Women and Health

Women and Health

2nd Edition - December 17, 2012

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  • Editors: Marlene Goldman, Rebecca Troisi, Kathryn Rexrode
  • eBook ISBN: 9780123849793

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Description

Women and Health is a comprehensive reference that addresses health issues affecting women of all ages — from adolescence through maturity. It goes far beyond other books on this topic, which concentrate only on reproductive health, and has a truly international perspective. It covers key issues ranging from osteoporosis to breast cancer and other cancers, domestic violence, sexually transmitted diseases, occupational hazards, eating disorders, heart disease and other chronic illnesses, substance abuse, and societal and behavioral influences on health. In this second edition of Women and Health, chapters thoughtfully explore the current state of women’s health and health care, including the influences of sex and gender on the occurrence of a wide variety of diseases and conditions. All chapters have been extensively updated and emphasize the epidemiology of the condition — the etiology, occurrence, primary and secondary prevention (screening), risk factors, surveillance, changing trends over time, and critical analysis of the diagnostic and treatment options and controversies. Treatment sections in each chapter have been expanded to create a stronger dialogue between epidemiologists and women's health practitioners.

Key Features

  • Saves researchers and clinicians time in quickly accessing the very latest details on a broad range of women’s health issues, as opposed to searching through thousands of journal articles
  • Provides a common language for epidemiologists, public health practitioners, and women’s health specialists to discuss the behavioral, cultural, and biological determinants of women’s health
  • Researchers and medical specialists will learn how the gender-specific risks and features of one organ system’s diseases affect the health of other organ systems
    • For example: Hormone replacement therapy used to treat imbalance within the endocrine system is also being used to prevent and treat cardiovascular disease; Drugs developed for type 2 diabetes are now being used in chemoprevention
  • Orients the non-gerontologist about the importance of considering the entire life cycle of women within research designs and treatment plans
  • Professors teaching courses in women’s health will use slides and additional materials to structure lectures/courses; students will use slides as a unique resource to study for exams

Readership

Professionals and graduate students in epidemiology and public health; fellows, internists, physicians in public health, general practice, family medicine, gerontology, and those specializing in women's health.

Table of Contents

  • Dedication

    Preface to the Second Edition

    Preface to the First Edition

    List of Contributors

    Introduction

    20th Century Achievements

    21st Century Challenges

    In Closing

    Part I: Women, Health, and Medicine

    Section 1: Introduction to Women’s Health

    Chapter 1. Women’s Health in the 21st Century

    Why Women’s Health?

    The Second Edition

    An Overview of the Health of Women

    Future Directions in the Study of Women’s Health

    References

    Chapter 2. The Mutability of Women’s Health with Age: The Sometimes Rapid, and Often Enduring, Health Consequences of Injustice

    Sex, Gender and Survival

    Age, Health and Weathering

    Stress Physiology and Aging

    Global Application of Weathering

    References

    Chapter 3. Current Approaches to Women’s Health Care

    Women’s Health through a Health Services Lens

    Changes in the Paradigm of Women’s Health

    Women’s Interactions with the Health Care System

    New Models for Women’s Health Services and Research

    Future Considerations and Challenges

    Women Become Active Stakeholders in their Care

    Acknowledgment

    References

    Chapter 4. The Impact of Health Coverage on Women’s Access to Care in the US

    Introduction

    Health Coverage for Women Today

    Insurance Regulations Affecting Services of Importance to Women

    How Coverage Affects Use of Health Care Services

    Costs and Other Barriers to Care

    Coverage Concerns for Older Women

    Health Reform and Women’s Coverage

    Conclusion

    References

    Chapter 5. Complementary, Alternative, and Integrative Medicine and Women’s Health

    Introduction/Background

    CAM Modalities in Women

    Clinical Conditions Difficult to Manage Solely with Conventional Medicine

    Epidemiologic Issues, Including Research Methodology and Public Health Impact

    Summary and Conclusions/Future Directions

    References

    Chapter 6. Research on the Health of Sexual Minority Women

    Importance of Studying the Health of Sexual Minority Women

    Who are Sexual Minority Women?

    History of Research on the Health of Sexual Minority Women

    Specific Health Concerns for Sexual Minority Women

    Barriers and Facilitators to Health Care Access

    Future of Research on Sexual Minority Health

    References

    Section 2: Research Methods in Women’s Health

    Chapter 7. Understanding Research Designs

    Introduction

    Terminology

    The Randomized Trial Design

    The Cohort Design

    The Case-Control Design

    The Cross-Sectional Design

    Case Reports and Case Series

    The Ecological Design

    Sources of Error in Epidemiologic Studies

    Conclusion

    References

    Chapter 8. Progress in Women’s Health Research

    Introduction

    Gender Disparity in Health Research

    Intervention Studies

    Observational Studies

    Remedying the Disparity: Advocacy, Seminal Studies, NIH Response

    Women’s Health Movement

    Seminal Studies Restricted to Women

    Office of Research on Women’s Health

    Inclusion of Women in Clinical Trials

    Increase in Number of Women Researchers

    Lessons Learned and Future Challenges

    Research Agenda

    Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 9. Life Course Approach to Research in Women’s Health

