Virus Taxonomy

Virus Taxonomy

Ninth Report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses

1st Edition - October 25, 2011

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  • Editors: Andrew King, Elliot Lefkowitz, Michael J. Adams, Eric B. Carstens
  • eBook ISBN: 9780123846853

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The practical need to partition the world of viruses into distinguishable, universally agreed upon entities is the ultimate justification for developing a virus classification system. Since 1971, the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) operating on behalf of the world community of virologists has taken on the task of developing a single, universal taxonomic scheme for all viruses infecting animals (vertebrate, invertebrates, and protozoa), plants (higher plants and algae), fungi, bacteria, and archaea. The current report builds on the accumulated taxonomic construction of the eight previous reports dating back to 1971 and records the proceedings of the Committee since publication of the last report in 2005. Representing the work of more than 500 virologists worldwide, this report is the authoritative reference for virus organization, distinction, and structure.


Research level virologists, microbiologists, molecular biologists, infectious disease specialists and those in the pharma sector working on antivirals

Table of Contents

  • Preface and Acknowledgments

    Part I. Introduction

    Part II. The Viruses

    Order. Caudovirales

    Family. Myoviridae

    Genus. “T4-like viruses”

    Genus. “P1-like viruses”

    Genus. “P2-like viruses”

    Genus. “Mu-like viruses”

    Genus. “SPO1-like viruses”

    Genus. “PhiH-like viruses”

    Genus. “phiKZ-like viruses”

    Genus. “I3-like viruses”

    Family. Podoviridae

    Genus. “BPP-1-like viruses”

    Genus. “Epsilon15-like viruses”

    Genus. “LUZ24-like viruses”

    Genus. “N4-like viruses”

    Genus. “P22-like viruses”

    Genus. “Phieco32-like viruses”

    Subfamily. Autographivirinae

    Genus. “PhiKMV-like viruses”

    Genus. “SP6-like viruses”

    Genus. “T7-like viruses”

    Subfamily. Picovirinae

    Genus. “AHJD-like viruses”

    Genus. “Phi29-like viruses”

    Family. Siphoviridae

    Genus. “Lambda-like viruses”

    Genus. “T1-like viruses”

    Genus. “T5-like viruses”

    Genus. “L5-like viruses”

    Genus. “c2-like viruses”

    Genus. “PsiM1-like viruses”

    Genus. “PhiC31-like viruses”

    Genus. “N15-like viruses”

    Genus. “SPbeta-like viruses”

