Animal Electroencephalography - 1st Edition - ISBN: 9781483231303, 9781483267555

Animal Electroencephalography

1st Edition

Authors: W. R. Klemm
eBook ISBN: 9781483267555
Imprint: Academic Press
Published Date: 1st January 1969
Page Count: 304
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Animal Electroencephalography focuses on the use of electroencephalography (EEG) in studying brain electric activity.
The manuscript first underscores the physiologic bases of EEG and the characteristics and usage of electrodes. Discussions focus on basic elements of nerve cell function, general nature of EEG, implantation of intracerebral electrodes, and affixing surface electrodes. The text then examines noise or artifact, electronic recording systems, and interpretation and analysis of EEG. Electronic principles of special relevance, electrode configurations, and electroencephalographs are discussed. The book takes a look at EEG correlates of physiologic and pathologic changes, as well as maturation of EEG, behavioral correlates, and internal influences. Experimentally produced brain diseases and naturally occurring brain diseases are also elaborated.
The manuscript is a valuable reference for readers interested in electroencephalography.

Table of Contents



1. Physiologic Bases of the EEG

I. Basic Elements of Nerve Cell Function

A. Resting Potentials — Active Ion Transport

B. Action Potentials

C. Postsynaptic Potentials-EPSPs, IPSPs

D. Chemical Transmitters — Receptors

II. General Nature of the EEG

A. Cortex Structure

B. EEG Voltage-Time Relations

C. Compounding of Different Frequencies

III. Summation of Single-Cell Potentials

A. Neuronal Potentials

B. Glial Potentials

IV. Conclusions


2. Electrodes, Characteristics and Usage

I. Electrode Characteristics

A. Physical Chemistry of Electrodes

B. Nonpolarizable Electrodes

C. Performance of Various Metals

II. Affixing Surface Electrodes

A. Scalp Electrodes and Their Application

B. Skull Electrodes and Surgical Procedures

III. Implantation of Intracerebral Electrodes

A. Construction of Macro- and Microelectrodes

B. Surgery and Use of the Stereotaxic Atlas

C. Affixing Electrodes to Connectors

D. Localization of Implants


3. Noise or Artifact

I. General Considerations

II. Source Noise

III. Instrument Noise

IV. Electrostatic-Electromagnetic Interference

V. Physiologic Artifacts

A. Skin Potentials

B. Electrocardiographic (EKG) Signals

C. Muscle Potentials

D. The EEG Itself

VI. Motion Artifacts

A. Respiration

B. Ballistocardiographic Motion

C. Eye Movements

D. General Movements


4. Electronic Recording Systems

I. Electronic Principles of Special Relevance

A. Cathode (Emitter) Followers

B. Negative Capacitance Electrometers

C. Amplifiers

D. Differential Amplification

E. Galvanometer Principles

F. Oscilloscope Monitoring

II. Electroencephalographs

A. Specifications and Commercially Available Recorders


5. Interpretation and Analysis of the EEG

I. Electrode Configurations

A. Bipolar

B. Recording with a Reference Electrode (Monopolar)

C. Standardized Electrode Arrangements

II. Frequency-Amplitude-Phase Characteristics

A. Bipolar

B. Records from Reference Recording

III. Data Analyses

A. Visual Observations

B. Electronic Analyses


6. EEG Correlates of Physiologic Changes

I. Maturation of the EEG

II. Behavioral Correlates

A. Alert Wakefulness

B. Conditioned Learning

C. Sedation and Sleep

III. Internal Influences

A. Oxygen-Carbon Dioxide

B. Temperature

C. Cations

D. Glucose

E. Hormones

F. Pharmacologie Effects


7. EEG Correlates of Pathologic Changes

I. "Epilepsy"

II. Experimentally Produced Brain Disease

A. Chemically Induced Abnormalities

B. Electrically Induced Abnormalities

C. Surgically Induced Abnormalities

D. Effects on Individual Neuron Functions

III. Naturally Occurring Brain Disease

A. EEG Signs of Lesions

B. Localization of Lesions

C. EEG as a Basis for Diagnosis and Prognosis

D. EEG Correlates of Specific Diseases


Appendix A. Proposal for an EEG Terminology by the Terminology Committee of the International Federation for Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology



Appendix B. Sources of Current Information on Electronic Equipment

General Electronic Products

Bio-Medical Electronic Products

Appendix C. Recommended General Reference Books

Author Index

Subject Index


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© Academic Press 1969
Academic Press
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About the Author

W. R. Klemm

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