Biochemistry of Platelets

Biochemistry of Platelets

1st Edition - January 28, 1986

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  • Editor: David Phillips
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323148979

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Biochemistry of Platelets is a comprehensive review of the biochemistry of platelets, with emphasis on the molecular basis for the various biological processes in which they participate. Topics range from stimulus-response coupling mechanisms to platelet contractile proteins, platelet membrane glycoproteins, and storage organelles in platelets and megakaryocytes. The expression and function of adhesive proteins on the platelet surface is also discussed. Comprised of 12 chapters, this book begins with a description of the morphological and metabolic responses to agonists, as well as the involvement of certain processes in the coupling of agonist-receptor interactions to platelet responses. The following chapter deals with platelet arachidonate metabolism and platelet-activating factor, focusing on the release of arachidonate from platelet lipid stores; pathways of platelet arachidonate metabolism and effects of arachidonate metabolites; and inhibition of platelet arachidonate metabolism by aspirin. The structure, function, and modification in disease of platelet membrane glycoproteins are then discussed, along with prothrombin activation on platelets and platelet regulation of thrombus formation. Secreted platelet proteins as markers for pathological disorders are also considered. This monograph is intended as a reference for investigators involved in platelet research as well as a source of information for those working in other areas of biological investigation.

Table of Contents

  • Contributors


    1. Stimulus-Response Coupling Mechanisms

    I. Introduction

    II. Experimental Strategies for Definition of Mechanisms of Stimulus-Response Coupling in Platelets

    III. Possible Coupling Mechanisms

    IV. Integration of Coupling Mechanisms


    2. Platelet Arachidonate Metabolism and Platelet-Activating Factor

    I. Introduction

    II. Release of Arachidonate from Platelet Lipid Stores

    III. Pathways of Platelet Arachidonate Metabolism and Effects of Arachidonate Metabolites

    IV. Inhibition of Platelet Arachidonate Metabolism by Aspirin

    V. Platelet-Activating Factor


    3. Platelet Contractile Proteins

    I. Introduction

    II. Properties of Platelet Contractile Proteins

    III. Methods of Studying Contractile Proteins within Platelets

    IV. Contractile Proteins in Unstimulated Platelets

    V. Contractile Proteins in Activated Platelets

    VI. Regulation of Activation-Induced Changes in Platelet Contractile Proteins

    VII. Association of Actin Filaments with Plasma Membranes

    VIII. Conclusions


    4. Platelet Membrane Glycoproteins: Their Structure, Function, and Modification in Disease

    I. Introduction

    II. Identification of Platelet Membrane Glycoproteins

    III. Properties of the Major Platelet Membrane Glycoproteins

    IV. Abnormalities of Membrane Glycoproteins in Inherited Platelet Disorders


    5. Expression and Function of Adhesive Proteins on the Platelet Surface

    I. Introduction

    II. Mechanisms for Platelet Surface Expression of the Adhesive Proteins

    III. Common Features of the Platelet Adhesive Proteins

    IV. Fibrinogen-Platelet Interactions

    V. Fibronectin-Platelet Interactions

    VI. Von Willebrand Factor-Platelet Interactions

    VII. Thrombospondin-Platelet Interactions

    VIII. Cell Surface Expression of the Adhesive Proteins: Common Features and Interrelationships

    IX. Summation


    6. Storage Organelles in Platelets and Megakaryocytes

    I. Introduction

    II. Platelet Organelles

    III. Exocytosis

    IV. Platelet Granule Abnormalities


    7. A Model for Assembly of Coagulation Factor Complexes on Cell Surfaces: Prothrombin Activation on Platelets

    I. Introduction

    II. Prothrombinase as a Model for Complex Formation in Coagulation Reactions

    III. Platelet-Binding Characteristics of Prothrombinase Complex Constituents

    IV. Role of Platelet Activation in Prothrombinase Complex Assembly and Function

    V. Cleavage of Factor V and Factor Va by Platelet-Associated Proteases and Factor Xa

    VI. Regulation of the Platelet-Bound Prothrombinase Complex

    VII. Summary: Utility of Model Systems


    8. Platelet Regulation of Thrombus Formation

    I. Platelets and Activation of Coagulation

    II. Role of Platelets in Events Following Activation of Clotting

    III. Regulation of Platelet Thrombus Formation by Thrombin and the Fibrinolytic System

    IV. Unresolved Issues in Platelet Involvement in Blood Clotting


    9. Platelet-Derived Growth Factor: Purification, Characterization, and Role in Normal and Abnormal Cell Growth

    I. Introduction

    II. Location of PDGF within Platelets

    III. Platelets May Contain Growth-Promoting Activity Other than PDGF

    IV. Properties of Purified PDGF

    V. Radioimmunoassay of PDGF

    VI. Specific Covalent Binding of Human Plasma α2-Macroglobulin to Human PDGF

    VII. PDGF Binds Specifically to the Surface of Target Cells

    VIII. PDGF Stimulates Tyrosine-Specific Protein Kinase Activity in Target Cells

    IX. Purification of the PDGF Receptor

    X. Common Kinase Substrates in Growth Factor-Stimulated and Tumor Virus-Transformed Cells

    XI. PDGF in Inflammatory and Repair Processes

    XII. PDGF and Atherosclerosis

    XIII. PDGF Effects on the Cell Cycle

    XIV. Relationship of PDGF to the Transforming Protein of the Simian Sarcoma Virus

    XV. Other Activities of PDGF

    XVI. Conclusions


    10. Secreted Platelet Proteins as Markers for Pathological Disorders

    I. Introduction

    II. Biochemical Characteristics of Platelet Factor 4 and β-Thromboglobulin

    III. Biologic Activities of Platelet Factor 4 and β-Thromboglobulin

    IV. Radioimmunoassay Measurement of Platelet Factor 4 and β-Thromboglobulin During in Vitro Secretion

    V. Measurement of Plasma Concentrations of Platelet Factor 4 and β-Thromboglobulin to Assess in Vivo Platelet Activation and Secretion

    VI. Platelet Activation and Secretion in Patients with Cardiac Disease

    VII. Assessment of Platelet Activation and Secretion in Other Types of Vascular Disease

    VIII. Miscellaneous Clinical Studies


    11. Megakaryocyte Biochemistry

    I. Introduction

    II. Stem Cell Differentiation into Platelets

    III. Isolation and Culture of Megakaryocytes

    IV. Biochemical Analyses

    V. Other Plateletlike Reactions in Megakaryocytes

    VI. Summary


    12. Future Directions in Platelet Research

    I. Platelet Activation

    II. Platelet Aggregation

    III. Platelet Adhesion

    IV. Physiological Consequences of Platelet Activation

    V. Platelet Function in Clot Formation

    VI. Synthesis of Platelet Proteins and the Development of Platelet Structure

    VII. Diseases Involving Platelets

    VIII. Summary


Product details

  • No. of pages: 476
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 1986
  • Published: January 28, 1986
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780323148979

About the Editor

David Phillips

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