • Prevention of Reflux Nephropathy
      • Summary
      • References
    • Chapter 69. Ethnicity and Chronic Kidney Disease in Disadvantaged Populations – An International Perspective
      • Background
      • Pre-Dialysis CKD
      • ESRD
      • Access to Renal Care
      • Relation Between Ethnicity and CKD Risk
      • Conclusions
      • References
    • Chapter 70. Chronic Kidney Disease in the Elderly – Who Has it? Who Does One Treat and How are They to be Treated?
      • Introduction
      • Epidemiology and Public Health Implications
      • Kidney Senescence
      • Diagnosis
      • Renal Replacement Therapy vs. Conservative Management
      • Functional Status and Frailty
      • Palliative or Conservative Care and Symptom Burden
      • Advance Care Planning and Illness Trajectory
      • Hospice and CKD
      • Issues in Modality in Elderly Patients Choosing Renal Replacement Therapy
      • End-of-Life Care in CKD
      • Summary and Conclusions
      • References
    • Chapter 71. Pain and Chronic Kidney Disease
      • Introduction
      • Epidemiology
      • Screening for and Diagnosis of Pain in CKD
      • Management of Pain in CKD Patients
      • Conclusion
      • References
    • Chapter 72. Acute Kidney Injury and Chronic Kidney Disease: A Janus-faced Syndrome
      • Introduction
      • AKI Leads to CKD
      • AKI as a Synergistic Complication of Progression of CKD
      • Mechanisms Associated with Progressive Renal Injury
      • Clinical Considerations
      • Future Directions
      • Conclusions
      • References
    • Chapter 73. The Perioperative Management of the Chronic Kidney Disease Patient
      • Introduction
      • Epidemiology and Risk Assessment
      • Preoperative Assessment
      • Anesthesia, Analgesia and Neuromuscular Blocking Agents
      • Postoperative Management
      • Conclusion
      • References
    • Chapter 74. Ethical Issues in Chronic Kidney Disease
      • Illustrative Case
      • Informed Consent for Treatment of CKD
      • Shared Decision-Making in the Process of Advance Care Planning
      • Completion of Advance Directives and Medical Order Forms to Implement Advance Care Planning Decisions
      • The “Biomedicalization” of Aging and Consequences for Dialysis Decision-Making in Elderly Stage 5 CKD Patients
      • Conflicts of Interest in the Treatment of CKD
      • The Ethical Imperative for Careful Management of CKD Patients
      • References
    • Chapter 75. Imaging the Chronic Kidney Disease Patient: Clinical Approaches, Utility and Complications
      • Introduction
      • Utility of Imaging Modalities
      • Imaging CKD Complications
      • Contrast Use in CKD
      • Conclusion
      • References
  • Index

Details

No. of pages:
930
Language:
English
Copyright:
© Academic Press 2015
Published:
Imprint:
Academic Press
eBook ISBN:
9780124116160
Hardcover ISBN:
9780124116023

About the Editor

Paul L. Kimmel

Paul L. Kimmel

Paul L Kimmel, MD, MACP was educated at Canarsie High School in Brooklyn, NY, Yale College and the New York University School

of Medicine. He completed his Internal Medicine residency at Bellevue Hospital in New York City and Nephrology fellowship at the

Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania. He was a member of the faculty at the University of Pennsylvania and the George Washington

University. From 2001 to 2006, Dr. Kimmel served as Professor and Director of the Division of Renal Diseases and Hypertension at George

Washington University. From 2006 to 2008, he was the Director of Education of the American Society of Nephrology. Dr. Kimmel currently

is Clinical Professor of Medicine at George Washington University in Washington DC. His interests include sleep disorders in patients with

kidney disease, zinc metabolism in renal diseases, HIV-associated kidney diseases, psychosocial adaptation to chronic renal disease, the

clinical genetics of common kidney disease, and the interrelationships between acute kidney injury and chronic kidney disease.

Affiliations and Expertise

Clinical Professor of Medicine, Division of Renal Diseases and Hypertension, George Washington University, Washington, DC, USA

Mark Rosenberg

Mark Rosenberg

Mark E. Rosenberg, MD attended medical school at the University of Manitoba in Winnipeg, Canada and did his internal medicine

residency and nephrology fellowship at the University of Minnesota. He served as Director of the Division of Renal Diseases and

Hypertension at the university from 2000 to 2009. From 2009 to 2012, he was the Chief of Medicine and Director of the Primary and

Specialty Medicine Service Line at the Minneapolis VA Health Care System. Dr. Rosenberg currently serves as Vice Dean for Education

and Professor of Medicine at the University of Minnesota Medical School. In this position, he is responsible for the continuum of medical

education including admissions, the four years of medical school, graduate medical education, and continuing medical education. He

served as Chair of the Postgraduate Education Committee and Education Director for Kidney Week for six years before being elected

in 2013 to the Council of the American Society of Nephrology. His interests include pathophysiology and progression of chronic kidney

disease, kidney regeneration following acute injury, models of care delivery including telehealth, and workforce issues in nephrology.

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor of Medicine, Division of Renal Diseases and Hypertension; Vice Dean for Education, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, Minnesota

Awards

BMA Medical Book Awards 2015: Highly Commended, Internal Medicine, British Medical Association

Reviews

"...comprehensive in its coverage, and is packed full of useful information. A particular strength is the accessible description of the basic science that underpins the clinical aspects of renal medicine."--British Journal of Hospital Medicine, Chronic Renal Disease

"This is a scientific textbook on clinical nephrology. The assembled authors are all leading experts hand-picked from worldwide by very human editors. The authors provided basic biological knowledge, patient-oriented pathophysiology, and clinical therapeutics for common and important renal diseases in each chapter. Overall the textbook will help any readers – from residents to faculty staff – understand the most updated information just like meeting with tremendous clinical experts."

—Yoshihiko Kanno, MD, PhD, Professor and Chairman, Department of Nephrology, Tokyo Medical University, Tokyo, Japan

"This new book succeeds, despite its anachronistic and non-conformist title, largely because of the excellence of the individual chapters. It is a sheer delight to read. The Editors have skilfully concocted a recipe containing the finest ingredients (authors) for a very palatable, digestible and ultimately satisfying feast of information on an extremely important, and often misunderstood, topic in contemporary medicine. While I cannot agree with every syllable of its prose, one cannot deny a conclusion that this book fills, to a remarkable degree, a void in the literature of medicine – a vacuum created by the 21st century transformation of

a chaotic landscape of confusing terminology and poorly understood epidemiology and pathophysiology Into a vibrant, albeit controversial, essential element in the practice of Nephrology. From the precious and elegant description of the fascinating history of chronic kidney (or renal) disease to the astounding complexity of the still unfolding story of pathobiology, this collection of essays, reviews and analyses has something for everyone who is a motivated learner. Comprehension of the detailed knowledge encompassed between its covers will give physicians the tools needed to provide superior care to patients suffering from the disorders described. Despite the seeming completeness of coverage of the generic topic, the description of

the state-of-the art clearly shows how much remains unknown and how many controversies need to be resolved, not the least of which is how best to define the disorder in a way that has direct meaning to individuals as compared to populations and to how to detect it in a way that will lead to an improvement in the health of society as a whole. One might predict with confidence that the anticipated subsequent editions of this landmark text will continue to enlighten and empower clinicians and investigators in their continued quest for victory over the causes and consequences of this broadly defined disorder. This book belongs on the shelf, close at hand, of every nephrologist. It will get a lot of use."

—Richard J. Glassock, MD, MACP, Emeritus Professor, The Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA, USA

Ratings and Reviews