    Introduction

    Life Course Epidemiology

    Life Course Theory and Models

    Life Course Influences on Health

    Life Course Reproductive Characteristics and Health

    Life Course Methodology and Study Design

    Prevention and Policy

    References

    Chapter 10. Principles of Genetics and Genomics

    Introduction

    Understanding the Human Genome

    The Genetic Contribution to Disease

    Other ‘Omics’ Initiatives

    Clinical and Public Health Implications

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Part II: Sexual and Reproductive Health

    Section 3: Introduction: Sexual and Reproductive Health

    Section 3. Introduction: Sexual and Reproductive Health

    Chapter 11. Puberty and Adolescent Pregnancy

    Hormonal Regulation of Growth at Adolescence

    Biological Maturation and Maturity Indicators

    Adolescent Changes in Linear Growth and Body Composition

    Characteristics Influencing Adolescent Growth and Maturation

    Factors Influencing Secular Change in Growth and Maturation

    Short Term Consequences of Early Maturation

    Long Term Consequences of Early Maturation

    References

    Chapter 12. Menstruation and Menstrual Disorders: The Epidemiology of Menstruation and Menstrual Dysfunction

    Introduction

    Normal Variation in Menstrual Cycles Across the Lifespan

    Menstrual Disorders

    Regional, Ethnic, and Socioeconomic Differences in Menstrual Cycle Characteristics

    Risk Factors Related to Menstrual Cycle Characteristics

    Epidemiologic Issues in the Study of Menstrual Function

    Summary, Conclusions, and Future Directions

    References

    Chapter 13. Premenstrual Syndrome

    Definition and Diagnosis

    Incidence, Prevalence, and Burden of PMS

    Pathophysiology

    Risk Factors

    Treatments

    Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 14. Women’s Fecundability and Factors Affecting It

    Introduction

    Background and Terminology

    Estimates of Fecundability

    Factors Affecting Fecundability

    Methodological Issues

    Future Directions

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Chapter 15. Contraception

    Contraceptive Use in the United States

    Contraceptive Cost

    Contraceptive Use: Medical Eligibility Guidelines

    Contraceptive Methods

    References

    Chapter 16. Induced Abortion

    Introduction: History, Background, Definitions, Chapter Objectives

    Abortion Procedures

    Ascertainment of Induced Abortion

    Induced Abortion in the US

    Complications of Abortion – Mortality and Morbidity

    Global Abortion

    Public Health Impact of Induced Abortion – US and Worldwide

    Summary and Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 17. Infertility

    Definition of Infertility

    Historical Evolution and Trends

    Prevalence of Infertility

    Access to and Use of Medical Services

    Clinical Presentation

    Risk Factors

    Clinical Issues

    Epidemiological Methods

    Conclusions and Future Directions

    References

    Chapter 18. Endometriosis

    Description of Endometriosis and Its Impact

    Disease Ascertainment and Methods Issues

    Frequency of Endometriosis Occurrence

    Theories of Endometriosis Pathogenesis

    Risk Factors for Endometriosis

    Genetic Markers of Susceptibility

    Endometriosis Treatment

    Summary, Conclusions, and Future Directions

    References

    Chapter 19. Uterine Leiomyomata

    Introduction

    Anatomic, Histopathological, and Molecular Characteristics

    Issues in the Design of Epidemiological Studies

    Frequency of Occurrence and Demographic Patterns

    Etiological Hypotheses and Risk Factors

    Clinical Epidemiology

    Summary and Directions for Future Research

    Acknowledgment

    References

    Chapter 20. Assisted Reproductive Technologies

    Introduction

    The Epidemiology of Infertility

    Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ART)

    General Steps Involved with Assisted Reproductive Technologies

    Indications for Assisted Reproductive Technologies

    Patient Selection for ART

    Defining Success in ART

    Predicting Success with ART: Is it Possible?

    Complications of ART

    Conclusions and Future Directions

    References

    Chapter 21. Pregnancy Complications and Future Maternal Health

    Introduction

    Cardiometabolic Changes in Pregnancy

    Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

    Pre-eclampsia

    Opportunities for Intervention and Prevention

    Conclusion

    References

    Chapter 22. Labor and Delivery

    Introduction

    Topics in Labor and Delivery

    Effecting Change in Clinical Practice and in the Organization of Health Services

    Conclusion

    References

    Chapter 23. Female Sexuality and Sexual Function

    Introduction

    Sexuality Throughout the Life Course

    The Interactive Biopsychosocial Model of Sexuality and Health

    Normal Sexual Function and Response

    Female Sexual Dysfunction

    Cancer and Sexuality

    Instruments to Measure Sexual Function

    Conclusion

    References

    Chapter 24. Vulvodynia

    Introduction

    Definition

    Historical Evolution

    Distribution in Women

    Etiology

    Clinical Issues

    Public Health Importance and Future Directions

    References

    Chapter 25. Menopause: Its Epidemiology

    Introduction

    Definition of the Menopause

    Hormonal Events and the Menopausal Transition

    Age and Duration of the Menopausal Transition

    ‘Symptomatology’ of the Menopause

    Is the Menopausal Transition a Keystone in Subsequent Chronic Disease?

