Biochemistry of Platelets - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9780125532402, 9780323148979

Biochemistry of Platelets

1st Edition

Editors: David Phillips
eBook ISBN: 9780323148979
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 28th January 1986
Page Count: 476
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Biochemistry of Platelets is a comprehensive review of the biochemistry of platelets, with emphasis on the molecular basis for the various biological processes in which they participate. Topics range from stimulus-response coupling mechanisms to platelet contractile proteins, platelet membrane glycoproteins, and storage organelles in platelets and megakaryocytes. The expression and function of adhesive proteins on the platelet surface is also discussed.

Comprised of 12 chapters, this book begins with a description of the morphological and metabolic responses to agonists, as well as the involvement of certain processes in the coupling of agonist-receptor interactions to platelet responses. The following chapter deals with platelet arachidonate metabolism and platelet-activating factor, focusing on the release of arachidonate from platelet lipid stores; pathways of platelet arachidonate metabolism and effects of arachidonate metabolites; and inhibition of platelet arachidonate metabolism by aspirin. The structure, function, and modification in disease of platelet membrane glycoproteins are then discussed, along with prothrombin activation on platelets and platelet regulation of thrombus formation. Secreted platelet proteins as markers for pathological disorders are also considered.

This monograph is intended as a reference for investigators involved in platelet research as well as a source of information for those working in other areas of biological investigation.

Table of Contents



1. Stimulus-Response Coupling Mechanisms

I. Introduction

II. Experimental Strategies for Definition of Mechanisms of Stimulus-Response Coupling in Platelets

III. Possible Coupling Mechanisms

IV. Integration of Coupling Mechanisms


2. Platelet Arachidonate Metabolism and Platelet-Activating Factor

I. Introduction

II. Release of Arachidonate from Platelet Lipid Stores

III. Pathways of Platelet Arachidonate Metabolism and Effects of Arachidonate Metabolites

IV. Inhibition of Platelet Arachidonate Metabolism by Aspirin

V. Platelet-Activating Factor


3. Platelet Contractile Proteins

I. Introduction

II. Properties of Platelet Contractile Proteins

III. Methods of Studying Contractile Proteins within Platelets

IV. Contractile Proteins in Unstimulated Platelets

V. Contractile Proteins in Activated Platelets

VI. Regulation of Activation-Induced Changes in Platelet Contractile Proteins

VII. Association of Actin Filaments with Plasma Membranes

VIII. Conclusions


4. Platelet Membrane Glycoproteins: Their Structure, Function, and Modification in Disease

I. Introduction

II. Identification of Platelet Membrane Glycoproteins

III. Properties of the Major Platelet Membrane Glycoproteins

IV. Abnormalities of Membrane Glycoproteins in Inherited Platelet Disorders


5. Expression and Function of Adhesive Proteins on the Platelet Surface

I. Introduction

II. Mechanisms for Platelet Surface Expression of the Adhesive Proteins

III. Common Features of the Platelet Adhesive Proteins

IV. Fibrinogen-Platelet Interactions

V. Fibronectin-Platelet Interactions

VI. Von Willebrand Factor-Platelet Interactions

VII. Thrombospondin-Platelet Interactions

VIII. Cell Surface Expression of the Adhesive Proteins: Common Features and Interrelationships

IX. Summation


6. Storage Organelles in Platelets and Megakaryocytes

I. Introduction

II. Platelet Organelles

III. Exocytosis

IV. Platelet Granule Abnormalities


7. A Model for Assembly of Coagulation Factor Complexes on Cell Surfaces: Prothrombin Activation on Platelets

I. Introduction

II. Prothrombinase as a Model for Complex Formation in Coagulation Reactions

III. Platelet-Binding Characteristics of Prothrombinase Complex Constituents

IV. Role of Platelet Activation in Prothrombinase Complex Assembly and Function

V. Cleavage of Factor V and Factor Va by Platelet-Associated Proteases and Factor Xa

VI. Regulation of the Platelet-Bound Prothrombinase Complex

VII. Summary: Utility of Model Systems


8. Platelet Regulation of Thrombus Formation

I. Platelets and Activation of Coagulation

II. Role of Platelets in Events Following Activation of Clotting

III. Regulation of Platelet Thrombus Formation by Thrombin and the Fibrinolytic System

IV. Unresolved Issues in Platelet Involvement in Blood Clotting


9. Platelet-Derived Growth Factor: Purification, Characterization, and Role in Normal and Abnormal Cell Growth

I. Introduction

II. Location of PDGF within Platelets

III. Platelets May Contain Growth-Promoting Activity Other than PDGF

IV. Properties of Purified PDGF

V. Radioimmunoassay of PDGF

VI. Specific Covalent Binding of Human Plasma α2-Macroglobulin to Human PDGF

VII. PDGF Binds Specifically to the Surface of Target Cells

VIII. PDGF Stimulates Tyrosine-Specific Protein Kinase Activity in Target Cells

IX. Purification of the PDGF Receptor

X. Common Kinase Substrates in Growth Factor-Stimulated and Tumor Virus-Transformed Cells

XI. PDGF in Inflammatory and Repair Processes

XII. PDGF and Atherosclerosis

XIII. PDGF Effects on the Cell Cycle

XIV. Relationship of PDGF to the Transforming Protein of the Simian Sarcoma Virus

XV. Other Activities of PDGF

XVI. Conclusions


10. Secreted Platelet Proteins as Markers for Pathological Disorders

I. Introduction

II. Biochemical Characteristics of Platelet Factor 4 and β-Thromboglobulin

III. Biologic Activities of Platelet Factor 4 and β-Thromboglobulin

IV. Radioimmunoassay Measurement of Platelet Factor 4 and β-Thromboglobulin During in Vitro Secretion

V. Measurement of Plasma Concentrations of Platelet Factor 4 and β-Thromboglobulin to Assess in Vivo Platelet Activation and Secretion

VI. Platelet Activation and Secretion in Patients with Cardiac Disease

VII. Assessment of Platelet Activation and Secretion in Other Types of Vascular Disease

VIII. Miscellaneous Clinical Studies


11. Megakaryocyte Biochemistry

I. Introduction

II. Stem Cell Differentiation into Platelets

III. Isolation and Culture of Megakaryocytes

IV. Biochemical Analyses

V. Other Plateletlike Reactions in Megakaryocytes

VI. Summary


12. Future Directions in Platelet Research

I. Platelet Activation

II. Platelet Aggregation

III. Platelet Adhesion

IV. Physiological Consequences of Platelet Activation

V. Platelet Function in Clot Formation

VI. Synthesis of Platelet Proteins and the Development of Platelet Structure

VII. Diseases Involving Platelets

VIII. Summary



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© Academic Press 1986
Academic Press
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About the Editor

David Phillips

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