    Order. Herpesvirales

    Family. Alloherpesviridae

    Genus. Batrachovirus

    Genus. Cyprinivirus

    Genus. Ictalurivirus

    Genus. Salmonivirus

    Family. Herpesviridae

    Subfamily. Alphaherpesvirinae

    Genus. Iltovirus

    Genus. Mardivirus

    Genus. Simplexvirus

    Genus. Varicellovirus

    Subfamily. Betaherpesvirinae

    Genus. Cytomegalovirus

    Genus. Muromegalovirus

    Genus. Proboscivirus

    Genus. Roseolovirus

    Subfamily. Gammaherpesvirinae

    Genus. Lymphocryptovirus

    Genus. Macavirus

    Genus. Percavirus

    Genus. Rhadinovirus

    Family. Malacoherpesviridae

    Genus. Ostreavirus

    Family. Adenoviridae

    Genus. Mastadenovirus

    Genus. Aviadenovirus

    Genus. Atadenovirus

    Genus. Siadenovirus

    Genus. Ichtadenovirus

    Family. Ampullaviridae

    Genus. Ampullavirus

    Family. Ascoviridae

    Genus. Ascovirus

    Family. Asfarviridae

    Genus. Asfivirus

    Family. Baculoviridae

    Genus. Alphabaculovirus

    Genus. Betabaculovirus

    Genus. Gammabaculovirus

    Genus. Deltabaculovirus

    Family. Bicaudaviridae

    Genus. Bicaudavirus

    Family. Corticoviridae

    Genus. Corticovirus

    Family. Fuselloviridae

    Genus. Fusellovirus

    Family. Globuloviridae

    Genus. Globulovirus

    Family. Guttaviridae

    Genus. Guttavirus

    Family. Iridoviridae

    Genus. Iridovirus

    Genus. Chloriridovirus

    Genus. Ranavirus

    Genus. Lymphocystivirus

    Genus. Megalocytivirus

    Family. Lipothrixviridae

    Genus. Alphalipothrixvirus

    Genus. Betalipothrixvirus

    Genus. Gammalipothrixvirus

    Genus. Deltalipothrixvirus

    Family. Mimiviridae

    Genus. Mimivirus

    Family. Nimaviridae

    Genus. Whispovirus

    Family. Papillomaviridae

    Genus. Alphapapillomavirus

    Genus. Betapapillomavirus

    Genus. Gammapapillomavirus

    Genus. Deltapapillomavirus

    Genus. Epsilonpapillomavirus

    Genus. Zetapapillomavirus

    Genus. Etapapillomavirus

    Genus. Thetapapillomavirus

    Genus. Iotapapillomavirus

    Genus. Kappapapillomavirus

    Genus. Lambdapapillomavirus

    Genus. Mupapillomavirus

    Genus. Nupapillomavirus

    Genus. Xipapillomavirus

    Genus. Omikronpapillomavirus

    Genus. Pipapillomavirus

    Family. Phycodnaviridae

    Genus. Chlorovirus

    Genus. Coccolithovirus

    Genus. Prasinovirus

    Genus. Prymnesiovirus

    Genus. Phaeovirus

    Genus. Raphidovirus

    Family. Plasmaviridae

    Genus. Plasmavirus

    Family. Polydnaviridae

    Genus. Bracovirus

    Genus. Ichnovirus

    Family. Polyomaviridae

    Genus. Polyomavirus

    Family. Poxviridae

    Subfamily. Chordopoxvirinae

    Genus. Avipoxvirus

    Genus. Capripoxvirus

    Genus. Cervidpoxvirus

    Genus. Leporipoxvirus

    Genus. Molluscipoxvirus

    Genus. Orthopoxvirus

    Genus. Parapoxvirus

    Genus. Suipoxvirus

    Genus. Yatapoxvirus

    Subfamily. Entomopoxvirinae

    Genus. Alphaentomopoxvirus

    Genus. Betaentomopoxvirus

    Genus. Gammaentomopoxvirus

    Family. Rudiviridae

    Genus. Rudivirus

    Family. Tectiviridae

    Genus. Tectivirus

    Genus. Rhizidiovirus

    Genus. Salterprovirus

    Family. Anelloviridae

    Genus. Alphatorquevirus

    Genus. Betatorquevirus

    Genus. Gammatorquevirus

    Genus. Deltatorquevirus

    Genus. Epsilontorquevirus

    Genus. Zetatorquevirus

    Genus. Etatorquevirus

    Genus. Thetatorquevirus

    Genus. Iotatorquevirus

    Family. Circoviridae

    Genus. Circovirus

    Genus. Gyrovirus

    Family. Geminiviridae

    Genus. Mastrevirus

    Genus. Curtovirus

    Genus. Topocuvirus

    Genus. Begomovirus

    Family. Inoviridae

    Genus. Inovirus

    Genus. Plectrovirus

    Family. Microviridae

    Genus. Microvirus

    Subfamily. Gokushovirinae

    Genus. Chlamydiamicrovirus

    Genus. Bdellomicrovirus

    Genus. Spiromicrovirus

    Family. Nanoviridae

    Genus. Nanovirus

    Genus. Babuvirus

    Family. Parvoviridae

    Subfamily. Parvovirinae

    Genus. Parvovirus