    Theories and Conceptual Models of Menopause

    Summary

    References

    Chapter 26. Overview of Pelvic Floor Disorders: Epidemiology, Diagnosis, and Treatment

    Introduction

    Pelvic Organ Prolapse

    Bladder Dysfunction

    Bowel Dysfunction

    Sexual Dysfunction

    Methodology for Study

    Summary and Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 27. Hysterectomy

    Introduction

    Definition and History

    Epidemiology

    Factors Associated with Hysterectomy

    Indications for Hysterectomy

    Types and Surgical Routes of Hysterectomy

    Prophylactic Bilateral Oophorectomy

    Patient-Centered Outcomes

    Length of Stay

    Cost of Hysterectomy

    Alternatives to Hysterectomy

    Implications for Practice

    Implications for Research

    References

    Section 4: Introduction: Sexually Transmitted Infections

    Section 4. Introduction: Sexually Transmitted Infections

    Gender Differences in Risk for Sexually Transmitted Diseases

    Section Overview

    New Directions

    Chapter 28. Gonococcal Infection in Women

    Introduction

    Microbiology

    Epidemiology of Gonococcal Infections in Women

    Clinical Spectrum of Infection in Women

    Diagnosis of Gonococcal Infections

    Specimen Collection

    Treatment of Women with Gonococcal Infections

    Patient Follow-Up after Therapy

    Public Health Aspects of Gonococcal Infections

    References

    Chapter 29. Chlamydia trachomatis

    Introduction

    Epidemiology

    Transmission

    Natural History of Infection

    Screening Strategies

    Clinical Syndromes

    Complications

    Sequelae

    Risk of HIV Transmission

    Microbiology and Diagnosis

    Management

    STD Control

    Cost Effectiveness

    Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 30. Syphilis in Women

    Introduction and History

    Epidemiology of Syphilis

    Considerations in Transmission of Syphilis

    Natural History and Clinical Manifestations of Syphilis

    Diagnostic Methods

    Treatment

    Effects of HIV on Syphilis

    Syphilis and Pregnancy

    Summary

    References

    Chapter 31. Vaginal Infections

    Introduction

    The Normal Vaginal Ecosystem

    Diagnostic Work-Up of Vaginitis

    Vulvovaginal Candidiasis

    Trichomoniasis

    Bacterial Vaginosis

    Conclusion

    References

    Chapter 32. Genital Herpes

    Introduction

    Epidemiology

    Clinical Epidemiology

    Neonatal Herpes

    Diagnosis

    Therapy

    Prevention

    Resources for Persons with Genital Herpes

    References

    Chapter 33. HIV and AIDS in Women

    Introduction

    Defining and Detecting HIV/AIDS

    HIV Acquisition and Transmission

    Distribution of HIV/AIDS in Women

    Natural History and Clinical Management

    Factors Associated with HIV Transmission

    Prevention

    Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 34. Human Papilloma Virus Infection in Women

    Introduction

    Virology

    Pathogenesis and Mechanisms of Oncogenicity

    Clinical Classification of Oncogenic Changes in the Cervical Epithelium

    Epidemiology of HPV

    Transmission of Infection

    Risk Factors for HPV Infection and Disease

    Clinical Screening and Diagnosis of HPV-Related Disease

    Treatment of HPV-Related Disease

    Primary Prevention: HPV Vaccines

    Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 35. Pelvic Inflammatory Disease and Chronic Pelvic Pain

    Introduction

    Background

    Definition of Chronic Pelvic Pain

    Issues Related to Ascertainment

    Historical Evolution/Trends

    Distribution in Women, Including Incidence, Prevalence, and Mortality Statistics

    Risk Factors

    Biological Markers of Susceptibility or Exposure

    Genetic Markers

    Clinical Issues

    Methodological Issues for Epidemiological Studies

    Prevention and Self-Care

    Global Issues

    Summary and Conclusions/Future Directions

    References

    Chapter 36. Urinary Tract Infection

    Overview

    Range of Clinical Entities and Associated Morbidity

    UTI Distribution among Otherwise Healthy Women

    UTI Reservoir

    UTI Transmission

    Risk Factors

    Bacterial Virulence Factors

    Clinical Issues: UTI among Otherwise Healthy Women

    Epidemiological Issues

    Future Directions

    References

    Part III: Occupational, Environmental, and Social Determinants of Health

    Section 5: Occupational and Environmental Determinants of Health

    Section 5. Occupational and Environmental Determinants of Health

    Introduction

    Chapter 37. Working Women in the United States: A Statistical Profile

    Introduction

    Wages, Hours, and Family Responsibilities

    Occupational Injuries and Illnesses

    Concluding Remarks

    References

    Chapter 38. International Perspectives: Women’s Occupational Health

    The ‘Developed/Developing’ Split

    Traditional Unpaid Employment

    The Informal Sector

    Implications for Occupational Health and Safety

    An Additional Hazard: Violence

    Economic and Social Responses to Women in the Workforce

    Documenting the Issues

    References

    Chapter 39. Multiple Roles and Complex Exposures

    Exposures to ‘Invisible’ Workplace Health Determinants

    Prolonged Standing

    Stress

    Workplace Contributions to Work–Family Balancing

    Equality and Health

    Analytical Approaches

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Chapter 40. Reproductive Hazards of Occupational and Environmental Exposures

