Description

Analytical pyrolysis is one of the many tools utilized for the study of natural organic polymers. This books describes in three parts the methodology of analytical pyrolysis, the results of pyrolysis for a variety of biopolymers, and several practical applications of analytical pyrolysis on natural organic polymers and their composite materials. Analytical pyrolysis methodology covers two distinct subjects, the instrumentation used for pyrolysis and the analytical methods that are applied for the analysis of the pyrolysis products. A variety of pyrolytic techniques and of analytical instruments commonly coupled with pyrolysis devices are given.

The description of the results of pyrolysis for biopolymers and some chemically modified natural organic polymers is the core of the book. The main pyrolysis products of numerous compounds as well as the proposed mechanisms for their pyrolysis are described. In this part an attempt is made to present as much as possible the chemistry of the pyrolytic process of natural organic polymers.

The applications of analytical pyrolysis include topics such as polymer detection used for example in forensic science, structure elucidation of specific polymers, and identification of small molecules present in polymers (anti-oxidants, plasticizers, etc.). Also, the degradation during heating is a subject of major interest in many practical applications regarding the physical properties of polymers. The applications to composite polymeric materials are in the fields of classification of microorganisms, study of a variety of biological samples, study of fossil materials, etc. Analytical pyrolysis can also be used for obtaining information on the burning area generate pyrolysates that have complex compositions. Their analysis is important in connection with health issues, environmental problems, and taste of food and cigarettes.

Features of this book:

• Presents analytical pyrolysis as a uniform subject and not as

Table of Contents

Part 1: An Introduction to Analytical Pyrolysis. 1. Introduction and Nomenclature. Pyrolysis as a chemical process. The scope of analytical pyrolysis. Analytical pyrolysis applied to natural organic polymers. 2. The Chemistry of the Pyrolytic Process. General remarks. Elimination reactions in pyrolysis. Rearrangements taking place in pyrolysis. Oxidations and reductions taking place in pyrolysis. Substitutions and additions taking place in pyrolysis. Typical polymer degradations during pyrolysis. Pyrolysis in the presence of additional reactants or with catalysts. 3. Physico-Chemical Aspects of the Pyrolytic Process. Thermodynamic factors in pyrolytic chemical reactions. Kinetic factors in pyrolytic chemical reactions. Models attempting to describe the kinetics of the pyrolytic processes of solid samples. Pyrolysis kinetics for uniform repetitive polymers. Pyrolytic processes compared with combustion. Pyrolysis process compared to ion fragmentation in mass spectrometry. Theoretical approaches for chemical pyrolytic reactions. 4. Instrumentation Used for Pyrolysis. The temperature control of the pyrolytic process. Curie point pyrolysers. Resistively heated filament pyrolysers. Furnace pyrolysers. Radiative heating (laser) pyrolysers. Other pyrolyser types. Comparison of analytical performances of different pyrolyser types. 5. Analytical Techniques Used with Pyrolysis. The selection of the analytical techniques and the transfer of the pyrolysate to the analytical instrument. Pyrolysis-gas chromatography (Py-GC). Mass spectrometers as detectors in pyrolysis-gas chromatography. Pyrolysis-mass spectrometric (Py-MS) techniques. Data interpretation in pyrolysis - mass spectrometry (Py-MS). Infrared spectroscopy (IR) used as a detecting technique for pyrolysis. Other analytical techniques in pyrolysis. Part 2: Analytical Pyrolysis of Organic Biopolymers. 6. Analytical pyrolysis of p

Details

No. of pages:
510
Language:
English
Copyright:
© 1998
Published:
Imprint:
Elsevier Science
Electronic ISBN:
9780080527161
Print ISBN:
9780444822031
Print ISBN:
9780444551078

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