    Genus. Erythrovirus

    Genus. Dependovirus

    Genus. Amdovirus

    Genus. Bocavirus

    Subfamily. Densovirinae

    Genus. Iteravirus

    Genus. Brevidensovirus

    Genus. Densovirus

    Genus. Pefudensovirus

    Family. Caulimoviridae

    Genus. Caulimovirus

    Genus. Petuvirus

    Genus. Soymovirus

    Genus. Cavemovirus3

    Genus. Badnavirus

    Genus. Tungrovirus

    Family. Hepadnaviridae

    Genus. Orthohepadnavirus

    Genus. Avihepadnavirus

    Family. Metaviridae

    Genus. Metavirus

    Genus. Errantivirus

    Genus. Semotivirus

    Family. Pseudoviridae

    Genus. Pseudovirus

    Genus. Hemivirus

    Genus. Sirevirus

    Family. Retroviridae

    Subfamily. Orthoretrovirinae

    Genus. Alpharetrovirus

    Genus. Betaretrovirus

    Genus. Gammaretrovirus

    Genus. Deltaretrovirus

    Genus. Epsilonretrovirus

    Genus. Lentivirus

    Subfamily. Spumaretrovirinae

    Genus. Spumavirus

    Family. Birnaviridae

    Genus. Aquabirnavirus

    Genus. Avibirnavirus

    Genus. Blosnavirus

    Genus. Entomobirnavirus

    Family. Chrysoviridae

    Genus. Chrysovirus

    Family. Cystoviridae

    Genus. Cystovirus

    Family. Endornaviridae

    Genus. Endornavirus

    Family. Partitiviridae

    Genus. Partitivirus

    Genus. Alphacryptovirus

    Genus. Betacryptovirus

    Genus. Cryspovirus

    Family. Picobirnaviridae

    Genus. Picobirnavirus

    Family. Reoviridae

    Subfamily. Spinareovirinae

    Genus. Orthoreovirus

    Genus. Aquareovirus

    Genus. Oryzavirus

    Genus. Fijivirus

    Genus. Mycoreovirus

    Genus. Cypovirus

    Genus. Idnoreovirus

    Genus. Dinovernavirus

    Genus. Coltivirus

    Subfamily. Sedoreovirinae

    Genus. Orbivirus

    Genus. Rotavirus

    Genus. Seadornavirus

    Genus. Phytoreovirus

    Genus. Cardoreovirus

    Genus. Mimoreovirus

    Family. Totiviridae

    Genus. Totivirus

    Genus. Victorivirus

    Genus. Giardiavirus

    Genus. Leishmaniavirus

    Order. Mononegavirales

    Family. Bornaviridae

    Genus. Bornavirus

    Family. Filoviridae

    Genus. Marburgvirus

    Genus. Ebolavirus

    Family. Paramyxoviridae

    Subfamily. Paramyxovirinae

    Genus. Rubulavirus

    Genus. Avulavirus

    Genus. Respirovirus

    Genus. Henipavirus

    Genus. Morbillivirus

    Subfamily. Pneumovirinae

    Genus. Pneumovirus

    Genus. Metapneumovirus

    Family. Rhabdoviridae

    Genus. Vesiculovirus

    Genus. Lyssavirus

    Genus. Ephemerovirus

    Genus. Novirhabdovirus

    Genus. Cytorhabdovirus

    Genus. Nucleorhabdovirus

    Family. Arenaviridae

    Genus. Arenavirus

    Family. Bunyaviridae

    Genus. Orthobunyavirus

    Genus. Hantavirus

    Genus. Nairovirus

    Genus. Phlebovirus

    Genus. Tospovirus

    Family. Ophioviridae

    Genus. Ophiovirus

    Family. Orthomyxoviridae

    Genus. Influenzavirus A

    Genus. Influenzavirus B

    Genus. Influenzavirus C

    Genus. Thogotovirus

    Genus. Isavirus

    Genus. Deltavirus

    Genus. Emaravirus

    Genus. Tenuivirus

    Genus. Varicosavirus

    Order. Nidovirales

    Family. Arteriviridae

    Genus. Arterivirus

    Family. Coronaviridae

    Subfamily. Coronavirinae

    Genus. Alphacoronavirus

    Genus. Betacoronavirus

    Genus. Gammacoronavirus

    Subfamily. Torovirinae

    Genus. Torovirus

    Genus. Bafinivirus

    Family. Roniviridae

    Genus. Okavirus

    Order. Picornavirales

    Family. Dicistroviridae

    Genus. Cripavirus

    Genus. Aparavirus

    Family. Iflaviridae

    Genus. Iflavirus

    Family. Marnaviridae

    Genus. Marnavirus

    Family. Picornaviridae

    Genus. Enterovirus

    Genus. Cardiovirus

    Genus. Aphthovirus

    Genus. Hepatovirus

    Genus. Parechovirus

    Genus. Erbovirus

    Genus. Kobuvirus

    Genus. Teschovirus

    Genus. Sapelovirus

    Genus. Senecavirus

    Genus. Tremovirus

    Genus. Avihepatovirus

    Family. Secoviridae

    Subfamily. Comovirinae

    Genus. Comovirus

    Genus. Fabavirus

    Genus. Nepovirus