    Introduction

    Chemical Agents

    Physical Agents

    Biological Agents

    Physical and Psychosocial Strain

    Methodological Issues

    Risk Assessment, Risk Communication, and Prevention

    Concluding Remarks

    References

    Chapter 41. Work-Related Musculo-Skeletal Disorders

    Definitions

    Gender and Musculo-skeletal Disorders

    At-Risk Occupations

    Interpreting Gender Differences

    Conclusion and Research Needs

    References

    Chapter 42. Occupational Cancer

    Introduction

    Carcinogens in the Workplace

    Selected Cancer Sites

    Epidemiologic Issues/Future Directions

    Conclusion

    References

    Chapter 43. Environmental Exposures and Cancer

    Introduction

    Definition of the Topic: Environmental Exposures and Cancer

    Epidemiological Evidence

    Historical Evolution/Trends

    Distribution of Environmental Cancer in Women, Including Incidence, Prevalence, and Mortality Statistics

    Host Determinants

    Influence of Women’s Social Roles or Context on Environmental Cancer

    Risk Factors

    Biological Markers of Susceptibility or Exposure

    Clinical Issues

    Epidemiological Issues

    Is Breast Cancer an Environmental Cancer?

    Conclusions

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Section 6: Introduction: An Introduction to the Social Determinants of Women’s Health

    Section 6. Introduction: An Introduction to the Social Determinants of Women’s Health

    Chapter 44. Socioeconomic Determinants of Women’s Health: The Changing Landscape of Education, Work, and Marriage

    Introduction

    Education Effects on Health

    Effects of Work on Women’s Health

    Marriage and Women’s Health

    Recent Trends in Women’s Education, Work, and Marital Status

    Understanding Recent Trends in Mortality and Morbidity in the Context of Changes in Social Determinants of Health

    How Will Recent Trends in Education, Marriage History, and Labor Force Participation Affect the Future of Women’s Health?

    Challenges and Future Directions

    Conclusion

    References

    Chapter 45. Women, Stress, and Health

    The Social Stress Model

    Key Sources of Stress in Women’s Lives

    Women and Aging

    Positive Features of the Social Environment

    Intersections with Race and Sexuality

    Mechanisms

    Directions for Research

    References

    Chapter 46. Tobacco Use: Trends, Determinants, and Health Effects

    Introduction

    Trends in Tobacco Use among Women and Girls

    Determinants of Tobacco Use among Women and Girls

    Health Effects of Tobacco Use among Women

    Health Effects of Second-hand Smoke

    Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 47. Alcohol Is a Women’s Health Issue

    Introduction

    Methodological Issues in Studying Patterns of Alcohol Consumption

    Alcohol-attributable Deaths and Disability-adjusted Life Years among Women Globally

    History of Alcohol as a Women’s Health Issue

    Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 48. Intimate Partner Violence

    Introduction

    Prevalence

    Risk Factors

    Challenges

    Conclusion

    Acknowledgment

    References

    Chapter 49. Do Social Policies Influence the Health of Women and their Children?: Implications for Designing Future Policies Using a ‘Social Determinants of Health’ Lens

    Introduction: Social Policies, Social Determinants of Health, Gender, and Health Outcomes

    Literature Review Methods

    Results: Policy Overviews and Health Impacts

    Conclusions and Implications: Lessons to Apply to Future Design of Social Policies to Improve the Health of Women

    Conclusion

    References

    Chapter 50. The Impact of the Built Environment on Health

    Introduction

    Definition of the Topic: the Neighborhood Built Environment and Health

    Methods in Built Environment Research

    The Modern Built Environment: Sprawl and Transportation

    Air Pollution

    Overweight/Obesity, Physical Activity, and Diet

    Motor Vehicle Crashes and Motor Vehicle-Pedestrian Collisions

    Mental Health and Social Capital

    Disparities

    Research Needs to Understand the Impact of the Built Environment on Health

    Conclusion

    References

    Part IV: Chronic Disease

    Section 7: Introduction: Autoimmune Diseases

    Section 7. Introduction: Autoimmune Diseases

    How Does Autoimmunity Occur?

    Why Do Autoimmune Diseases Occur?

    Why Do Autoimmune Diseases Preferentially Develop in Women?

    What is the Relationship Between Sex Hormones and Autoimmune Diseases?

