Animal Electroencephalography

Animal Electroencephalography

1st Edition - January 1, 1969

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  • Author: W. R. Klemm
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483267555

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Animal Electroencephalography focuses on the use of electroencephalography (EEG) in studying brain electric activity. The manuscript first underscores the physiologic bases of EEG and the characteristics and usage of electrodes. Discussions focus on basic elements of nerve cell function, general nature of EEG, implantation of intracerebral electrodes, and affixing surface electrodes. The text then examines noise or artifact, electronic recording systems, and interpretation and analysis of EEG. Electronic principles of special relevance, electrode configurations, and electroencephalographs are discussed. The book takes a look at EEG correlates of physiologic and pathologic changes, as well as maturation of EEG, behavioral correlates, and internal influences. Experimentally produced brain diseases and naturally occurring brain diseases are also elaborated. The manuscript is a valuable reference for readers interested in electroencephalography.

Table of Contents

  • Contents


    1. Physiologic Bases of the EEG

    I. Basic Elements of Nerve Cell Function

    A. Resting Potentials — Active Ion Transport

    B. Action Potentials

    C. Postsynaptic Potentials-EPSPs, IPSPs

    D. Chemical Transmitters — Receptors

    II. General Nature of the EEG

    A. Cortex Structure

    B. EEG Voltage-Time Relations

    C. Compounding of Different Frequencies

    III. Summation of Single-Cell Potentials

    A. Neuronal Potentials

    B. Glial Potentials

    IV. Conclusions


    2. Electrodes, Characteristics and Usage

    I. Electrode Characteristics

    A. Physical Chemistry of Electrodes

    B. Nonpolarizable Electrodes

    C. Performance of Various Metals

    II. Affixing Surface Electrodes

    A. Scalp Electrodes and Their Application

    B. Skull Electrodes and Surgical Procedures

    III. Implantation of Intracerebral Electrodes

    A. Construction of Macro- and Microelectrodes

    B. Surgery and Use of the Stereotaxic Atlas

    C. Affixing Electrodes to Connectors

    D. Localization of Implants


    3. Noise or Artifact

    I. General Considerations

    II. Source Noise

    III. Instrument Noise

    IV. Electrostatic-Electromagnetic Interference

    V. Physiologic Artifacts

    A. Skin Potentials

    B. Electrocardiographic (EKG) Signals

    C. Muscle Potentials

    D. The EEG Itself

    VI. Motion Artifacts

    A. Respiration

    B. Ballistocardiographic Motion

    C. Eye Movements

    D. General Movements


    4. Electronic Recording Systems

    I. Electronic Principles of Special Relevance

    A. Cathode (Emitter) Followers

    B. Negative Capacitance Electrometers

    C. Amplifiers

    D. Differential Amplification

    E. Galvanometer Principles

    F. Oscilloscope Monitoring

    II. Electroencephalographs

    A. Specifications and Commercially Available Recorders


    5. Interpretation and Analysis of the EEG

    I. Electrode Configurations

    A. Bipolar

    B. Recording with a Reference Electrode (Monopolar)

    C. Standardized Electrode Arrangements

    II. Frequency-Amplitude-Phase Characteristics

    A. Bipolar

    B. Records from Reference Recording

    III. Data Analyses

    A. Visual Observations

    B. Electronic Analyses


    6. EEG Correlates of Physiologic Changes

    I. Maturation of the EEG

    II. Behavioral Correlates

    A. Alert Wakefulness

    B. Conditioned Learning

    C. Sedation and Sleep

    III. Internal Influences

    A. Oxygen-Carbon Dioxide

    B. Temperature

    C. Cations

    D. Glucose

    E. Hormones

    F. Pharmacologie Effects


    7. EEG Correlates of Pathologic Changes

    I. "Epilepsy"

    II. Experimentally Produced Brain Disease

    A. Chemically Induced Abnormalities

    B. Electrically Induced Abnormalities

    C. Surgically Induced Abnormalities

    D. Effects on Individual Neuron Functions

    III. Naturally Occurring Brain Disease

    A. EEG Signs of Lesions

    B. Localization of Lesions

    C. EEG as a Basis for Diagnosis and Prognosis

    D. EEG Correlates of Specific Diseases


    Appendix A. Proposal for an EEG Terminology by the Terminology Committee of the International Federation for Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology



    Appendix B. Sources of Current Information on Electronic Equipment

    General Electronic Products

    Bio-Medical Electronic Products

    Appendix C. Recommended General Reference Books

    Author Index

    Subject Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 304
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 1969
  • Published: January 1, 1969
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9781483267555

About the Author

W. R. Klemm

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