    Genus. Cheravirus

    Genus. Sadwavirus

    Genus. Torradovirus

    Genus. Sequivirus

    Genus. Waikavirus

    Order. Tymovirales

    Family. Alphaflexiviridae

    Genus. Allexivirus

    Genus. Botrexvirus

    Genus. Lolavirus

    Genus. Mandarivirus

    Genus. Potexvirus

    Genus. Sclerodarnavirus

    Family. Betaflexiviridae

    Genus. Capillovirus

    Genus. Carlavirus

    Genus. Citrivirus

    Genus. Foveavirus

    Genus. Trichovirus

    Genus. Vitivirus

    Family. Gammaflexiviridae

    Genus. Mycoflexivirus

    Family. Tymoviridae

    Genus. Tymovirus

    Genus. Marafivirus

    Genus. Maculavirus

    Family. Astroviridae

    Genus. Avastrovirus

    Genus. Mamastrovirus

    Family. Barnaviridae

    Genus. Barnavirus

    Family. Bromoviridae

    Genus. Alfamovirus

    Genus. Anulavirus

    Genus. Bromovirus

    Genus. Cucumovirus

    Genus. Ilarvirus

    Genus. Oleavirus

    Family. Caliciviridae

    Genus. Vesivirus

    Genus. Lagovirus

    Genus. Norovirus

    Genus. Sapovirus

    Genus. Nebovirus

    Family. Closteroviridae

    Genus. Closterovirus

    Genus. Ampelovirus

    Genus. Crinivirus

    Family. Flaviviridae

    Genus. Flavivirus

    Genus. Pestivirus

    Genus. Hepacivirus

    Family. Hepeviridae

    Genus. Hepevirus

    Family. Hypoviridae

    Genus. Hypovirus

    Family. Leviviridae

    Genus. Levivirus

    Genus. Allolevivirus

    Family. Luteoviridae

    Genus. Luteovirus

    Genus. Polerovirus

    Genus. Enamovirus

    Family. Narnaviridae

    Genus. Narnavirus

    Genus. Mitovirus

    Family. Nodaviridae

    Genus. Alphanodavirus

    Genus. Betanodavirus

    Family. Potyviridae

    Genus. Potyvirus

    Genus. Brambyvirus

    Genus. Ipomovirus

    Genus. Macluravirus

    Genus. Rymovirus

    Genus. Tritimovirus

    Genus. Bymovirus

    Family. Tetraviridae

    Genus. Betatetravirus

    Genus. Omegatetravirus

    Family. Togaviridae

    Genus. Alphavirus

    Genus. Rubivirus

    Family. Tombusviridae

    Genus. Tombusvirus

    Genus. Dianthovirus

    Genus. Aureusvirus

    Genus. Avenavirus

    Genus. Carmovirus

    Genus. Necrovirus

    Genus. Panicovirus

    Genus. Machlomovirus

    Family. Virgaviridae

    Genus. Furovirus

    Genus. Hordeivirus

    Genus. Pecluvirus

    Genus. Pomovirus

    Genus. Tobamovirus

    Genus. Tobravirus

    Genus. Benyvirus

    Genus. Cilevirus

    Genus. Idaeovirus

    Genus. Ourmiavirus

    Genus. Polemovirus

    Genus. Sobemovirus

    Genus. Umbravirus

    The Unassigned Viruses

    The Subviral Agents

    1. Chronic bee-paralysis associated satellite virus

    2. Satellites that resemble tobacco necrosis satellite virus

    3. Nodavirus-associated satellite virus

    4. Adenovirus-associated satellite virus (Dependovirus)

    5. Mimivirus-associated satellite virus (Sputnik, virophage)

    6. Single stranded DNAs

    6b. Betasatellites

    7. Double stranded RNAs

    8. Single stranded RNAs

    8b. Small linear single stranded satellite and satellite-like RNAs

    8c. Small circular single stranded satellite RNAs

    8d. Hepadnavirus-associated satellite-like RNAs (Deltavirus)

    8e. Polerovirus-associated RNAs


    Family. Avsunviroidae

    Genus. Avsunviroid

    Genus. Pelamoviroid

    Genus. Elaviroid

    Family. Pospiviroidae

    Genus. Pospiviroid

    Genus. Hostuviroid

    Genus. Cocadviroid

    Genus. Apscaviroid

    Genus. Coleviroid

    Fungal Prions

    Species. [URE3]

    Species. [PSI+]

    Species. [PIN+]

    Species. [Het-s]

    Species. [Beta]

    Vertebrate Prions

    Part III. The ICTV

    Part IV. The Indexes

    Virus Index

    Taxonomic Index

Product details

  • No. of pages: 1344
  • Language: English
  • Copyright: © Elsevier 2011
  • Published: October 25, 2011
  • Imprint: Elsevier
  • eBook ISBN: 9780123846853

About the Editors

Andrew King

Elliot Lefkowitz

Affiliations and Expertise


Michael J. Adams

Eric B. Carstens

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