    Summary

    Chapter 51. Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Introduction

    Etiology and Pathogenesis

    Epidemiology

    Classification Criteria

    Evaluation and Management of RA

    Prognosis and Outcomes in RA

    Future Directions in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    References

    Chapter 52. Multiple Sclerosis

    Overview of Multiple Sclerosis

    Pathophysiology

    Diagnostic Evaluation

    Clinical Parameters

    Reproductive Life: MS, Fertility, and Pregnancy

    Disease Monitoring

    Treatment Strategies

    Summary

    References

    Chapter 53. Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    Introduction

    SLE Epidemiology

    Clinical Presentation and Management

    Management of SLE

    Summary

    References

    Chapter 54. Sjögren’s Syndrome

    Introduction and Background

    Primary and Secondary Sjögren’s Syndrome

    Evolution Since 1930

    Definition of Sjögren’s Syndrome

    Epidemiology

    Host and Environmental Factors

    Clinical Manifestations

    Laboratory Abnormalities

    Management of Sjögren’s Syndrome

    Summary

    Note in Proof

    References

    Chapter 55. Asthma

    Introduction

    Asthma Diagnosis and Management

    Increasing Prevalence of Asthma

    Gender Differences

    Risk Factors

    Discussion

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Section 8: Endocrinology and Women’s Health

    Section 8. Endocrinology and Women’s Health

    Introduction

    Chapter 56. The Obesity Epidemic and Women’s Health

    Introduction

    Definitions and Classifications

    Historical Perspective (Evolution/Trends)

    The Current Obesity Epidemic

    Why do Men and Women in the United States Gain Weight?

    Why Do Women Regain Weight?

    Host Susceptibility–Genetics. Is Obesity Inherited?

    Obesity-Associated Morbidity and Mortality

    Heterogeneity in Obesity-Related Risk of Disease: Why Do Some Obese Women Have More Disease Than Other Women?

    Epidemiological Issues–Older Women

    Clinical Issues: Diagnosis and Treatment

    Summary

    References

    Chapter 57. Diabetes in Women

    Introduction

    Definition

    Prevalence, Public Health Burden, and Distribution of Diabetes

    Risk Factors for Diabetes

    Health Consequences of Diabetes

    Unique Issues to Women

    Treatment and Prevention of Diabetes

    Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 58. Thyroid Disease and Women

    Introduction

    Thyroid Physiology

    Biochemical Thyroid Tests

    Overview of Thyroid Disease

    Summary and Perspective

    References

    Chapter 59. Management of Menopausal Symptoms in the Post-Women’s Health Initiative Era

    Introduction/Historical Perspective

    Definition of the Menopause

    Symptoms of the Menopause Transition and Postmenopausal Phases

    Summary

    References

    Chapter 60. Vitamin D and Disease Prevention in Women

    Introduction

    National Guidelines for Vitamin D Intake

    Low Vitamin D: Prevalence and Risk Factors

    Methodological Considerations

    Outcomes

    Clinical Recommendations

    Conclusion and Future Research Directions

    References

    Chapter 61. Osteoporosis

    Introduction

    Definition and Pathophysiology

    Public Health Impact

    Rates and Patterns of Bone Loss

    The Rates of Fracture

    Secular Changes in Hip and Other Fractures

    Prevalence of Osteoporosis by BMD

    Risk Factors for Fracture

    Novel Risk Factors for Fracture in the Last Decade

    Summary and Future Directions

    References

    Section 9: Cardiovascular Disease in Women

    Section 9. Cardiovascular Disease in Women

    Introduction

    Unique Risk Factors in Women

    Prevention

    Disparities among Women

    Changes in our Understanding of CVD in Women

    CVD Chapters

    Future Directions

    Chapter 62. Overview of Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease

    Introduction

    Demographic Characteristics

    Family History of Cardiovascular Disease

    Cigarette Smoking

    Hypertension

    Lipids and Lipoproteins

    Physical Activity

    Diabetes Mellitus

    Body Size and Distribution

    Nutrition

    Novel Biomarkers

    Summary and Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 63. Lipids in Women

    Introduction

    Lipid and Lipoprotein Metabolism

    Role of Lipids in Atherosclerosis and Cardiovascular Prevention

    Trends in Lipid Levels

    Unique Issues Affecting Lipids in Women

    Measurement, Screening, Diagnosis and Treatment of Lipid Disorders

    Future Research

    Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 64. Diagnosis and Treatment of Ischemic Heart Disease in Women

    Introduction

    Prevalence and Mortality from Coronary Heart Disease

    Risk Factors

    Clinical Presenting Symptoms in Women

    Diagnosis

    Management

    Conclusion

    References

    Chapter 65. Emotions and Cardiovascular Disease

    Introduction

    The Role of Emotions in Incident CVD

    Studies of Patients with Established CVD

    Future Directions

    Conclusion

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Chapter 66. Cerebrovascular Disease in Women

    Introduction

    Epidemiology of Stroke

    Genetics of Stroke

    Clinical Considerations

    Risk Factor Reduction and Public Health Impact

    Conclusion

    References

    Chapter 67. Venous Thromboembolism

    Introduction

    Deep Vein Thrombosis

    Pulmonary Embolism

    Established and Potential Risk Factors for Venous Thromboembolism

    Pregnancy-Associated VTE

    Postmenopausal Hormone Therapy Use

    Contraceptive Usage

    Long-Distance Air Travel

    Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors

    Recurrence and Other Consequences of VTE

    Epidemiological Issues, Public Health Considerations, and Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 68. Arrhythmias in Women: Atrial Fibrillation and Sudden Cardiac Death

    Introduction

    Part 1: Atrial Fibrillation

    Part 2: Sudden Cardiac Death

    References

    Chapter 69. Heart Failure in Women: Epidemiology, Prognosis, and Management

    Introduction/Background

    Definition of Heart Failure

    Cardiomyopathy

    Issues Related to Ascertainment

    Incidence, Prevalence, and Mortality Statistics

    Risk Factors

    Biological Markers of Susceptibility or Exposure

    Genetic Markers of Susceptibility or Exposure

    Clinical Issues (Diagnosis, Treatment)

    Summary and Conclusions/Future Directions

    References

    Chapter 70. Hypertension in Women

    Introduction/Background

    Definition of the Topic

    Issues Related to Ascertainment

    Historical Evolution/Trends

    Hypertension in Young Women

    Hypertensive Disorders of Pregnancy

    Postmenopausal Hypertension

    Blood Pressure Control

    Risk Factors for Hypertension in Women

    Treatment of Hypertension in Women

    Lifestyle Intervention in Hypertension Treatment

    Pharmacological Treatment of Primary Hypertension in Women

    Summary

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Section 10: Cancer

    Section 10. Cancer

    Introduction

    Perspectives on Cancer

    Signs of Progress

    Persistent Challenges

    Prospects

    Chapter 71. Cancer in Women: Global Burden and Insights from Gender Comparisons

    Introduction

    Data Sources and Methods

    Global Patterns of Cancer among Women

    Disparities between the Sexes in Cancers Common to Both Sexes

    The Future Burden of Cancer in Women

    Appendix A Human Development Index Countries (2007 Indices)

    References

    Chapter 72. Breast Cancer Epidemiology

    Introduction

    Endogenous Hormones that Biologically Mediate Breast Carcinogenesis

    Melatonin

    Risk Factors

    Conclusion

    References

    Chapter 73. Genetic Epidemiology of Breast Cancer

    Evidence for a Genetic Component of Breast Cancer

    Autosomal Dominant Predisposition to Cancer

    Single Gene Predispositions of Moderate Penetrance

    Low Penetrance, Common Alleles

    Clinical Implications of Genetic Variants

    Reflections and Future Directions

    Summary

    References

    Chapter 74. Breast Cancer Screening

    Introduction

    History of Screening Trials

    Efficacy of Breast Screening

    Discussion

    References

    Chapter 75. Ovarian Cancer

    Biology of Ovarian Cancer

    Ovarian Cancer in Populations

    Genetic Susceptibility to Ovarian Cancer

    Reproductive Factors

    Endogenous Hormones and Ovarian Cancer Risk

    Exogenous Hormone Use and Ovarian Cancer Risk

    Factors Related to Inflammation

    Body Size

    Smoking, Alcohol, Diet

    Ovarian Cancer Screening

    Summary and Future Research Directions

    References

    Chapter 76. Endometrial Cancer

    Pathology and Diagnosis

    Patterns of Disease

    Environmental and Behavioral Determinants

    Clinical Issues

    Epidemiological Issues

    Prevention and Self-Care

    Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 77. Cervical Cancer: Burden of Disease and Risk Factors

    Introduction

    Cervical Cancer Histopathology

    Incidence and Mortality of Cervical Cancer: Worldwide Perspective

    Time Trends in Cervical Cancer

    Natural History of Human Papillomavirus Infection and Cervical Cancer

    Risk Factors for Cervical Cancer

    The Spectrum of HPV Related Diseases

    Future Directions in Research and Public Health

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Chapter 78. Vaccination and Screening in Cervical Cancer Control and Prevention

    Introduction

    Natural History of Cervical Cancer and the Basis for Prevention

    Cytology Screening as Prevention Paradigm

    Secondary Prevention via Modern Screening Technologies

    Primary Prevention via HPV Vaccination

    Integration of Primary and Secondary Prevention Strategies

    Conclusion

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Chapter 79. Epidemiology of Lung Cancer in Women

    Introduction

    Magnitude of the Problem and Descriptive Epidemiology

    Risk Factors

    Acknowledgment

    References

    Chapter 80. Colorectal Cancer in Women

    Introduction

    Descriptive Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer

    Analytic Epidemiology of CRC and Polyps

    Clinical Characteristics of CRC

    Next Research Steps Including Methodological Issues

    Summary

    References

    Chapter 81. The Epidemiology of Melanoma of the Skin

    Introduction

    Trends

    Incidence, Prevalence and Mortality

    Host and Environmental Determinants

    Prevention and Self-Care

    Screening

    Diagnosis and Treatment

    Global Environment

    References

    Chapter 82. Cancer Prevention for Women

    Introduction

    Cancer Prevention: The State of the Science

    Unique Issues for Women in Cancer Prevention

    Changing Cancer Risk Behaviors: From Individuals to Policy

    Future Directions

    References

    Section 11: Mental Disorders – Introduction

    Section 11. Mental Disorders – Introduction

    Introduction

    Chapter 83. Gender and Mood Disorders

    Introduction and Background

    Mood Disorders Defined

    Issues Related to Ascertainment

    Historical Trends

    Distributions

    Influences of Women’s Social Roles

    Risk Factors

    Biological Markers of Susceptibility and Exposure

    Clinical Issues

    Epidemiological Issues

    Conclusions and Future Directions

    References

    Chapter 84. Anxiety Disorders in Women

    Introduction

    Sex Differences in the Prevalence of Anxiety Disorders

    Comorbidity

    Familial and Genetic Risk Factors

    Temperamental and Biological Factors

    Psychosocial Risk Factors and Impact

    Treatment of Anxiety

    Summary and Future Directions

    Acknowledgments

    Appendix A

    Agoraphobia

    Generalized Anxiety Disorder

    Specific Phobia

    Social Phobia

    References

    Chapter 85. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    Introduction

    Defining Trauma and PTSD

    Etiological Factors in Women

    Phenomenology of PTSD in Women

    Assessment

    Methodological Issues

    Treatment of PTSD in Women

    Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 86. Psychosis in Women: Gender Differences in Presentation, Onset, Course and Outcome of Schizophrenia

    Introduction

    Understanding Psychotic Disorders

    Development of Schizophrenia in Women

    Management of Schizophrenia in Women

    Treatment for Women with Schizophrenia

    Psychological Treatment for Women with Schizophrenia

    Conclusions

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Chapter 87. Eating Disorders

    Introduction

    Definition and Diagnosis

    Classification

    Epidemiology

    Risk Factors

    Intervention and Treatment

    Summary and Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 88. Addictive Disorders

    Introduction

    Dependence on Psychoactive Substances

    Pathological Gambling

    Kleptomania

    Trichotillomania

    Compulsive Buying

    Pathological Love

    Conclusions

    References

    Section 12: Poorly Understood Conditions

    Section 12. Poorly Understood Conditions

    Introduction

    Issues with Case Definition and Ascertainment

    The Multidimensional Nature of Poorly Understood Conditions

    Risk Factors and Consequences and Their Implications for Treatment

    Future Directions

    Chapter 89. Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

    Introduction

    Epidemiology

    Symptoms, Signs and Laboratory Findings

    Prognosis

    Pathophysiology of CFS

    Treatment of CFS

    References

    Chapter 90. Fibromyalgia: A Central Sensitivity Syndrome

    Introduction

    Epidemiology and Prevalence

    Nomenclature

    What is Central Sensitization?

    Pathophysiological Mechanism of Central Sensitization

    Can Central Sensitization be Produced or Maintained without Peripheral Nociception?

    Association of CS/FMS in Chronic Diseases with Structural Pathology (CDSP)

    Factors that may Trigger or Contribute to Central Sensitization

    Evidence of Central Sensitization in FMS

    Clinical Manifestations of FMS

    Diagnosis of FMS

    Management of FMS

    Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 91. Epidemiology of Headache in Women: Emphasis on Migraine

    Introduction

    Diagnostic Criteria

    Incidence

    Prevalence

    Female Hormones and Headache

    References

    Chapter 92. Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    Introduction

    Definition and Issues Related to Ascertainment

    Historical Evolution

    Distribution in Women

    Epidemiological Issues

    Health Care Seeking

    Risk Factors

    Clinical Issues

    Treatment

    Public Health Issues

    Conclusions

    References

    Chapter 93. Temporomandibular Disorders

    Background

    Definitions

    Issues Related to Ascertainment

    Historical Trends

    Distribution in Women

    Host and Environmental Determinants

    Influence of Women’s Social Roles

    Risk Factors

    Biological Markers of Susceptibility or Exposure

    Clinical Issues

    Epidemiological Issues

    Summary and Conclusions/Future Directions

    References

    Chapter 94. Multiple Chemical Sensitivity

    Introduction

    Epidemiology

    Risk Factors

    Diagnosing MCS

    Possible Mechanisms

    Skepticism Surrounding MCS

    Treatment

    Future Research in MCS

    Conclusions

    Acknowledgments

    References

    Part V: Geriatric Health

    Section 13: Aging

    Section 13. Aging

    Introduction

    Chapter 95. Morbidity, Disability, and Mortality

    Introduction

    Sociodemographic Characteristics

    Socioeconomic Status of Older Women

    Demography of Aging

    Functional Limitations and Disability

    Life Expectancy

    Active Life Expectancy

    Health Status

    Mortality

    Health Disparities

    Measurement Issues

    Summary

    References

    Chapter 96. Osteoarthritis and Other Musculoskeletal Diseases

    Introduction

    Definition and Classification

    Clinical Features of OA

    Descriptive Epidemiology of Osteoarthritis

    Risk Factors for the Development and Progression of Osteoarthritis

    Biomarkers and Osteoarthritis

    Management of Osteoarthritis

    References

    Chapter 97. Urinary and Fecal Incontinence in Older Women

    Introduction

    Definitions

    Epidemiology

    Global Issues

    Costs

    Etiology

    Clinical Issues

    Areas for Future Research

    Conclusion

    References

    Chapter 98. Hearing Loss and Aging

    Introduction

    Background

    Epidemiology of Hearing Loss

    Impact of Hearing Loss in Adults

    Clinical Issues in the Treatment of Hearing Loss

    Conclusion

    References

    Chapter 99. Visual Impairment

    Introduction

    Measurement of Visual Impairment

    Major Causes of Visual Impairment in the World

    Other Eye Conditions with Noted Gender Discrepancy

    Low Vision Rehabilitation

    Summary

    References

    Chapter 100. The Impact of Women’s Oral Health on Systemic Health

    Hormonal Changes and Oral Health

    Oral Diseases and Their Relationship to Women’s Health

    Systemic Diseases and Their Relationship to Women’s Oral Health

    Conclusion

    References

    Chapter 101. Cognitive Functioning in Aging Women

    Introduction

    Background

    Sex Differences in Incidence and Prevalence of Dementia

    Diversity and Disparity in Dementia

    Biological and Environmental Modulators of Cognitive Decline and Dementia

    Hormone Therapy

    Genetic Risk

    Summary

    References

    Chapter 102. The Role of Social Support in the Health and Well-Being of Older Adult Widows

    The Epidemiology of Widowhood

    Adapting to the Loss of a Spouse

    Dual Process Model of Coping

    The Notre Dame Widowhood Study (NDWS)

    Widowhood and Health

    Social Support and Health

    Conceptual and Methodological Importance for Future Research

    References

    Chapter 103. Long-Term Care: The Global Impact on Women

    Introduction

    The Aging Population

    What is Long-Term Care?

    Women in Need of Care

    Women as Informal Caregivers

    Caregiving Outcomes

    Institutional Long-Term Care

    Women as Caregivers in Institutional Long-Term Care Settings

    Environmental Determinants that Impact Quality of Care Received by Women in Long-Term Care Settings

    Creative Alternatives to Traditional Long-Term Care Settings

    Research and Public Health Impact on Long-Term Care

    Conclusion

    References

    Chapter 104. Caring for Women at the End of Life

    Introduction

    Epidemiology of Dying

    Role of Palliative Care and Hospice Care in Caring for patients at EOL

    Ethical Issues

    Communication and Medical Decision-Making

    Clinical Issues at the End of Life

    Implications for Health Care Policies at the End of Life

    Summary

    References

    Chapter 105. Successful Aging in Women

    Successful Aging in Women

    Definition

    Prevalence of Successful Aging

    Factors that Influence Successful Aging

    Behavioral Factors Influencing Successful Aging

    Additional Factors Associated with Successful Aging

    Measurement of Successful Aging

    Intervention to Facilitate Successful Aging Among Older Women

    Exercise Guidelines and How Much is Enough?

    Cognitive Stimulation

    Maintaining Purpose in Life

    Interventions to Strengthen Motivation

    Conclusion

    References

    Epilogue and Future Directions

    Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 1632
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Academic Press 2012
  • Published: December 17, 2012
  • Imprint: Academic Press
  • eBook ISBN: 9780123849793

About the Editors

Marlene Goldman

Dr. Goldman is a reproductive epidemiologist and Director of Clinical Research in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology and of Community and Family Medicine at Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center. She specializes in research and teaching related to women's health. Her research program includes several large randomized clinical trials evaluating optimal infertility treatment for younger and older women seeking to conceive and a prospective cohort study investigating the role of preconception nutrition and oxidative stress on implantation and early pregnancy loss. She is co-editor of Women and Health, a comprehensive reference textbook for researchers, teaching faculty, and clinicians on the role of gender in understanding disease occurrence, diagnosis, treatment, and priority-setting in health care.

Affiliations and Expertise

Professor, Obstetrics & Gynecology and Community & Family Medicine, Dartmouth Medical School; Director of Clinical Research, OB/GYN, Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center, Lebanon, New Hampshire, USA

Rebecca Troisi

Dr. Troisi is a cancer epidemiologist in the Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, at the National Institutes of Health’s Cancer Institute and an associate member of the Norris Cotton Cancer Center at Dartmouth College.. Her research has focused on the hormonal etiologies of reproductive cancers and the role of maternal, gestational, neonatal and early life factors in breast cancer risk, including endocrine disruptors such as diethylstilbestrol, a drug previously given to pregnant women. She is a Principal Investigator on multiple national and international collaborations and has led a project in Mongolia to attempt to learn more about international differences in cancer incidence rates.

Affiliations and Expertise

Staff Scientist, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD; Assistant Professor of Epidemiology, Department of Community and Family Medicine, Dartmouth University Medical School, Lebanon, New Hampshire, USA

Kathryn Rexrode

Kathryn Rexrode
Dr. Rexrode is an Associate Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School and Associate Physician, Division of Preventive Medicine and Faculty Director, Office for Women's Careers, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA. Dr. Rexrode's research examines risk factors for heart disease and stroke. She has a particular interest in the role of obesity and hormonal factors, as well as understanding sex differences. She has studied the effects of endogenous sex hormones, such as estrogen and testosterone, and related genetic variants, and risk of cardiovascular disease. She is Principal Investigator of a grant examining risk factors for ischemic stroke in women and Principal Investigator of a grant examining long term cardiovascular outcomes among early stage breast cancer survivors. She is also active in several large studies of women's health, including the Nurses' Health Study, the Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Study, and the Women's Health Initiative.

Affiliations and Expertise

Associate Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Associate Physician, Division of Preventive Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Faculty Director, Office for Women's Careers, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA, USA

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